WATERFLOODING OF GAS CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS ON THE WATERFLOODING EXPLOITATION OF CARBONATE NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS Fernando Samaniego V., Pemex and UNAM; Alfredo León G., Pemex, José Luis Pérez H., Pemex. Abstract. Compositional naturally fractured 3D simulations studies are presented for the mexican Fenix and Giraldas gas condensate fields, aimed at investigating the effect on the high condensate content recovery of these fields of a very active aquifer (average reservoir pressure above the dew point pressure (DPP) during the 20 years producing history of the reservoir), and of water injection in a limited aquifer, for the former and the latter respectively. Both fields, the Fenix and the giant Giraldas, are currently at an advanced exploitation stage (20 and 22 years), resulting in a extensive production data set for this study. A review of the literature indicates that
very few cases of gas-condensate reservoirs operated under natural water influx have been Because the liquid content of the gas- reported2. To be attractive economically, condensate reservoirs is a valuable and natural water influx should be sufficiently important part of the hydrocarbon strong to support pressure high enough to accumulation, and because of the liquid minimize condensed hydrocarbon losses in the retrograde condensation that occurs for formation. pressure conditions below the dew-point, a The purpose of this work is to present the large fraction of this liquid may be left in the results of a study for the mexican Fénix and reservoir at abandonment if the reservoir is Giraldas gas-condensate fields, aimed at produced under natural depletion1. investigating the effect on the high condensate Pressure support of a gas-condensate content recovery of these fields of a very reservoir may be provided by virtue of active aquifer (average reservoir pressure (1) an active water drive after moderate above the DPP during the 20 years producing pressure reduction from early production, history of the reservoir) and the simulation of (2) through water injection operations, water injection in a limited aquifer, for the (3) gas injection, or former and the latter, respectively. (4) combination of all of these2. In recent times the results presented by several authors3-4 have made possible to WATER INFLUX AND conclude that under proper conditions, water INJECTION INTO GAS injection in gas condensate reservoirs is a CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS. viable alternative. This pressure support In waterflood operations of gas- process offers the possibility of producing a condensate fields following the method higher liquid recovery from these reservoirs suggested by Rivas-Gómez4, the condensate than natural depletion, because less liquid saturation in the vicinity of the wells can be phase condenses in the formation. Pressure reduced (sometimes prevented during most of support in these reservoirs has been usually the reservoir producing life) which will be carried out throug
POWER PRODUCTION WITH CATALYTIC COMBUSTION GAS TURBINE ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION VERSUS NATURAL GAS TRANSPORT: A COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Manfred Hafner, Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Energie (OME) Abstract. Worldwide, natural gas is more and more commonly used for power generation due to the huge natural gas reserve base, to the excellent economics and to its low environmental impact. However, natural gas reserves are increasingly remote from the consumption centres and with present technology it is possible to transport either the natural gas via a gas pipeline to the consumption centres and produce the electricity there, or to build the power plants next to the gas fields and transmit the electricity via high-voltage power lines to the consumption centres. This study compares these two energy vectors (electricity transmission versus natural gas transport) from a techno-economic point of view. This comprehensive analysis is carried out as a function of the energy flows to be transported, of the distance, of the wellhead price of gas, of the discount rate and other relevant parameters. Environmental issues are also discussed, as pipelines are generally underground whereas electricity lines are airborne, and as the power plant environmental impact is quite different for the two options. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the conditions favouring one option compared to the other.
Transporting the electricity from the gas field to the load centres, compared to Worldwide, natural gas is more and transporting the gas, is competitive for more commonly used for power generation. quantities of energy in the region of 1 to 4 According to the latest IEA forecasts, World Mtoe/year; above these quantities, the cheaper natural gas based power generation is expected option is transporting gas via large diameter to increase from some 600 GW today to more pipelines, and generating electricity close to than 2000 GW by the year 2020, this the load centres. represents more than half of the total world The choice of one option over another capacity addition during this time period. This is very sensitive to changes of the discount rate slash for gas fired power generation is due to and of the wellhead gas price. A high discount the huge - and still increasing - natural gas rate and a low gas price favour transporting the reserve base, to the excellent economics of electricity. On the other hand, variation of combined cycle gas turbines and to its low distance has little effect on this environmental impact. competitiveness. However, natural gas reserves are A small gas field could, therefore, be increasingly remote from the consumption commercially exploited, by installing gas centres and due to present technology it is turbine generators, which would be linked to possible to transport either the natural gas via a the load centres by 400 kV AC power lines. gas pipeline to the consumption centres and Such a project would also all
The Guaduas Field, Magdalena Valley Of Colombia A Potential Giant Oilfield Geology and reservoir characterisation of the fractured Cimarrona (Maestrichtian) in the Guaduas Field, Magdalena Valley of Colombia A potential giant oilfield R. Aguilera, Servipetrol Ltd., CANADA; R. D. Cunningham, The GHK Companies, USA: Abstract: The Guaduas Field (Colombia) is within the Dindal and Rio Seco association contracts. The contract areas are located south of the Middle Magdalena basin and north of the Upper Magdalena Giradot subbasin. This region is bounded on the west by the Central Cordillera and the east by the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The Guaduas Field was discovered by the GHK Company, Colombia El Segundo 1E well completed in July 1996. The well was drilled on the west dipping forelimb of the Emerald Mountain structure. microfracture system while macrofractures constitute POSTER
the primary productive pathways as well as contributing to the reservoir storage capacity. The The structural geometry of the Guaduas Field fractures are tectonic in origin and formed during is defined by a series of balanced cross sections deformation associated with the Eastern Cordilleran constructed along interpreted 2-D seismic lines and thrusting during the Andean orogeny. The fractures refined by an interpretation of a 3-D seismic volume. have been identified in open hole logs, cores and thin The field is located in the Guaduas syncline structural sections. Production tests and pressure transient data province defined by the Cambao fault on the west and analyses indicate the reservoir contains a dual the Bituima fault on the east. Hydrocarbons are porosity/permeability system. trapped by the Escuela fault (Bituima splay fault) on the east and the Camacho fault (Cambao splay) on the Engineering data consistently support the west. possibility of a giant oil field. Interpretation of long term reservoir pressure build up data indicates the The Cimarrona Formation consists of three following: distinct lithologic units: limestone, calcareous 1) relatively small pressure drop after producing a large sandstone and laminated sandstones and siltstones. volume of oil from several wells; These lithologic units are contained in three 2) continuous crossflow from the "matrix" depositional sequences. Sequence 1 consists of microfractures to the macrofracture network, and laminated sandstones and siltstones interpreted to have 3) extensive vertical and lateral reservoir permeability. been deposited in a distal portion of a westerly located fan delta complex. Sequence 2 consists of calcareous This interpreted highly effective permeability sandstone that in some areas is overlain by a shallow system is supported by: marine carbonate. Sequence 3 consists of thin 1) well defined lunar tidal effects irrespective of the siliciclastic units overlain by a relatively thick, shallow onshore reservoir location; water, shelf limestone. The limestones of Sequences 2 2) interfere
MARGINAL OIL FIELDS MARGINAL OIL FIELDS John Conway, Doug Rogers, VECO, Canda POSTER
Background - Alaska Quantity of "Marginal" oil It has been estimated that there could be Alaska's North Slope is a maturing oil as much as a billion barrels of additional oil in production basin. While it is always possible that these smaller satellite accumulations around the very large oil and gas discoveries can still be large Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields. We found in northern Alaska, it is more likely that are already seeing this pattern repeated around the the industry's recent success in developing Alpine field, a new field west of Prudhoe Bay. smaller fields will play a key role in the future of Alpine will begin production later this year, but Alaskan oil development. smaller, adjacent accumulations are being discovered that can be developed at lower costs Development of smaller fields, called thanks to the infrastructure made available by "marginal" because their economics are not as Alpine. robust as the multi-billion barrel giant fields discovered earlier, have already made substantial These innovations and cost-reduction additions to the known reserves on the North strategies are important in developing more oil in Slope. There is more to come; BP Amoco the larger fields. New technologies like horizontal estimates as much as five billion barrels of and coiled-tubing drilling, and multi-lateral wells, recoverable oil remains to be discovered on the have radically reduced the cost of wells and new North Slope, in addition to the approximately 16 reservoir penetrations. Because of that, the billion barrels discovered so far. Much of this producers are able to tap smaller accumulations of will lie in smaller accumulations. oil in the reservoir that was bypassed earlier. In the large Prudhoe Bay field, for example, the result of "Marginal" defined innovations and new technology has allowed an "Marginal" oil fields are commonly increase of the field's recoverable reserves from defined as smaller oil accumulations that are the 9.6 billion barrels estimated in 1969 to about economic today but would not have been a few 13 billion barrels estimated today. This is about years ago. The existence of these accumulations one half of the in-place oil resource. have been known since the early days on the North Slope. Cost reductions are a critical Two things have happened that now element makes them viable. First, new technologies, engineering and construction practices, as well as Cost reductions have been most contracting procedures, have sharply reduced the important in allowing development of smaller cost of developing these prospects. fields on the North Slope. New technologies play an important role, but just as important is a major Secondly, small accumulations near the rethinking among the producing companies and infrastructure of the existing larger fields - so- major contractors as to how projects can be called "satellites" -
FINANCING THE GLOBAL ENERGY SECTOR FINANCING THE GLOBAL ENERGY SECTOR A BANKER'S PERSPECTIVE Arthur N. Korpach, CIBC World Markets Inc. Michael W. de Carle, CIBC World Markets Inc. Abstract: Over US$ 90 billion is expected to be expended by Western companies in 2000 on oil and gas exploration and development. Although it is recognized that national oil companies control most of the world's largest basins, Western companies have historically played an important role in the development of the basins. In addition to the transfer of technology and expertise, Western oil companies are investing significant amounts of capital. Traditionally, Western companies finance their activities through operating cash flow, equity and debt public capital markets and conventional bank credit. The mix of capital varies by the size of company and the underlying risk profile of the assets. Other sources of capital include hybrid instruments and private equity. In the last 10 years there has been a noticeable rise in the participation of private equity in U.S. and Canadian companies. As projects continue to get bigger and more complex, we expect to see the Majors and "Super Independents" play an increasingly important role in their development.
Figure 2 provides a breakdown of hydrocarbon reserves by country. Noteworthy Traditionally the energy industry has been is that Canada and the U.S., which host many funded principally by the bank credit and public oil & gas companies, represent only 2% public capital markets. This paper reviews the - 3% of the world's proved hydrocarbons. state of these markets and highlights alternative sources of capital for the sector. Top 10 Oil Nations Total Proved Reserves 1. OVERVIEW OF WORLD Country Oil Gas PETROLEUM RESERVES (bln. bbls) (tcf) It is well accepted that the energy industry Saudi Arabia 261 204 is truly a global business and has been well Iraq 113 110 before the concept became fashionable in other Kuwait 94 52 industries. As illustrated in Figure 1, the Abu Dhabi 92 196 majority of estimated world oil reserves is Iran 90 812 Venezuela 73 143 concentrated in OPEC-member countries and Russia 49 1,700 is owned and operated by national oil Libya 30 46 companies that generally do not use Mexico 28 30 conventional bank credit or public capital China 24 48 markets. N:\CORPFIN\GRAPHS\MISC\[TopWorldOilProducers.xls]Sheet2 Total Estimated U.S. 21 164 World Proved Oil Reserves Canada 5 64 As at January 1, 2000 Western Asia-Pacific Hemisphere 6% Eastern Figure 2 Top Ten Oil Nations 12% Europe Africa Conversely, as shown in Figure 3, state 21% 8% controlled companies produce two-thirds of Western Middle the world's oil production. In recent years Europe East more and more countries such as Gabon, Iran, 2% 51% Brazil and Venezuela have opened their Source: Oil & Gas Journal borders to outside "public" investment through joint venture arrangements with the national oil companies. We expect such trends
Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe J. Tóth, MOL Plc. Abstract. The reshaping of East European economies shows considerable differentiation at present stage of transition. Consequently, the region's petroleum industries have been restructured and privatized differently, in dissimilar competition environments. The paper will briefly review the outcomes of the changes. The countries of the region, with the exception of Russia, are net oil importers; they endeavor to establish partnerships focusing on downstream. The option will be discussed: the companies are likely to be owned by strategic investors or they try to ensure their growth by creating regional partnerships. The entities of newly emerged states face big challenges finding the appropriate strategy. Examples of the industry's endeavors will be provided like the joint operation of the Druzhba-Adria pipeline system that makes the export of Russian oil possible to the Mediterranean. The paper will consider the impacts of the possible EU membership on the region's refining industry necessitating the compliance with the strict environmental requirements. It will be stressed that globalization can primarily be achieved through regional partnerships or alliances enabling simultaneously to meet the necessary growth criteria. The paper will assess short and longer term prospects for the first decade of the new millenium. Figure 1 Eastern Europe in 2000 its everyday use has a geo-political meaning i.e. 1. Introduction it means the region lying eastward from the borders of the European Union. While this Eastern Europe in 2000 12 new states · Bosnia Hercegovina · Byelarus · Croatia · Czech Republic · Estonia · Latvia · Lithuania · Macedonia · Moldva · Slovakia · Slovenia East Europe is the region, which has recently region earlier included nine, today it embraces nineteen independent states. Significant changes have occurred not only from political but also undergone the fastest societal fundamental changes in the modern history of mankind. New statehoods have been created in a very short period of time. The definition "East Europe" in Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe from economic point of view. In each of the however, is far from being completed. Four countries market economies have been created countries were more advanced than the others in and private capital has been involved. Of course this transition process; the Czech Republic, there were considerable differences between the Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. So it is not by cases. The previously state-owned economies chance that these countries have reached better were transformed in a short while. This process, results in adhering to international organizations. 25 20 15 Mt/year 1998 10 5 0 Latvia Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Hungary Poland Lithuania Rumania Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine Czech Republic Bosnia Hercegovina Figure 2. Net oil import of East Europe 2.
CONVERSION OF HEAVY AROMATICS TO LIGHT AROMATICS CONVERSION OF HEAVY AROMATICS TO LIGHT AROMATICS(HAL)- PROVIDING CHEAP RAW MATERIALS FOR PETROLEUM PROCESSING Shouxi Gui and Jianwei Wang, Research Institute of Petroleum Processing(RIPP), SINOPEC, China Abstract. A new technology has been developed, which can be used for producing more B.T.X. from C4 and higher alkyl-aromatics containing mainly in cracking gasoline and catalytic reforming as well as by-products of disproportionating and isomerizing processes. A catalyst consisting of noble metal and zeolite ZSM-5 has been prepared, which achieves higher activity and stability as well as lower hydrogen consumption. It has been founded that the reaction temperature, reaction pressure, WHSV and H/HC can influence the reaction results, and the proper reaction conditions have been determined. The pilot plant test has been completed successfully with 36 ~ 50m% of B.T.X. based on one-pass yield. According to the results of the pilot plant test, reaction thermal effect has been measured and the elementary technology flow has been designed. It is expected to be commercialized in China in 2000. wash, and an increase of the recovery of the
zeolite, especially for the large scale Heavy aromatics refer to C4 and higher production, compared with the technique alkyl-aromatics hereafter, which are present conventionally used in the art, which mainly in the cracking gasoline and catalytic comprises ion exchanging before extruding. reforming as well as by-products of disproportionation and isomeration processes. Na-ZSM-5 ?-or?-Al2O3 Generally speaking, these heavy aromatics have been used substaintially as fuels except that a very small part of them has been used as solvents. It is anticipated that in the near future Mixing, Kneading, Extruding, Calcinating the output of heavy aromatics will increase. Therefore how to utilize heavy aromatics comprehensively and effectively becomes an Carrier important task waiting to be solved. Many patents have disclosed a process for the catalytic hydrodealkylation of Ion exchanging alkylaromatic compounds to produce BTX Impregnating Calcinating under the reaction conditions of high temperature(more than 500? ), high pressure (more than 3.0 MPa) and limited feedstock(below C4 aromatics). On the basis Catalyst of the prior art, a new technology has been developed, which can be used for producing more B.T.X. from heavy aromatics under more Fig1. Flow chart of catalyst preparation temperate reaction conditions. The effect of silica/alumina ratio of ZSM- CATALYST 5, crystal form of Al2O3 and metal content on the reaction performance of the catalyst has 1.1. Catalyst Preparation been investigated, and the optimum The catalyst provided in this technology composition has been determined. consists of zeolite ZSM-5 and ?- or?-Al2O3 as 1.2.Reaction Performance carrier, Re, Sn and Pt or Pd supported on the carrier. It can be founded that the reaction In the process for prepar
Brandt, Martin L. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. USA) | Shank, Robert D. (Chevron North America Exploration and Production Company, USA) | Eisenmenger, H. (Chevron North America Exploration and Production Company, USA) | Bartel, David C. (Chevron North America Exploration and Production Company, USA)
Seismic 3D Processing Applications in GOM and North Sea (2 Posters) Application of Pre-Stack Depth Imaging Techniques to the Deepwater Subsalt Area in the Gulf of Mexico, USA Martin L Brandt, Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. USA Robert D. Shank, Kenneth Eisenmenger, and David C. Bartel, Chevron North America Exploration and Production Company, USA Poster Summary Successful prestack depth imaging of subsalt structures has added significant value to the exploration business in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsalt exploration prospects are difficult to image with standard seismic processing techniques. The complex geometry of the salt bodies and large velocity contrast with the surrounding sediments require prestack depth imaging for successful delineation of the structural geometry and subsequent quantification of reserve potential. The value of subsalt prestack depth imaging is developed through special attention to specific elements of the imaging process. Prestack depth imaging is very accurate because of careful pre-processing of the data and the use of precise subsurface velocity models. Precise velocity models are needed to place the reflections in the correct position. The data processors and geologic interpreters work together building the velocity model to provide the best image of the subsalt prospects. A comparison of standard post stack time migrations, post stack depth migrations and prestack depth migrations from a variety of subsalt exploration prospects illustrate this technique and demonstrate the business impact on exploration projects. 42
WAXY OIL PIPELINE AND OUTLOOK OF GAS PIPELINE IN CHINA TRANSPORT CHARACTERS OF WAXY CRUDE OIL PIPELINE & OUTLOOK OF THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE IN CHINA Gao-tangui, Pipeline Corporation of Petrochina Company Ltd.; Quan-zhongyu, Zhu-baoli and Xu-cheng, Pipeline Bureau of China. Abstract. The special rheological properties of waxy oil, appearing in a certain limited temperature rang, lays a rheological foundation bettering its low-temperature fluidity, and a series of specialized measuring techniques make it possible to obtain the accurate flowing parameters of waxy oil. The development on constitutive equations, and mathematical mode/software have pushed forward the pour point depressant (referred to PPD) technology to a general utilization in pipelines. Up to present, more than one dozen of pipelines have been under operation with the technique conducing safety and economy. Also, this technique has been successfully used in Sudan oil pipeline. Natural gas has gained an ascending proportion in buildup of energy consumption worldly. Chinese government has accordingly drawn up the relevant policy to promote gas industry. Most gas consumers are now in industrial cycles such as chemical and power supply etc. The gas consumption for civil use only accounts for a small portion. Now most of gas fields located in west of China, but the main gas user lie in east. The 10000-km gas trunk pipeline in existence is just at the initial stage. Base on the marketing trend and gas resources, China has worked out an ambitious plan to meet the requirements. The special rheological properties of waxy
oil, appearing in a certain limited temperature The abundance in waxy oil and running at range, lays a theoretical foundation bettering flow rate below the rated value cause a series its low-temperature fluidity, and a series of of headache problems for pipeline designer or specialized measuring techniques make it operator. The pipeline transport by heat- possible to obtain the accurate flowing treatment with PPD, in which thimbleful parameters of waxy oil. In addition, the amounts of chemical additives is added into development on constitutive equations the pipeline to improve the crude oil fluidity, characterizing the non-Newtonian properties of has consequently developed and proliferated in waxy oil, flow calculation methods, and China. mathematical mode/software have pushed Now, in order to promote the economy forward the PPD transport to a general development, China government has pushed utilization in pipelines. forward to develop the west area of China. To The PPD transport comes to contact with a improve its energy mix and connect West variety of subjects, such as rheology, physical China with East China, a new round of long- chemistry, macromolecule chemistry, and distance natural gas pipelines construction pipeline transportation technique, and involves time schedule issued by the government. the following techniques: 1. PPD TECHNIQUE FOR WAXY OIL 1.
GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE ALGERIAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORK GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE ALGERIAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORK Abdelkrim Ainouche, Manager of the gas department SONATRACH / RTE, B.P. 49 Skikda 21000 Algeria; Abdelnacer Smati, INH University Boumerdes 35000 Algeria. Abstract. Algerian gas network is a complex system. Because of the competitive nature of international markets and the growth of local demand, it takes place to solve the problem of the optimisation of the global system by the maximal reliability criterion. An approach based on an original representation by the theory of graphs and the use of the maximal flow with minimal costs algorithm is developed. Results to Algerian gas network will be given.
1. MODELISATION OF THE LNG CHAIN BY THE GRAPH THEORY The natural gas is revealed to have number of trumps that confers him a major place in all The procedure of modelling is realized scripts of forecasting energical demand. Thus under two steps: during the last twenty years the natural gas has recorded the strongest rate of growth among the · Defining a graph representation fossil energies. Its part of market has passed conformable to the objectives, progressively from 18.9% in 1975 to 23% in · Defining matrixes associated with the graph 1997 to reach 25% in 2010 corresponding to a representation. demand of about 3700 billion of m3. Algeria is In its classical configuration, an LNG chain is one of the biggest worldwide exporter of natural composed by: gas and LNG. In addition of its proximity to the · A source, representing the gathering European markets and its important reserves, network and the gas treatment plants, Algeria disposes of a complex network of · pipelines destined to assure the covering of the A pipeline equipped of many compressor national needs and exportations. The stations, international gas market, especially the European · A liquefaction plant disposing of many one, is strongly competitive. Consequently, the modules, reliability appears to be an essential criterion for · Cryogenical tanks of LNG, the conservation of market parts and the · A carriage with many posts, acquisition of new clients. Beyond current · A methanian fleet, actions of preventive maintenance, the · A delivery to the clients who are situated at amelioration of the network reliability, in the the pipeline extent. sense of market supply security, passes by: A graph representation of this configuration · The rehabilitation of corroded pipelegs, is very easy. To complete the graph modelling · The interconnection of the existing we add fictious arcs representing the gas pipelines, consumption at compressor stations and LNG · The realization of underground storages, plants. The modelling of a complex network · The increase of storage capacities of the disposing of many LNG chains is based on LNG plants. elementary graph defined more upper. In order to transform the resulting graph on a transport These actions have a very high cost. network