GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE ALGERIAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORK GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE ALGERIAN GAS PIPELINE NETWORK Abdelkrim Ainouche, Manager of the gas department SONATRACH / RTE, B.P. 49 Skikda 21000 Algeria; Abdelnacer Smati, INH University Boumerdes 35000 Algeria. Abstract. Algerian gas network is a complex system. Because of the competitive nature of international markets and the growth of local demand, it takes place to solve the problem of the optimisation of the global system by the maximal reliability criterion. An approach based on an original representation by the theory of graphs and the use of the maximal flow with minimal costs algorithm is developed. Results to Algerian gas network will be given.
1. MODELISATION OF THE LNG CHAIN BY THE GRAPH THEORY The natural gas is revealed to have number of trumps that confers him a major place in all The procedure of modelling is realized scripts of forecasting energical demand. Thus under two steps: during the last twenty years the natural gas has recorded the strongest rate of growth among the · Defining a graph representation fossil energies. Its part of market has passed conformable to the objectives, progressively from 18.9% in 1975 to 23% in · Defining matrixes associated with the graph 1997 to reach 25% in 2010 corresponding to a representation. demand of about 3700 billion of m3. Algeria is In its classical configuration, an LNG chain is one of the biggest worldwide exporter of natural composed by: gas and LNG. In addition of its proximity to the · A source, representing the gathering European markets and its important reserves, network and the gas treatment plants, Algeria disposes of a complex network of · pipelines destined to assure the covering of the A pipeline equipped of many compressor national needs and exportations. The stations, international gas market, especially the European · A liquefaction plant disposing of many one, is strongly competitive. Consequently, the modules, reliability appears to be an essential criterion for · Cryogenical tanks of LNG, the conservation of market parts and the · A carriage with many posts, acquisition of new clients. Beyond current · A methanian fleet, actions of preventive maintenance, the · A delivery to the clients who are situated at amelioration of the network reliability, in the the pipeline extent. sense of market supply security, passes by: A graph representation of this configuration · The rehabilitation of corroded pipelegs, is very easy. To complete the graph modelling · The interconnection of the existing we add fictious arcs representing the gas pipelines, consumption at compressor stations and LNG · The realization of underground storages, plants. The modelling of a complex network · The increase of storage capacities of the disposing of many LNG chains is based on LNG plants. elementary graph defined more upper. In order to transform the resulting graph on a transport These actions have a very high cost. network
TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR BRAZILIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF BRAZILIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY F. Baratelli Jr., M.S. Assayag, and L. F. Leite, PETROBRAS R&D CENTER (CENPES) Abstract. PETROBRAS, the Brazilian State-owned Company, facing great technological challenges on upstream operations (how to produce oil at water depth up to 2.000 m) as well as on downstream operation (how to process a heavy oil with high nitrogen level), developed the concept of technological system, embracing not only its Research Center but also suppliers, technology companies, services companies and universities, establishing partnership and strategic alliance to achieve the goals. A shared management system, with the creation of 2 strategic technological committees, one for upstream and other for downstream, facilitated the participation of general managers of operational departments in the definition of guidelines for research activities. Good integration with operational and research and engineering groups allowed the quick implementation of industrial testing of innovation. As a result, PETROBRAS is leader in offshore production in ultradeep waters as well as in some refining processes focused on heavy oil with high nitrogen content. Thanks to this shared management system, PETROBRAS is operational and technologically integrated, and this will be a definitive competitive advantage in the years to come. 1. OIL INDUSTRY IN BRASIL
Brazilian oil products consumption is expected to grow 4% yearly next five years, This papers presents the technological from 1.8 million barrels per day in 2000 to 2.2 system built to help PETROBRAS face the million barrels per day in 2005. technological challenges in its operations. About 70% of crude oil processed in The papers is divided in 10 sections. The Brazil is produced locally, and the balance first section gives an brief overview of oil is imported, mainly from Argentine and industry in Brazil, the second section shows Saudi Arabia. the role of PETROBRAS in such market, the third describes the technological system built for the management of the multidisciplinary effort, the fourth details the shared management approaches adopted, the fifth summarizes upstream strategic directions. The sixth unveils the project portfolio for upstreams development. The seventh presents the results achieved so far in upstream technologies. The eighth section presents the downstream strategic directions for PETROBRAS The ninth section shows the portfolio of projects for downstream developments. The tenth, gives a summary of results Figure 1 BRAZILIAN DEMAND OF achieved on downstream technologies. OIL PRODUCTS The last section concludes the article, As internal oil production is showing the importance of this shared increasing at higher pace than product management of development efforts for demands, if present level of investments in PETROBRAS. exploration and production is maintained, 185 T
Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe J. Tóth, MOL Plc. Abstract. The reshaping of East European economies shows considerable differentiation at present stage of transition. Consequently, the region's petroleum industries have been restructured and privatized differently, in dissimilar competition environments. The paper will briefly review the outcomes of the changes. The countries of the region, with the exception of Russia, are net oil importers; they endeavor to establish partnerships focusing on downstream. The option will be discussed: the companies are likely to be owned by strategic investors or they try to ensure their growth by creating regional partnerships. The entities of newly emerged states face big challenges finding the appropriate strategy. Examples of the industry's endeavors will be provided like the joint operation of the Druzhba-Adria pipeline system that makes the export of Russian oil possible to the Mediterranean. The paper will consider the impacts of the possible EU membership on the region's refining industry necessitating the compliance with the strict environmental requirements. It will be stressed that globalization can primarily be achieved through regional partnerships or alliances enabling simultaneously to meet the necessary growth criteria. The paper will assess short and longer term prospects for the first decade of the new millenium. Figure 1 Eastern Europe in 2000 its everyday use has a geo-political meaning i.e. 1. Introduction it means the region lying eastward from the borders of the European Union. While this Eastern Europe in 2000 12 new states · Bosnia Hercegovina · Byelarus · Croatia · Czech Republic · Estonia · Latvia · Lithuania · Macedonia · Moldva · Slovakia · Slovenia East Europe is the region, which has recently region earlier included nine, today it embraces nineteen independent states. Significant changes have occurred not only from political but also undergone the fastest societal fundamental changes in the modern history of mankind. New statehoods have been created in a very short period of time. The definition "East Europe" in Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe from economic point of view. In each of the however, is far from being completed. Four countries market economies have been created countries were more advanced than the others in and private capital has been involved. Of course this transition process; the Czech Republic, there were considerable differences between the Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. So it is not by cases. The previously state-owned economies chance that these countries have reached better were transformed in a short while. This process, results in adhering to international organizations. 25 20 15 Mt/year 1998 10 5 0 Latvia Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Hungary Poland Lithuania Rumania Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine Czech Republic Bosnia Hercegovina Figure 2. Net oil import of East Europe 2.
THE SOUTHERN CONE GAS PHENOMENON THE SOUTHERN CONE GAS PHENOMENON A LATIN AMERICAN GROWTH ENGINE Cameron M. Todd, Pioneer Natural Resources (Argentina) S.A. Abstract. The 1990's introduced a decade of unparalleled change and growth in Latin America. Throughout the region, democratic and free market reforms brought massive change to governments, economies and industries, unleashing economic forces which stimulated demand for resources, energy and capital. Nowhere have these effects been greater than in the Southern Cone (the lower half of South America) where the phenomenon of the natural gas industry promises to be a continuing engine of growth during the next decade. This paper compares the outlook of the Southern Cone gas industry through the 1990's with the situation today and trends for the next decade. In addition to demonstrating growth in regional gas production, reserves and energy demand, the paper discusses the evident trend towards regional energy integration. It discusses expansion of regional infrastructure, alignment of trade and energy policies, downstream integration, cross border ventures and alliances, and movement toward a regional energy price. This energy growth has been fuelled by significant capital influx, in turn stimulating substantial economic development. The regional forces driving gas development in the Southern Cone continue to gain momentum. Although many technical, regulatory and economic hurdles must be overcome, it is expected that a swelling gas demand during the next decade will bring massive investment and development to the region. policies and opportunities are just beginning to
align and where the continent's largest energy market has the potential to bring about gas During the 1990's gas production growth unprecedented in Latin America. The accelerated rapidly in Latin America, and large decade of 2000 promises to be an exciting new reserves were brought on line, fed by an opportunity in Southern Cone gas for those ever-growing energy demand which exceeded prepared to master the challenges of even the fast-growing economies of the region. continental integration. This rapid growth of Southern Cone gas can be attributed to the unique convergence of several key factors: SOUTHERN CONE SUPPLY AND DEMAND "THE 90'S" 1. Availability of large gas supplies. 2. Ready market capable of absorbing South America has long held a prominent increasing supplies. position in the world's energy supply, owing to 3. Large capital influx for major the immense resources of Venezuela on the production, infrastructure and northern part of the continent. Venezuela's downstream projects. reserves represent 80% of the continent's oil 4. Construction of critical infrastructure and 65% of the gas (1) to connect markets. . Unlike oil, however, where Venezuela is a world power, its gas 5. Alignment of government policies, reserves remain largely unexploited, as the fiscal and regul
OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES OF DEEP WATER [ OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES OF DEEP WATER Edward G. Stokes, Conoco Inc. Abstract: It is known within the oil industry that petroleum exists in sedimentary basins under the world's oceans out to significant water depths1. Future exploitation of these resources will rely on a number of important issues related to field development strategy that affect critical decisions that must be addressed prior to project commitment. Uncertainties around issues such as: reservoir risk, commercial terms, infrastructure, oil price, political and regulatory stability as well as the creation and application of advanced technologies must be considered before future fields in these depths can be economically developed. Creation of advanced technologies is one of the areas that Conoco Inc. is pursuing to develop tools and processes to enable hydrocarbon development to become a reality for deep water. Future technological advancements will span a wide cadre of engineering challenges. Briefly discussed below are three examples of these advancements where Conoco is investing time and resources to meet a portion of them: Deep Water Drillships - These vessels are addressing the long-term need for exploration and development drilling capability. To turn this need in to a reality, Conoco formed a strategic alliance with Reading & Bates Falcon that designed, built, commissioned and is now operating two of these state-of-the-art vessels. Subsea Mudlift - A new drilling process and associated equipment are being developed to enable ultra-deep water wells to be drilled. Strategic Integration - Deep water engineers are investigating new field development approaches and promising new technologies. The right concept utilizing new and innovative technologies is being established to ensure that the best solution (least risk, lowest cost and highest value) is used for the company's future field developments.
To meet these challenges the company is an active participant in many industry technology development programs. However, in some As world economies move into the 21st technological areas seen as either critical by the Century, some of the growth will be dependent company and/or required sooner than the industry upon their ability to secure and exploit new can provide, Conoco has made a strategic energy resources. In additional to traditional decision to be the leader for the development of fuels, countless products used by the world today these key technologies. are made from hydrocarbons. The growing Three examples of technologies that demand for petroleum in its many forms Conoco has identified as important to its growth combined with declining production in mature are discussed in the sub-sections that follow. areas is forcing oil companies to move into Two of these focus on drilling while the third remote and environmentally challenging areas to covers a new approach to field development. explore and produce. The
FLEXIBLE NEW FCC TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE EVER CHANGING MARKET DEMAND FLEXIBLE NEW FCC TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE EVER CHANGING MARKET DEMAND Zubi Chen, Caiying Li Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, Beijing 100083, China Abstract. Being a main conversion process, FCC is evolving toward processing more heavier and dirtier feeds, and to produce varied product slates to meet the local market demands. Frequently many of the product demands made on the FCC process operator are seemingly contradictory. However, with the advance of FCC process and catalyst manufacture technology over the past few years, these contradictories can be solved profitably. Daqing VR FCC, maximized distillate production (MDP) technique and the maximizing gas and distillate (MGD) process are the examples. Specific data of each example will be revealed and shown on the poster. 1.27 without lowering the octane number of
gasoline. Table 2 shows the details of Processing of residues has become a commercial trial results. growing trend in worldwide Fluid Catalytic MGD PROCESS Cracking (FCC) technology. As a dominate Example 3 is a new process that heavy oil conversion process in China, FCC is maximizes both LPG and distillate (MGD) evolving toward processing more heavier and yields, which is somewhat contradicted in FCC dirtier feeds, and to produce varied product operation. An existing commercial unit, which slates to meet the local market demands. was operating with LPG promoter, would like Hence, new techniques that render more to increase further the yield of LPG as well as flexible operations are successively the yield of LCO. In spite of the LPG yield developed. Daqing VR FCC, MDP and MGD was already high, by adopting the new MGD are the examples. process, satisfactory results have been . DAQING VR FCC obtained. Figure 1 compares the product slates Example 1 is a resid FCC technology with of conventional resid FCC (with promoter) and a unique catalyst formulation for processing MGD (with RGD catalyst). It can be seen 100% virgin Daqing vacuum residue. Table 1 from the Figure that LPG yield increased by shows the typical data taken from a 2 bbl/d about 2 w% and LCO increased by about 6 riser pilot unit. It is seen from Table 1 that w% at virtually constant dry gas and coke Daqing residue has 8.2 w% CCR and is so yield, with the penalty of the gasoline yield, of viscose. Nevertheless, pilot test results are so course. encouraging. At catalyst artificially Reduction of olefins in gasoline is contaminated with 3500 ppm Ni, the coke and urgently called for in China, because new dry gas yields are reasonable; and the high specification limits olefins content to be less value products yield high up to 74 w%+ and 84 than 35 v% and is to be on practice in five w%+ for once-through and recycle mode giant cities in mid-2000 as the first phase. operation, respectively. A commercial VR There are about 75% of current gasoline pool FCC unit in China has been in ope
Cuneo, Paul L. (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Culler, David (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Daigle, Kenneth (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Drosjack, Michael J. (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Gilmer, Lee (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Johnson, Gregory (Equilon Enterprises LLC) | Stern, Lon (Equilon Enterprises LLC)
OVERALL REFINERY EMISSIONS CONTROL STRATEGIES OVERALL REFINERY EMISSIONS CONTROL STRATEGIES Paul L. Cuneo, Equilon Enterprises LLC; David Culler, Kenneth Daigle, Michael J. Drosjack, Lee Gilmer, Gregory Johnson, and Lon Stern, Equilon Enterprises LLC Abstract Strategies for control of refinery gas emissions are discussed around the following topic areas: · Process Integration · Sulfur Recovery · Flare Systems · Fugitive Emissions · Furnace Emissions Each of the topic areas is explored with a range of options presented for emission controls based upon current technology and with a look at promising technology developments for the future. helps identify additional heat integration
within individual process units and between Refinery gas emissions have come process units. The following examples have all under increasing scrutiny by regulators around come from recent energy improvement the world. With the drive to reduce activities in our facilities: atmospheric emissions, technologies have been Procedural opportunities include: developed in several areas to help refiners · Optimising distillation operations to meet environmental regulations in cost minimize column pressure and effective ways. This paper explores five topic product overpurification areas to look at options for reducing emissions · Maximizing distillation pumparound and with a look at promising technology heat recovery developments for the future. The five areas · Eliminating intermediate product are: recycle · Process Integration · Maximizing hot rundown between · Sulfur Recovery processing units · Flare Emissions · Maintaining heat exchange network · Fugitive Emissions performance through periodic · Furnace Emissions cleaning 1. PROCESS INTEGRATION · Maximizing heat recovery from hydrotreating reactions through One of the most cost effective ascending reactor temperature profiles strategies to reducing refinery emissions is · Eliminating routine flaring through through more energy efficient operation. source control and flare header gas Unlike many environmental emission recovery to fuel reduction activities, energy efficiency · Maximizing fuel conversion improvements often have a positive economic efficiency by optimising furnace justification. Basis experience in our systems, operation overall refinery energy consumption for the · Optimising steam system operation average US refiner can be reduced 20 25% by eliminating low pressure venting, before the Net Present Value of the minimizing turbine exhaust improvements turns negative. condensing and biasing steam This type of energy reduction production to the most efficient opportunity is present in many existing boilers refineries and for new unit construction. The · Controlling amine system analysis technique that is used takes a systems overcirculation approach to studying energy consumption. · More capital-intensive improvements This methodology helps us find not only the can be obtained through: individual equip
Duma, Viorel (Chemnitz University of Technology, Division of Industrial Chemistry, D-09107 Chemnitz, GERMANY) | Dietzsch, Enrico (Chemnitz University of Technology, Division of Industrial Chemistry, D-09107 Chemnitz, GERMANY) | Honicke, Dieter (Chemnitz University of Technology, Division of Industrial Chemistry, D-09107 Chemnitz, GERMANY)
NEW ROUTES FOR THE PROCESSING OF OLEFINS AND AROMATICS NEW ROUTES FOR THE PROCESSING OF OLEFINS AND AROMATICS Viorel Duma, Enrico Dietzsch, Dieter Hönicke, Chemnitz University of Technology, Division of Industrial Chemistry, D-09107 Chemnitz, GERMANY
Olefins and aromatics are two groups of the main products of steam cracking processes. as catalyst [2,3]. Nitrous oxide was adsorbed The conversion of these hydrocarbons into and activated in an appropriate manner on the more valuable chemicals is an important goal surface of the catalyst (Fig. I). The preparation of the petrochemical industry. Besides the of the catalysts was focused on obtaining well-known processes ideas exist for new and catalysts with different porosities as well as unusual routes of olefins and aromatics iron and sodium loadings. The reaction conversion. In the present study two parameters were varied to study the effect of heterogeneously catalyzed gas phase reactions, reactant composition, reaction temperature, gas viz. the direct epoxidation of propene and the hourly 'space velocity and time on stream on hydro- genation of benzene to cyclohexene activity and propene oxide selectivity. Further- were investigated. more, the possibility of regenerating the catalysts after a reaction experiment and the PROPENE EPOXIDATION distribution of products was also studied. Epoxides are important intermediates for The experimental results have shown the production of many chemicals. Aside from that the optimum catalyst have a mesoporous the manufacturing of ethene oxide, today the structure, an iron loading of 300 ppm and iron other epoxides like propene oxide are mostly oxide particles smaller than 2 nm. produced by means of indirect ways [I]. The Furthermore, the sodium impregnation reason for this is that alkenes which have improved the catalyst properties. Over this allylic hydrogen atoms react with oxygen over kind of catalyst high selectivities to propene the same catalysts used for the epoxidation of oxide of 40-60% were reached at economically ethene in both positions, vinyl and allyl. As a interesting propene conversions of 6-12%. The consequence, the reaction leads to the total iron catalyst offers two advantages, viz. low oxidation of C3+- alkenes. For the selective cost and an easy regeneration by air treatment. oxidation in the vinyl position, mild Further investigations have provided insights electrophilic oxygen species would be into the reaction mechanism and the nature of necessary. Our approach to solve this problem the active species. Related investigations by and direct the oxygen to the vinyl position was temperature- programmed de sorption and using nitrous oxide as oxidant and silica- reduction measurements have given valuable supported alkali-promoted iron oxide information [3,4]. BENZENE HYDROGENATION The surplus of aromatics especially benzene due to the expected substitution in gasoline by non-polluting components leads to the necessity to de
A New High-Penetration Rate Hybrid Drilling System A NEW HIGH-PENETRATION RATE HYBRID DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPING DEEP RESERVOIRS AND GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS J. North.; S. K. Knibb, Worldrill International, England; S.M. Farouq-Ali, University of Alberta, Canada Abstract. A new hybrid drilling system, using ultra-high pressure drilling fluid jets and/or a variable thermal spullation gas jet. Ultra-fast drilling rates of 20-50 m/hr have been achieved in hard rock. The new system has exciting applications in the development of deep oil reservoirs, and tapping geothermal heat for injection into heavy oil formation. Hydratherm hybrid drilling economical thermal treatment of heavy oil system, reservoirs. The latter is achieved by the creation Nearly twenty years of research and of deep fractures and cavities in hot dry rock field testing has resulted in the development of (HDR) to produce super-critical (>380°C) Hydratherm's hybrid drilling system, which steam at critical pressure (3,206 psi) for uses untra-high pressure drilling fluid jets injection into the shallower oil-bearing and/or a variable spallation gas jet. The gas jet formations above. subjects the host rock to pulsed heat fluxes at Employing similar techniques, the temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1,100°C, drilling system may also be used for the producing thermal expansion and strength economical production of geothermal steam as reduction of the rock-forming minerals. The a source of energy. UHP jets then quench, cut and erode the rock Other applications include momentarily after heating. The combined subterranean incineration or storage of mechansms enable ultra-fast rock penetration hazardous wastes, subterranean storage of (20-50 m/hr in hard rock) by means of volatile liquids or water, large-scale tunnelling, spallation, erosion, fracturing, chipping and microtunnelling, conventional mining and cutting. quarrying. Applications The system is seen as having an almost unlimited potential in all of these fields, and will produce basic changes in current The system can be employed for practices. drilling oil, gas or geothermal wells. It may Oil and mineral production costs will also be adapted for mining, boring tunnelling be very substantially reduced, but the social or the cutting of chambers, and will operate at and environmental impact is likely to be far great depth. Together with other Hydratherm wider. This paper focuses on conventional and technology, it has exciting applications in the heavy oil production applications of this field of heavy oil recovery. These include technology.. faster and cheaper well drilling and the 349
EVALUATION OF EOR FOR ONSHORE OIL FIELDS IN CHINA STRATEGY STUDY AND POTENTIALITY EVALUATION OF EOR FOR ONSHORE OIL FIELDS IN CHINA Shen Pingping Yuan Shiyi Han Dong and Li Fangming, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, CNPC,Beijing 100083, China Abstract. Based on the first potentiality evaluation and assimilating the experiences and lessons learned from the EOR applications in China, the strategy study and the second potentiality evaluation of EOR for 17 oil fields have been studied. The results show that with the technology available at present, 1158 million tons recoverable reserves can be increased, being 11% of the evaluated proven reserve of 10136 million tons. The study also attempts to determine the role that improvements in technology will play in the future development of the remaining resource. It shows that the chemical floodings, especially polymer flooding, demonstrate great potential for application in China. The developing strategy and future planning for onshore oil fields in China are proposed on the basis of the evaluation. of technology and economy were recognized.
In general, the remaining oil constitutes a huge target for future recovery operations due to the Nearly two-thirds of all oil ever non-marine deposit of reservoir characterized discovered in the onshore oil fields of China as serious heterogeneity. With the technology will remain in the reservoir at the conclusion available at present, 1158 milliom tons of conventional oil recovery processing. As the recoverable reserve can be increased on the ever increasing demand due to the rapidly basis of evaluated proven reserve of 10136 growing national economy has continued to million tons, and the 11% of recovery is exceed supply, and the discovery of new attainable. It is also equivalent to 3500 million reserve becomes harder than ever before, this tons new discovery based on the average massive quantity remains as a significant target recovery of 33% in all onshore oil fields. for China's future oil production. The study attempts to determine the role Since 1950's, China's onshore oil that improvement in technology will play in industry has made unremitting efforts on the the future development of remaining resource. studies of EOR technology. Polymer flooding It shows that the most applicable EOR technique, after testing in the pilot and technique in commercial scale is polymer expanded demonstration test, has been applied flooding regarding the limitation both in the commercially in the onshore oil fields of technology and economy. In addition, the China, and becomes one of matured application and further development of ASP succeeding techniques for oil fields flooding require a technical progress to solve development after water injection. the problems occurred in practice and to The oil production of polymer flooding reduce cost. The developing strategy and has exceeded 8 million tons annually since future planning