THE TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM OF STIMULATION FOR OIL FO R M AT1 O N S Andrey T. Gorbunov, Victor N. Nikolaevskiy, VNIInef, Moscow, Russia Abstract. The system technology stimulation of the oil formation consists of periodical bottom-hole treatment. The six principles of this technology are presented. They allow to increase current oil production (5-30%) and finite oil recovery (2-6%) of the field. The balance of output liquid masses and injection water into the formation has to be fixed during the well treatment. In the beginning the injection wells are treated and only afterwards the first line of production wells are treated. If the water fraction of well production is 40-90%, a much more effective method is to treat producing oil wells of central well lines. The number of treated wells is determined according to maximum profit. After oil production diminishes the treatment of wells can be repeated. In the nonuniform fields with complicated structure all high-permeable internal sublayers are isolated and oil recovery is stimulated from low productive sublayers (with low permeability). The choice of stimulation treatment is dependent on the peculiarities of the reservoir. Our experience was connected with treatment of well close vicinities by surface active solutions that can change wetability of the formation porous matrix. Another variant consists in wave treatment of the formation-by ultrasound or by seismic waves generating ultrasound in real fractured porous rocks. Changes of flow direction could be also performed in the formation according to the program of well treatment. I NTR O D U CTI O N The research study of stimulation of oil production has shown that the main reserves are connected with the system (sequence) of close vicinity treatments of injecting and producing wells. The program of treatments is planned beforehand and the goal is to increase oil recovery with account for geological and physical formation parameters altogether with increasing of current production and diminishing of water fraction in the total production. For this aim stagnation sublayers or zones of the for- mation have to be involved into the total fluid flow. The following six principles, which will be clarified below, has to be basic ones for treatment realization' : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. All production and injection well vicinities of the same territory have to be treated simultaneously; The number and sequence of well treated have to be selected for this territory; The treatment has to be done periodically; Two-stage treatment of well vicinities in the case of formation nonuniformity ; Systematically change of filter flow direction in the formation according to the plan of treatment; The treatment method (surfactants or hydro- fracture, etc.) is selected due to the geological and physical conditions of the formation. The main reason for this principles is the interference of a well with neighbor wells. This effect was men- tioned long ago for mul
ECONOMICAL PATHS TO ENHANCED DIESEL FUELS DI Helmut H. Weinstabl and Dr. Alfred J. Ecker, OMV Aktiengesellschaf, Schwechat, Austria Abstract. Additionally to a strong reduction of sulphur and nitrogen, polyaromatic compounds have to be minimized, cold properties improved and cetane number increased. To satisfy the demand of a growing market, the palette of raw materials must be enlarged by intensified use of cracked gasoils ex FCC, delayed coker and visbreaker. The profile of demand will be accomplished by two process-routes : shape selective hydrocracking and iso- dewaxing. Both processes reduce sulphur, nitrogen and aromatics and allow a control of the cold properties by their special catalyst systems. Both routes have been extensively simulated in pilot units. Various feedstocks and process conditions have been investigated and the raffinates analysed and characterized. Additionally these diesel fuels are valuated by operability tests at low temperatures on a chassis dynamometer (CEC M-11-T-91). By ECE R 49 tests the emissions of CO, NOx, HC's and of the particulates are quantified. Both process-routes, shape selective hydrocracking and isodewaxing allow the production of low emission diesel fuels with excellent cold operability using blends with cracked gasoils as feedstock. The economics of the production depend on the profile of demand: high conversion or high yield of raffinate.
Additionally to a heavy reduction of sulphur and nitrogen, the polyaromatic compounds have to be minimized, the cold properties improved and the cetane number increased. To satisfy the demand of a growing market, the quantity of raw materials must be enlarged by intensified use of cracked gasoils ex FCC, delayed coker and visbreaker. The profile of demand will be accomplished by two process-routes : shape selective hydrocracking and isodewaxing, enhanced by a proper hydro- treating step. Two characteristic basic feedstocks-a sulphur rich, high aromatic atmospheric gasoil at the one hand and a highly paraffinic, low Sulfur atmospheric gasoil on the other hand-were tested unblended and in several mixtures up to 20% with visbreaker-, delayed coker gasoil and LCO. The target cloud point of the produced raffinates in every case was - 13 OC. Shape selective hydrocracking The sensitivity of the selective hydrocracking cata- lyst to organic Sulfur and nitrogen compounds requires a severe pretreating step. By this addi- tionally polyaromatics are reduced and olefins removed. The second step cracks selectively the normal paraffines at the desired rate to achieve the needed cold properties of the raffinate. In every case the raffinates meet the requirements of EN 590 stan- dard for diesel fuels. The Sulfur content was reduced below 50 ppm, the nitrogen content below 10 ppm. The polyaromatics from both unblended feedstocks were reduced below 2%. The processing of the blends with 20% LCO reduced the polyaromatics below 3%, but
UNDERBALANCED DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING C. Hoyer, Dowel1 Schlumberger, Sugar Land, Texas, USA Abstract. Coiled tubing was originally developed as a live well intervention tool for safe and efficient workover operations without requiring the well to be killed. With the growth of underbalanced drilling as a means to minimize invasive formation damage in both horizontal and vertical wells, it was a natural fit to marry drilling technology with coiled tubing as a live well intervention technique. While drilling impairment has always been a concern, a significant increase in the number of horizontal completions has brought this issue to the forefront. Various stimulation techniques exist to overcome drilling impairment in vertical wells. However, even longer horizontal payzones will naturally require longer drilling times in the pay, leading to deeper matrix damage and more complex and expensive stimulation treatments. The increased use of coiled tubing for drilling through reservoirs underbalanced was a natural fit made possible by the development of a number of enabling technologies associated with both the coiled tubing and drilling processes. Better metallurgy, larger coil sizes, reliable slim-hole/through tubing drilling systems including MWD technologies and downhole orienters are just a few of these new enabling technologies. These along with coil's inherent advantages while working in live wells; continuous circulation, no connections, faster trip times, reduced crew levels etc. makes this marriage a good platform to continue to grow from. Examples will be shown to illustrate the benefits of these new technologies and techniques. 324
KUWAIT EXPERIENCE IN MEGA JOINT VENTURE PETROCHEMICAL PROJECT Y. Al-Ateeqi, Petrochemical Industries Co., Safat, Kuwait Abstract. Petrochemical Industries Company, is owned by Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, the Kuwait's flag carrier in the world of Petrochemicals. PIC has established a joint venture with Union Carbide Corpn. to produce Ethylene, Polyethylene and Ethylene Glycol. This poster presents the process of the establishment of a mega joint venture. The conception of the project and subsequent revision of the plan after the liberation of Kuwait. The plan was based on the ground realities of Kuwait's requirements and the present market trends, which resulted in the formation of a company to produce Polyethylene and Ethylene Glycol. The poster also discusses the idea of a joint venture and its advantages like technology transfer, marketing assistance, and R&D support, Selection of joint venture partner, contracting the project and financial strategies are also highlighted, in addition to the production process and selection of plant and equipment, and manpower especially the Kuwaitization process. When in full steam, the company will produce 650000 tons of Ethylene; 450000 tons of Polyethylene and 350 000 tons of Ethylene Glycol.
Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) is owned by Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and it is produc- ing ammonia, urea, salt and chlorine from its complex located in Shuaiba Industrial area, Kuwait. Petrochemical project scope before the invasion The original scope for the project consisted of two parts Olefin which will produce ethylene, polyethyl- ene and ethylene glycol products and Aromatics which will produce benzes and different types of xylene. This scope have been revised after the liber- ation of Kuwait as a result of a market study and the new scope calls for the implementation of the first part only, which is the production of Polyethylene and the ethylene glycol. Advantage of having a well known petrochemical company as a partner - Technology and knowledge transfer - Marketing assistance - Operating experience - Research and development support PIC methodology used to select its partner - Set the selection criteria - Evaluate the potential partners all over the world - Site visit to the potential partners - Detail negotiation with short list of selected poten- tial partners Project execution strategy Contractors strategy - Single point responsibility - Lump sum contracts Financing strategy - Equity loan ratios - International contributions 81 2 [I llP9 PETROCH EM I CALS 81 3 Implementation strategy - Cost share agreements - Select qualified contractor - Project team concepts Procurement strategy - Loans lead items - Plant standardization for equipment - Common plant standard Joint venture agreement-EQUATE company formation Oficial formation on July 15, 1995. Shareholders 45% Petrochemical Industries Company 45% Union Carbide Corporation 10% Boubiyan Petrochemical Company Company organization EQUATE Board of Directors EQUATE Management Team Employee recruitment Kuwaitization World wide recruitment EQUATE petrochemical project scope and schedule The complex consist of; - 650 O00 ton Ethylene unit - 450 O00 ton Polyethylene unit - 350 O00 ton Ethylene Glycol unit Start upFirst July 1997.
TECHNOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT OF WATER-OIL-GAS POOLS WITH A THIN OIL FRINGE Y. Ye. Baturin, V. L. Bogdanov, Ye. A. Degtyannikov and N. Ya. Medvedev, Tyumen, Russia Abstract. For oil production from the fringes of 10-12 m thickness a fixed pattern flooding is widely used with effecting the part of the pool via injection and production wells. No separate gas cap production from gas is carried out. In case of this gas breakthrough at the bottom holes of the production wells it is produced together with oil and water. The effectiveness of the technology reduces with the oil fringe thinning. At the moment when the thickness of the fringe approaches the value of 5-6 m the oil recovery becomes economically ineffective. An increase in the effectiveness of the technology in these conditions is possible by replacing vertical pro- duction wells with horizontal wells. The theoretical studies and the experience gained during the operation of 14 horizontally constructed wells show that oil production becomes economically feasible. On the basis of the results of these studies a technological scheme of the oil pool development in the layers AS(4-8) of the Fyodorovskoye field with drilling of 1000 horizontal wells was suggested. 41 9
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF GIANT FIELDS IN SAUDI ARAMCO A.-J. Al-Khalifa, Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Abstract. Saudi Arabian giant hydrocarbon fields are managed using multi-disciplinary interactive platforms that integrate seismic, geologic and engineering data. 3D seismic, well tests, cores, well logs and other data are integrated to construct millions of cells geocellular models. These models are then scaled-up into simulation models which are run using 3D 3-phase numerical simulators. Pre- and post-processing packages with powerful graphics are utilized to screen and visualize input data and output results. These models are utilized to study the historical performance and optimize future development of these fields. The reservoir management objective in Saudi Aramco is to maximize the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery at the minimum possible cost. The practices followed to achieve this objective are: - Producing the field at reasonable depletion rate (3-5%) - Maintaining reservoir pressure, through peripheral water flooding - Improving sweep efficiency, i.e. vertical and area1 conformance - Thief zones are isolated and wells are drilled at or behind the flood front - Restructuring well rates to minimize coning, cusping and fingering. New technology is applied to maximize production, minimize cost and add reserves. Horizontal drilling is utilized to produce tight reservoirs, mini- mize coning, extend the producing life of dead wells and lengthen the plateau period of declining fields. 3D seismic is run in all active fields to optimize infill drilling, improve reservoir characterization, truck flood movement and delineate field boundaries. Field cases will be presented to illustrate the applications of new technology. 565
SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF AN INTEGRATED SERVICE CONTRACT TO DRILL AND COMPLETE OILWELLS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA T. K. Sanders, P.O. Box 166, Shekou, Shenzhen, P. R. China (518066) Phillips China Inc., China; Brian Huculak, P.O. Box 328, Shekou, Shenzhen, P. R. China (518066) Halliburton Energy Services, China; Zhang Ming Jiang, P.O. Box 166, Shekou, Shenzhen, P. R. China (51 8066) China National OfSshort Oil Company, China Abstract. An Integrated Engineering Service (IES) Contract covering drilling and completion services was formed to develop two sixteen well platforms for Phillips China Inc. (PCI) in the South China Sea. The purpose of the contract was to improve well quality and to reduce the cost and development time to PCI by taking advantage of existing service company/lead contractor infrastructure in the area. Through a cooperative team environment, a cycle of continuous improvement has resulted in dramatically reduced drilling/completion times, improved production, and a much lower development cost to the operator. This paper views the IES relationship from both the perspective of the operator and the lead contractor and its subcontractors. It reviews in detail: (1) the project history and background (including why an IES Contract was the right fit in this case) (2) the `Team Xijiang' structure, roles and responsibilities, and decision making process (3) the pricing mechanisms and how interests are aligned through incentive pricing (4) the continuous improvement cycle and (5) the actual results of the project This new business relationship has laid important groundwork for future opportunities in the industry, for both the operator and lead contractor. An atmosphere of cooperation and trust has removed many of the barriers that exist in a traditional buyer/supplier relationship. By empowering team members to make decisions at the lowest possible level, personnel from all organizations involved are encouraged to contribute freely to the overall success of the project. The industry is continually faced with the need to improve efficiencies through unique solutions to problems. For any given circumstance, there are numerous alternatives to meet the need. In this case, employing an integrated approach via one lead contractor, has been a great success. INTRO DU CTION In September, 1996, the primary drilling and com- pletion operations for the original Xijiang oilfield development in the South China Sea were completed. The work was done significantly under the original budget, ahead of schedule, and without a lost time accident during the last 23 months of operations. Twenty-six wells were directionally drilled and com- pleted in 652 operating days. The operations were planned and executed by a multi-disciplined team operating under an Integrated engineering services contract. The team consisted of operator, lead con- tractor, and sub-contractor personnel. The team approach contributed significantly to the success of the project
TOPNIR SYSTEMS FOR ON-LINE OPTIMISATION OF PETROCHEMICAL AND REFINING PROCESSES Didier Lambert, Bernard Descales and Jean-Richard Llinas, BP Chemicals S.N.C., Research Centre, BP 6,13117 Lavera, France; Michel Sanchez, BP Lavera S.N.C., BP 15, 131 17 Lavera, France; Andre Martens, AMS Conseil, Ecopolis, 13501 Martigues, France Abstract. TOPNIR System is an on-line NIR optimisation package with unique modelling, allowing outlier treatment without manual recalibration, offering unique process applications. These TOPNIR Systems, based on more than 15 years modelling experience, have been developed and installed on Lavera units such as Steam Cracker, Polymer plant, Gasoline Blender, Crude Distillation Unit, FCC for their optimization. The Steam Cracker plant is operated by Naphtachimie, a 50/50 subsidiary of BP Chemicals and Elf Atochem. Through TOPNIR, the on-line NIR analysis of feedstock quality (13 properties) allows an adjustment in real time on the furnace operating conditions and to optimise the feed transitions. This NIR system linked to an in-house on-line optimiser model has been running since 1992. The annual benefit of using TOPNIR on Steam Cracker unit allows substantial benefit around US$1 million/year. Other advanced control systems based on TOPNIR are running on the gasoline Blender (1991), on the Crude Distribution Unit (1993) and on the FCC Unit (1994) to analyse and control both the feedstock and outlet qualities. Annual benefits from TOPNIR on each plant are between 1 and 3 million US$. 1.
NIR has a number of advantages over convention- al methods and is finding widespread use within the industry. The NIR analysis is rapid (less than one minute for a spectrum), highly accurate with a repeatability of 0.05% and can be applied, without any dilution, to liquids, waxes and solids. Either as a dedicated instrument or in combination with optical fibres and a multiplexer system, it is an ideal technique for on-line analysis. The main strength of this technique is undoubtedly the huge amount of information contained in the spectrum. The NIR range, between 800 and 2500 nanometers, gathers the whole molecular informa- tion which is condensed through complex overlap- ping of combination and overtone bands. Due to their complexity, NIR spectra almost always require computer analysis. The common These methods, based on least square criteria and available through a large choice of commercial soft- ware, are easy to use. The models obtained from these methods are generally satisfactory from a sta- tistical point of view but can contain nevertheless some hidden `numerical traps' leading to discrep- ancies in properties prediction. This can have dra- matic consequences when used on-line within a closed control loop. Another disadvantage of the regressional methods lies in the linear form of the model as well as in their poor ability to be extrapo- lated. Thus, the key success factor is the synergy between chemometrics and
SIMULATION OF NO, RECOVERY FROM NITRIC ACID PLANTS FLUE GASES IN FLUIDIZED BED ADSORBERS D. Mowla and S. Razavi, Chemical Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz Iran Abstract. Nitrogen oxides as one of main pollutants of air are considered and a bubble-type fluidized bed adsorber is proposed for the recovery of these components from the flue gases of nitric acid plants. The hydro- dynamic and mass transfer behavior of this type of adsorber is studied and a mathematical model based on two-phase theory of fluidization is presented. According to this theory, in a bed of solid particles, when the gas velocity is more than the minimum fluidization velocity, two different phases will appear in the bed: One is the dilute or bubble phases, the other is dense or emulsion phase. The adsorbent particles are considered to be porous. A computer program is written for solving the proposed model. The output of the program is the NO, concentration profile through the bed and as a result the efficiency of the bed for NO, recovery. The effects of different operating parameters such as inlet gas velocity, particles diameter, inlet concentration, etc. on the bed efficiency, are studied and so the optimum operating conditions for these types of bed are found.
Before 1960 the problem of air pollution and the damages caused by different pollutants for human beings were not considered seriously and each years a considerable amount of toxic gases and particles were rejected into atmosphere. During the decade of 60 the problem of air pollution showed some of its undesirable effects and the industrial countries were forced to find some means for controlling the toxic gases rejecting from industrial and power plants. Among these toxic as, NO,, due to their toxicity were considered seriously by different invest- igator~'-~. Francis et al.' in 1925 prepared the first report about NO, concentration measurement. Foster et al.' studied the recovery of NO, by Silica gel and compared the capacity of different Silica gel for NO, adsorption. The adsorption of NO, in flue gases of nitric acid plants on molecular sieve was studied by Joite et al.3. They showed that the molec- ular sieve of type linde 13 x was appropriate for this purpose. Arastoopour et aL4 considered the recovery of NO, by metal oxides in the presence of oxygen. Yeh et aL6 studied NO x SO process for elimination of NO, and SO, from flue gases. Karisson and Rosenberg' made some researches on catalytic oxi- dation of nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen dioxide. Adsorption and equilibrium capacity of NO, on acti- vated carbon particles have been studied by Do and Gray7. In order to improve the rate of adsorption of NO, on activated carbon, it is possible to fluidized the AC particles in a bed by increasing the inlet velocity of contaminated gas. In this study a bubble- type fluidized bed adsorber containing the porous AC particles and is to be used for NO, recovery from the f
TECHNOLOGY, GLOBALIZATION AND THE PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES Dr. Rilwanu Lukman, Secretary General, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Mr Chairman, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, Thank you very much for the opportunity to be here today. It is my great pleasure to be in Beijing and to represent OPEC at this Congress. I would like to take this opportunity to thank both the Congress organizers and our hosts for their kind arrangements. The themes of my address to you today are tech- nology and globalization, and I should therefore like to begin by reviewing technological developments in the upstream sector, before then moving on to the downstream, and finally discussing the trend towards globalization and the effect this will have on the oil industry. My remarks will, naturally, reflect these developments from the point of view of the petroleum-exporting countries, especially which are Members of the Organization I am leged to represent. those privi- DEVELOPMENTS IN UPSTREAM TECHNOLOGY In recent years, there have been two periods where non-OPEC oil production has received a significant boost from various factors. The first of these two periods, from 1975-1985, saw a combination of higher oil prices and a number of changes in the fiscal/legal conditions in OPEC Member Countries, which made some non-OPEC areas-previously con- sidered uneconomic-commercially viable oil- producing regions. This, among other reasons, caused the western oil companies to concentrate their efforts on areas outside OPEC. However, it is the second of these two periods, from 1992 to the present, that interests us today, because during this period the major factors cited by most experts in the growth in non-OPEC oil supplies have been the numerous advances in oil exploration and production technology, such as 3D seismic sur- veying, horizontal drilling, offshore technologies and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. Let us look at each of these in turn, concentrating not so much on the technical aspects (which would be beyond the scope of this address), but on the application of these techniques and their effects. 3D seismic surveying This more modern three-dimensional method pro- duces a detailed and accurate 3D picture of the sub- surface. Such improved structural definition has a number of advantages, of which perhaps the most significant for all oil-producing countries is that it has appreciably reduced the overall costs of finding oil. H orizo nta I d ri I I i ng One of the main advantages of horizontal drilling is that it is the most efficient method of increasing recovery rates, thus improving well productivity, boosting recoverable reserves, and making previously uneconomic areas viable. It-like many of the other technologies I am describing-has already been used with great success, particularly in non-OPEC regions. Offshore technologies The remarkable developments that we have seen in offshore te