DISCUSSION RECENT/COMING ADVANCES IN REFINERY OPERATIONS TECHNOLOGY Chairman: EDOUARD FREUND, IFP, 1 & 4 avenue de Bois-Préau, 92582 Rueil-Malmaison, France The first paper: Enterprise-wide Management, the Future Refinery Information System, two types of questions have been raised: general questions in rela- tion with the actual implementation of `enterprise- wide management ', questions dealing with specific technical points. Going from Advanced Process Control to a global, overall system is not yet effective, according to MARK BAKER, in the field of refining. Insuring complete connectivity from the operation level to business planning still requires major efforts. However, it is interesting to note that other industries have been successful in this area: the case of financial/banking industry has been quoted. Another important point is the way that is used for implementation. Implementation should be con- sidered as a project in itself. The management team should have a strong interest in the project. This implies that members of the team belong to the oper- ating company. The technical questions dealt with: The algorithm used for the scheduling system. This seems not to be a critical item, commercial schemes are available and can be used indifferently The softwares to be used for data models and data exchange. Again standard (commercial) method- ology is available and proves satisfactory. The second paper: Apply APC Technology to Improve Production Operation Level in Sinopec was more directly related to operational problems at the second level of control (just above the `first' level: traditional PID). Through several questions, the strategy of successful implementation has been exam- plified by the case of Sinopec: - Only mature commercial products should be used whenever possible. If not available, specific devel- opments should be carried out first on representa- tive pilot plants, before being proposed at the operational level; - even at the modest level of APC, it is a major problem to `market' new software packages to the operating people. This represents an important plant culture change. The operators need to like this technology. That is why it is absolutely required to use mature, proven, commercial (well supported) technology. Training is of utmost importance to circumvent resistance to change. This is not before APC technology is well imple- mented and accepted that it is useful to go to higher levels (multivariable predictive control and plant information management systems). The third paper: Experiences of Optimizing Refin- ery Energy Use with Process Integration described remarkable achievements in the field of energy use reduction in the refinery. The main problems con- sidered in the discussion have been: is it a specific case, in the sense that energy use containment was a major objective in the Neste Porvoo refinery from the start (obviously in connection with the rather
FEDERAL DATA BANK FOR OIL AND GAS. RUSSIAN APPROACH T. G. Shabelnikova, Central Geophysical Expedition, 4013 Narodnogo Opolcheniya St., 123298. Moscow Russia Abstract. The government and the whole society are interested in preservation and subsequent use of the subsurface-wealth data, because these data are a basic means for the government to control the rational devel- opment of explored natural wealth. An oil production company that develops and produces a field is the chief user of that field data. Such a company is primarily interested in that the data are properly stored and easily accessed for solution of current technical and technology problems. The present state of the oil production companies' data bases in Russia cannot be regarded as satisfactory. Geological and geophysical data for one and the same prospect or field may be in the custody of tens of companies and organizations, large part of the data is recorded on paper, while the digitized part of the data is not subjected to proper quality control and gets lost due to the wear of magnetic tapes. Much of data is copied many times and errors are introduced thereby, and it is very difficult now to locate the original data in the existing archives. Numerous databases created in the recent decade are in different formats and have different data descriptors. Setting up the Federal Databank of geotechnical data from oil and oil-gas fields of Russia is meant to provide for such a technological and legai mechanism that would assist oil companies and enterprises in gathering, quality control, archiving and effective use of large volumes of data in the search for, exploration and develop- ment of hydrocarbon fields within the uniform Russian industry standards. INTRO D U CTIO N The Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy as a government body is faced with a task of creating a repository and management system for oil and gas data that would be based on common rules and con- trols governing the information resources in the pet- roleum industry. Solution to this problem is important for both the oil companies who produce oil and gas fields and the government who are interested in being kept posted on the national hydrocarbon reserves and in exercis- ing control over the future development of the oil industry. The latest revision of the Law on The National Mineral Resources mirrors the government concern about proper means of data management and clear division of authority among the parties involved. CURRENT SITUATION It is oil production companies who are primarily interested in the use, proper storage and preservation of data on the fields. Preservation and subsequent use of data for many years is important for the government control over the rational use of mineral resources and/or scientific generalization as a basis for exploration for new fields. Such data are declared a national value under the above law, subject to long storage and sanctioned utilization. Ther
PETROLEUM PITCH PYROLYSIS Paolo Davini, Chemical Engineering Department of Pisa University, via Diotisalvi 2,561 26 Pisa, Italy Abstract. Petroleum pitches, by-products of oil refining, are interesting materials from which it is possible to obtain useful compounds, like cokes and hydrocarbons. Cokes can be used as starting materials of active carbons, while hydrocarbons have a utilization closely related to their molecular weight and structure. In the present investigation the process of pyrolysis of certain pitches is studied (in different thermal conditions, gaseous atmospheres and catalysts) in order to obtain good quality cokes. The study was carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus having high sensibility and very fast response time (in order to obtain information in the first instants of the pyrolysis reaction) as well. Gaseous, atmospheres, where the pitch samples were heated, were carbon dioxide, nitrogen and argon (pure or containing small and controlled amounts of oxygen) or hydrogen (pure or mixed with nitrogen). The obtained cokes were accurately classified (by determining their elementary composition) and submitted to surface characterization (by determin- ing BET surface area, meso and macropore distribution, surface oxygenated functional groups, etc.). Surface characteristic are related to type of thermal treatment. Cokes were washed with Hcl and HF boiling aqueous solution in order to minimize their content of metal derivatives (ashes); then they were submitted to certain selective oxidation processes with boiling nitric acid solutions, air (at 350 OC) and N, containing small amounts of O, (at 800 OC) with the aim to obtain surface oxygenated groups with selective chemical structures. The cokes, thus treated were accurately characterized and submitted to adsorption/desorption processes of several chemical compounds (testing their general Sorption capacities and the degradation, in time, of their starting properties). The results were correlated to the type of parent pitch, the thermal treatment used (temperature, heating rate and conditions etc.) and to the composition of the gaseous atmosphere of pyrolysis. Interesting results are obtained by comparing the behaviours of the pitch cokes with the similar ones obtained from ordinary commercial active carbons. INTRO DU CTION Three samples of petroleum pitch are submitted to pyrolysis under controlled conditions of temperature (from 700°C to llOO°C), pressure (from 1 to 10 atmosphere) and gaseous atmosphere (nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide). The reaction apparatus used for this investigation is made up of a microbalance (inserted in a stainless body and protected by a helium flow) able to heat the pitch sample up to 1100°C under pressure up 100 atmospheres. Using a suitable heating method', it is possible to expose quickly the pitch sample to the operational temperature. The solid cocked carbonaceous materials obtained are characterized by measuring
TURBOMACHINERY IN REFINERIES AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES P. Bendinelli, Nuovo Pignone, Firenze, Italy Abstract. The poster will show some photographs of turbo units and machinery components applied in refin- eries and petrochemical industries of recent and innovative design in comparison with those previously avail- able. It will deal with recent progress and future prospects of: - Lower cost and more efficient solutions. - Compression and expansion stages of new design which increases the performance of the machines. - Special seals which improve efficiency and rotor dynamic behaviour. - Protective and control systems which increase the reliability of the turbo units. - Design tools and production technologies more and more sophisticated which make possible a reduction of costs and delivery times. 797
- . ... -_ . .._ ~ .~ . IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOST COST AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EFFICIENT MEASURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Bjmn Weebye, Det Norske Veritas AS, Flarik, Norway Abstract. A methodology for preparing an environmental inventory of sensitive marine natural resources will be described and the results presented in the Poster. This methodology is referred to as the Marine Resource Database. A method for Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) applied offshore will be presented and the relationship between the environmental inventory and the data used in the ERA will be described. Specific methods for quantifying environmental risks and identification of environmental efficient measures associated with offshore installations and marine transportation will also elaborated. Practical application will be demonstrated with case studies from the North Sea. 331 EFFICIENCY TESTING FOR THE USE OF SPECIFIC ADSORBENTS AS SOIL AMENDMENTS IN ON SITE RECLAMATION OF OIL/BRINE CONTAMINATED AREA V. Ciovârnache, Petrom R.A., Institute of Research and Technology, Campina, Romania; R. Lãcãtusu, Institute for Pedology and Agrochemistry, Bucharest, Romania Abstract. This paper presents laboratory and field experiments for soil recovery done in oil field areas to replace the old procedure of contaminated soil disposal. The field trials began on two sites in 1995 using established agrotechnical practices and amendments. The tests were extended to other two locations in 1996 where some new amendments were introduced. - Restoring of soil texture and permeability affected by clay dispersion induced by brine contamination. - Biodegradation of existing oil sorbed on organic matter and clay and as a free phase in pores. The first two field applications were started with the sampling program for chemical and pedological site evaluation. Samples were analysed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, total N, mobile P and K, dissolved and exchangeable ions and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The first stage of field work (1995) included: scari- fication, applications of Ca amendments (gypsum or calcium gluconate), organic and inorganic fertilisation, cross harrowing, seeding with sunflower or barley, second fertilisation and harrowing. The soil analysis program revealed moderate improvement of saline and TPH parameters on surface layer. On the second stage of field work (1996), the previous program was modified according to the soil analysis data. In 1996 we started the recovery program for other two sites- both contaminated with oil and brine. The analysis performed on soil samples were extended as follows: - Characterisation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in order to evaluate the biodegradation process. We used two extraction procedures-Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)lp3. The Soxhlet extract was fractionated in four class products-saturate, aromatics, nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen (NSO) and asphaltenes as described in Ref. 4. The SF
TECHNOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE ORIMULSION FUEL G. A. Nuñez, A. Cárolenas, M. E. Gurfinkel, G. A. Sanchez and H. J. Rivas, Intevep S.A., Los Teques, Venezuela Abstract. We present an overview of the evolution of the technology behind the OrimulsionB fuel. First, we give a detailed description of the procedure used to select and implement alternative surfactants, with the idea of optimizing cost and producing an improved performance in the face of stringent environmental regulations. We then proceed with the discussion of results of an scale up initiative aimed at increasing the flow and head bounds at which the fuel can be pumped without detriment to its stability. Both pilot and commercial tests are discussed for the particular case of screw pumps together with the successful pipelining of Orimulsion@ through a 300 km long facility going from the manufacturing site to the exporting terminai. We conclude the paper with the description of a novel method used to assess the dynamic stability of the fuel with the ease of a desktop apparatus. 661 THE EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF LESS POLLUTING DIESEL FUELS AT LOW TEMPERATURES Ari Juva, Vice President, Oil Research, Neste Oy, POB 310, FIN-O16101 Porvoo, Finland; Seppo Mikkonen, Senior R & D Associate, Diesel Fuels, Neste Oy, Finland Abstract. The effect of reformulated diesel fuel (sulphur < 0.005%; aromatics < 20%) on exhaust emissions was measured and compared to Eurodiesel-96 fuel (sulphur < 0.05%). Tests were performed at + 20 "C and - 7 "C. Light duty vehicles were measured on the American FTP test cycles and the heavy duty engines using the European ECE R49. A decrease of ambient temperature increased CO- and HC-emissions of the cars. Both in cars and heavy duty engines, NO,- and particulate emissions changed slightly but mutagenicity (AMES) of particulates increased more than 100%. Change from Eurograde fuel to the reformulated decreased all regulated emissions and alde- hydes. At the same time particulate mutagenicity reduced into half. 1.
Exhaust emissions of diesel vehicles and their effects on public health are receiving increased atten- tion. In diesel fuel reformulation, the composition of the fuel is modified in order to reduce emissions of the existing and future diesel vehicles. Maximum sulphur content of diesel fuel was reduced from 0.2% to 0.05% by 1996 in Europe. Reformulated diesel fuel contains only 0.005% (50 ppm) sulphur. A decrease of ambient temperature is known to increase carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and visible smoke during the warm up period. Also aldehyde, particulates and polyaro- matic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions increase. When the engine and possible aftertreatment systems reach operational temperature, the ambient temperature no longer has a pronounced effect. 2. TEST PROGRAM 2.1 Test fuels Light duty vehicle tests were performed on an Euro- pean EN590 diesel fuel and a reformulated diesel fuel (Table
COMPARISON OF CARBON REJECTION AND HYDROGEN ADDITION PROCESSES IN PRODUCTION-UPGRADING COMPLEXES R. B. Solari, R. Marzin and H. Zbinden, Inteuep, S.A., Venezuela Abstract. Several strategic associations among PDVSA and major oil companies are currently undenvay to start massive heavy oil production and upgrading at the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela. The preferred process scheme in these associations is based on delayed coking. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages both from the technical and economic point of view, using delayed coking, as compared to hydroprocessing, in an integrated complex that includes production and upgrading. Hydro- conversion processes have the advantages of larger synthetic crude oil production at the same upgrader capac- ity, but require higher investment. However, this investment would be fully rewarded in a market situation with high price differentials and cost of the raw material.
Four integrated production-upgrading projects that require large investments have been defined to be executed as Joint Ventures in the Orinoco Belt.' The projects will produce upgraded synthetic crude oil of different quality directed to fulfil1 specific markets. All these projects have selected delay coking as the upgrading technology and are economically viable at current oil prices. They are characterized by low production cost and in same cases by the lever- age of deep conversion that allows to increase pro- duction of a larger amount of heavy crude oil by dilution with the upgraded product. A process scheme including deep hydroconversion is compared to a delay coker scheme showing a 20% increase in commercial crude oil production for the same capacity of the conversion unit, due to the most pronounced leverage effect derived from the higher liquid yield in the hydroconversion case. This com- pensate the larger investment required, making the two process schemes to yield similar return of invest- ment. The Orinoco Belt has 1187 MMMBLS of oil in place. The estimated reserves based on a recovery factor between 10 to 23% amounts 120 to 270 MMMBLS. These reserves are of the same order of magnitude than Saudi Arabia reserves and with a minimum recovery factor they reduce only to a half. As compared to the Canadian reserves, these bitu- mens flow at well conditions and no mining is required to produce them. Four Joint Venture projects are under way to produce close to 500 TBPD (3315 m3/h) in the Orinoco Belt. The Maraven-Conoco project aimed to produce 100 TBPD (663 m3/h) of a commercial crude oil of 20"API has completed basic engineering. The Maraven-Total-Statoil-Nork Hydro project will produce 143 TBPD (947 m3/h) of a 32"API com- mercial oil and it has also been approved by the Venezuelan Congress, to commercialize the Zuata area. The Corpoven-Arco Association has also the participation of Phillips Petroleum and Texaco, to produce 236 TBPD (1564m3/h) of a 25"API com- mercial crude oil based on the Ham
ASSESSMENT OF THE MEXICAN OFFSHORE FACILITIES FOR HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION AT THE GULF OF MEXICO DUE TO HURRICANES 'ROXANNE' AND 'OPAL' R. Mendoza Mata and O. Valle Molina, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Mexico; V. Valdés, Petróleos Mexicanos, Mexico Abstract. The Offshore Mexican hydrocarbons production area is located in the south of the Gulf of Mexico. In this region around 200 platforms and 1800 km of pipelines have been installed, producing 2.1 mmbpd (334 km3/ d) of crude oil and 1100 mmscfpd (31 Mm3/d) of gas. These facilities suffered the effect of two very strong hurricanes named Roxanne and Opal, on October 12th, 15th, 16th and 17th, 1995. Consequently, the structural integrity and remaining life of those facilities have been assessed, according to API-RP-2A Section 17. The assessment mentioned before is presented in this paper, involving the following tasks: metocean criteria review, subsea and surface inspection work, and analytical structural simulations. INTRO D U CTIO N Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) operates approx- imately 190 offshore platforms in Campeche Bay, in southern Gulf of Mexico. The total production of the area (around 2 100000 BPD of crude oil and 1100 MMSCFPD of gas) is driven through approximately 1800 km of pipelines that deliver oil and gas for local consumption and heavy crude for exportation. The geographic characteristics of the region makes it less vulnerable to hurricanes, but more exposed to mod- erate and strong winter storms when compared to the governing environmental conditions in the north- ern Gulf of Mexico (US area). This derives in milder overall meteorological and oceanographic (metocean) conditions. Most of the structures installed in Campeche Bay are conventional jacket type platforms clustered in complexes that concentrate housing and all the process equipment to handle production from local and satellite drilling platforms. Eight-legged jackets are commonly used for different services and tripods are used mostly as well protectors and for bridge support. Last year the Campeche Bay suffered the effect of the two back to back hurricanes Opal and Roxanne. The latter was more intense and exhibited a highly anomalous behavior that induced extreme forces on the structures and generated the necessity of platform and pipeline requalification due to the damage found. For that purpose, PEMEX and Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP) created a special engin- eering group to take on the assessment process, knowing that despite API-RP-2A (WSD) Section 17 draft had been issued, hard work was required to refine such methodology and to adapt it to the local environment. The special group is coordinating the whole assessment process, as well as the two engin- eering firms hired to perform the structural analyses. The PEMEX/IMP group and the engineering firms have worked together with several experts on differ- ent fields to reach the aimed goal. Right after Roxanne took place,
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON DECOMMISSIONING W. S. Griffin, Jr, 1530 Plaza OfJice Building, Bartlesville, OK 74004, Phillips Petroleum Company, U.S.A. Abstract. As offshore oil and gas resources become exhausted, the structures which were used to produce the oil and gas will become redundant and be decommissioned. The world regulators and authorities began very early to develop requirements for decommissioning through global and regional conventions/guidelines and national (host country) regulations. The present regulatory regime is strict, but comprehensive. It will require the total removal of over 90% of the current world population of structures yet gives the host government some discre- tion in dealing with the expensive, dangerous, environmentally sensitive and technically difficult structures on a case-by-case basis. The Brent Spar incident in the summer of 1995 brought global attention to decommissioning through a public outrage in Continental Europe so intense that the final disposal of the Brent Spar was not carried out. This paper will discuss the regulatory history, new regulatory developments and an industry issue manage- ment process that will, hopefully, mitigate public outrage that may occur in the decommissioning of offshore production platforms and other installations. INTRO D U CTIO N The first oil production, as we currently perceive it, was in 1859 in the State of Pennsylvania in the United States. It was almost 100 years later in 1947 when in the United States Gulf of Mexico (GOM) the offshore industry was considered to have its beginning. Since 1947 more than 6500 structures' have been designed, built and installed on the continental shelves of more than 50 countries around the world. More than 25% of the sovereign states recognised by the United Nations have offshore production. This in itself makes decommissioning a global issue. The structures are mostly located in the United States GOM with about 4000, 1000 in Asia, 700 in the Middle East, 500 in Africa, 350 in South America and 500 in Europe. There have been numerous attempts to estimate the worldwide cost of total removal. In 1983 a survey conducted by The Oil Industry International Explo- ration and Production Forum (E&P Forum)' of their member companies determined that the cost could be as high as $40 billion USD in 1983 terms. Other studies have been made and although different studies produce different estimates, the consensus is that the costs are of the magnitude estimated in the Forum's survey. The final decision for how a structure is decom- missioned is made by the host government authori- ties. In reaching their decision, they must consider their own regulatory requirements plus applicable international conventions and guidelines and the interests of other stakeholders. It is the industries (operators and owners) responsibility to supply gov- ernment authorities with information about each possible decommissioning programme and t
RESCUE AND SAVE ALLIANCE-INDUSTRY STANDARDS FOR 3D RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION W. D. Byrd and F. P. Pratt, Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, USA Abstract. Reservoir characterization Utilization of Epicentre (RESCUE) and Simulation Application View of Epicentre (SAVE) are two alliances formed between oil companies and software vendors to develop standards for 3D geological models, reservoir simulation models and to resolve differences in the way models are rep- resented and agree on a common data definition of the model framework and attributes. These alliances are examples of how research will be leveraged in the next century. Organizationally, these alliances are provided direction from a steering committee of both oil company and vendor participants. An outside project manage- ment company was hired to execute the business pians and distribute funds for expenses incurred. Representa- tives from both European and U.S. Oil companies and vendors participated with the oil companies funding those vendors who produced significant code at regularly scheduled integration labs. Technical support was provided by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC). The objectives were to develop software standards for the 3D reservoir characterization business process including upscaling and simulation, as well as enhancing the POSC Epicentre Data Model. The desired deliverables are a set of standards that the industry and vendors will embrace, allowing interoperability of applications, thereby assisting in the integration of the 3D reservoir characterization, upscaling and simulation business processes. 168