The polymer Magnafloc 1011 was added in the water phase. The addition of the polymer extended the region of stratified flow and delayed the transition to dual continuous and dispersed flows. It also resulted in a decrease of interfacial waves, increase in interfacial wavelength, and decrease in wave amplitude. The polymer also reduced the pressure drop by about 40%.
The continuous increase in the world's oil demand is leading to improvements to existing transportation solutions or development of new ones. Venezuela has 296.500 million barrels of heavy and extra heavy oil certified reserves, located in the Orinoco Oil Belt. The main strategy to develop the Orinoco Oil Belt is a combination of dilution and upgrading of the extra heavy oil. For the developments to be feasible, however, alternative transportation solutions must be explored, such as the addition of polar compounds to improve dilution, heating, oil-in-water emulsion, core annular flow, foam flow and slurry transportation.
Wang, P. (Cranfield University and China University of Petroleum) | Cao, Y. (Cranfield University) | Yeung, H. (Cranfield University) | Lao, L. (Cranfield University) | Ma, L. (China University of Petroleum) | Gong, J. (China University of Petroleum)
Birvalski, M. (Delft University of Techonology) | Tummers, M.J. (Delft University of Techonology) | Delfos, R. (Delft University of Techonology) | Henkes, R.A.W.M. (Delft University of Techonology and Shell Projects & Techonology)