WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY E.D. Wallace, Alberta Research Council; J. Zhou, Alberta Research Council; C. Matthews, C-FER Technologies Limited; E. Hoffman, Consultant
injection, and treatment for other purposes such as irrigation and human consumption). Recent production summaries provided by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board have indicated that in Alberta, between seven and eight volumes of 2. EXAMPLES OF RECENT cubic meters of water are produced for every cubic TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS meter of conventional and in situ heavy oil.i,ii Assuming annual world production of oil is Clay-gel treatment approximately 4 billion cubic metersiii, produced Researchers at the Alberta Research Council water to oil ratios worldwide are similar to those in have demonstrated that an aqueous slurry of up to Alberta and average water treatment costs are 40% clays can be injected into high permeability approximately one dollar per cubic meter, the oil channels in a reservoir.iv When contacted by industry world wide spends about $28 billion per formation water, the clay slurry gels and blocks fluid year on water treatment and disposal. It is possible flow. Several field tests have been completed to that such costs could be in the range of $40 to $50 demonstrate the viability of this treatment. billion per year (as estimated on some service company web sites), if one considers that many of the Downhole Oil/Water world's producing reservoirs have a longer Separation (DHOWS) production history than the Western Canada An independent report by Argonne National Sedimentary Basin. Laboratory for the United States Department of Energy indicated there are potential cost savings In the poster, we will describe some recent advances associated with application of DHOWS in in the control of water production, and treatment of appropriate reservoirs.v Of 29 trials where both pre- produced water for recycle or disposal. and post-installation water production data were provided, all showed a reduction in water production. 1. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES In 22 cases, the reduction was greater than 75%. In Oil producers can adopt one of several strategic addition, oil production stayed the same or increased approaches to water management and within each in 21 of 33 trials in which the relevant data were approach have an increasing number of technological available. options either to minimize costs or gain economic benefit from water production. These strategies include: · Prevention of water breakthrough into the well bore. This can be accomplished either mechanically at the well bore or through injection of blocking agents into the reservoir; · Down hole separation of water and oil followed by re-injection of the water into a disposal zone; · Surface separation and treatment of water for disposal; and · Surface separation and treatment of water for re- use (for example, re-injection for pressur
THE ROLE OF KOREA GAS CONSUMPTION ON THE GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT IN EAST RUSSIA THE ROLE OF KOREA GAS CONSUMPTION ON THE GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT IN EAST RUSSIA Dr. Myeong-Nam Kim, Korea Gas Corporation Abstract. A substantial growth in the demand for energy is anticipated in Asia as a result of Asia's further economic growth in medium and long-term basis. It is forecasted that the demand for energy in Asia will increase at least 1.6 folds from 1995 to 2010, or at an average annual rate of 3.3%. The trends driving increased demand for Natural Gas in Asian region are 1) the promotion of economic development and growth, 2) concerns about energy security, and 3) concerns about environmental quality and health. The majority of international trades of Natural Gas within Asia until today have depended on LNG import from Southeast Asia and Australia to Northeast Asia. The combined total import of LNG by Korea, Japan, and Chinese Taipei was 62 million tons in 1997, accounting for about 76% of the world total LNG import. At this moment, the self-sufficiency rate of Asia for natural gas is about 90% or higher. Financial Times forecasts that the gas consumption for three countries will be around 100 million tons in 2010 Therefore, in order to maintain energy security in the face of further growth of energy demand within the Asian region, it is necessary to promote further development of natural gas resources and to diversify supply sources of natural gas within the region including East Siberia and Far East Russia on top of Southeast Asian sources. The major pipeline in operation or under construction is undeveloped in this region. It is assure that multi-national cooperation for the development of Siberian natural gas fields and the construction of a multi-national pipeline will be of vital importance to the regional stability, economic development and environmental protection of the Northeast region Growing industrialization, expanding long term Natural Gas supply and demand transport systems, rising demand for in which the natural gas demand in 2010 is electricity have combined to lead to huge forecasted around 20 million tons. This energy demand increases in North East projection is still reflected the bitter Asian region. It is forecasted that the experience due to the economic crisis in demand for energy in Asia will increase at 1997 although, before the economic crisis, least 1.6 folds from 1995 to 2010, or at an the demand of natural gas in 2010 was average annual rate of 3.3%. However, projected around 28 million tons. It means countries in North East Asian Region have that the projection by government has had to import vast quantity of energy some room for additional demand resources due to the resource deficiency. according to the economy situation between in 2005 and in 2010. The economic difficulties caused by shortage of foreign currency by the end of The majority of Natural Gas trade within 1997 not only depressed the Korean Asia until toda
Non-Traditional Hydrocarbons and Prospects for Their Utilization in Russia Non-Traditional Hydrocarbons and Prospects for Their Utilization in Russia Anatoly N. Dmitrievsky, Russian Academy of Sciences RUSSIA Mikhail N. Grigoriev, Institute of Geology & Development of Fossil Fuels Nikolai N. Lisovsky, Ministry of Fuel and Energy, RUSSIA Abstract: Current research, exploration and engineering work carried out by Russian companies is ever more focused on non-traditional sources of hydrocarbon raw materials. Primarily, these include the following: · oil in clay reservoirs; · methane in coal formations; · gas in compact reservoirs; · gas at greater depths (deep gas); · gas-hydrate pools. The distribution of the reservoir is Oil in Clay Reservoirs utterly non-uniform. While oil seepage has In recent years, there has been a been observed over a broad geographical area, growing interest in Russia to oil pools commercial presence of oil can be marked over associated with clay, carbonate-clay and some local sites only. The principal zone of oil carbonate-siliceous-clay reservoirs. accumulation, containing over 90% of As of today, the Russian State commercial hydrocarbon reserves of the Balance includes 42 fields of oil contained in Bazhenovsky suite, is assigned to the Mansi such reservoirs; these are of diverse syneclise, to the slopes of the neighboring stratigraphic ages, and their overall initial arches and to local elevations involved in the recoverable oil reserves are around 600 million syneclise. tons). That is why, because of the significant As an oil-bearing item, the geological reserves of hydrocarbons in them, Bazhenovsky suite has been identified as their efficient development is becoming an formation Yu0. By January 1, 1999, 37 oil urgent issue in the progress of the mineral raw pools have been discovered there. The number materials base of the country. of productive wells with commercial inflows Among non-traditional targets of oil rating over 5 tons per day is less than 5%. The and gas exploration, a special place belongs to flow rates vary in a broad range. Some of the oil pools in clay complexes of the wells at the Salymsky field produced up to 600 Bazhenovsky and Khadumsky suites in West tons per day (1968, well #12). The overall Siberia and the Caucasian piedmont and in initial oil reserves can be estimated to be domanik formations of the Urals--Volga approximately 200 million tons. region. The reserves and resources of oil are The whole zone where the great there. For instance, the share of category Bazhenovsky suite is distributed in West C2 reserves in clay reservoirs of the North- Siberia can be regarded as a promising area, Caucasian oil and gas-bearing province and the potential for preparation of commercial reaches 20% of its overall reserves, while the category reserves in terms of quantity is unexplored reserves in bazhenites of West commensurable to the reserves of the fields Siberia are over 15% of the entire explored that
PARA-XYLENE PRODUCTION: INTEGRATING MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS INTO AN EXISTING COMPLEX PARA-XYLENE PRODUCTION: INTEGRATING MODERN TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS INTO AN EXISTING COMPLEX Gérard Hotier (IFP).;Stuart MacPherson (Chevron).; Rick Weber (Chevron).; Pierre Renard (IFP) Abstract. The EluxylTM paraxylene separation process, using simulated countercurrent adsorption, has been co-developed by IFP and Chevron. Following the successful operation of the Chevron Pascagoula Demo Plant, several large or very large capacity Eluxyl units have been awarded. These awards are based on the ability of this innovative, leading-edge technology to offer customers lower capital investment and operating costs and to enable the purification of world scale paraxylene throughputs in a single separation train. This article discusses the process features of the Eluxyl Hybrid and the opportunities for retrofitting crystallization units by integrating this modern technology. A special focus on the Chevron's Pascagoula refinery experience, from the demonstration plant which has proved out the Eluxyl technology to the succesful revamp of the initial two-stage crystallizer into an Eluxyl Hybrid unit, will be given. This unit has started-up in 1998 and is the first example of the cost-effective combination of IFP's versatile, innovative adsorption section and Chevron's modern, high-temperature crystallization process. The Eluxyl Hybrid Technology solution affords a paraxylene purity of 99.8 % for conventional users and up to 99.9 % for the most demanding users. effort which was started in 1986, and has 1.
culminated with the construction and the In spite of the recent reduced demand, operation of a demonstration unit at Chevron's low margins and current world economy, the Pascagoula Refinery. average annual growth rate for paraxylene is Early 1994, Chevron and IFP signed a expected to be 6% for the next decade. If there joint development agreement for the Eluxyl is no added paraxylene capacity, worldwide stand-alone and Eluxyl Hybrid processes based availability is expected to become tight at the on the concept of simulated countercurrent horizon of 2004. Locally, paraxylene shortages adsorption. A thorough description of the will occur in areas where logistics are difficult Eluxyl process is given in the corresponding or shipping costs excessive. Typically, the time section. This cooperation relied on a common from engineering, procurement and market approach different from the prevailing construction contract award to plant start-up is view at this time. Indeed, since more than 50 of the order of 3 years. Thus from a global % of the paraxylene was still produced by perspective, it is anticipated that new crystallization, Chevron and IFP were grassroots or major debottlenecking contracts convinced that the market lacked a technology will be awarded in the 2000-2001 timeframe to particularly adapted to retrofitting existing maintain p
TGSCC BEHAVIOR OF HIGH RESISTANCE PIPELINE STEELS TRANSGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING (TGSCC) OF HIGH RESISTANCE PIPELINE STEELS S. Di Liberto, G.Gabetta, EniTecnologie Abstract. Underground pipeline steels are mainly low alloy steels of the API specifications (for instance, X65 and X52), showing a ferritic-pearlitic structure with elongated inclusions, mainly MnS. These materials have been proved susceptible to Transgranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC) in diluted solutions of near neutral pH. This cracking phenomenon has been firstly studied by Parkins[1, 2], as a consequence of field observations . Cracking was mainly observed under disbonded region of the pipeline coating, where cathodic protection is not effective. Hydrogen embrittlement due to the diffusion of atomic hydrogen produced in the cathodic reaction at the crack tip has been identified as the active cracking mechanism [4, 2]). Testing methodologies for Environmental Assisted Cracking (EAC) usually follow the procedures of fracture mechanics standards, operating under displacement or strain control . To reproduce cracking morphology observed in field, tests under load control have been performed and compared with Slow Strain Rate tests under displacement control. Specimen thickness reduction (Loss of TESTING PROCEDURE AND ductility) was measured as B/Bo, where B is RESULTS the nominal specimen thickness (4mm) and Bo is the thickness measured on the broken Specimens were cut from a pipe section in fracture surface. Measurements were made at a L-T direction. The specimen dimension were distance of 0.5 mm from the notch, where the the same as a standard 1" C(T) specimen, but environmental effect when present - is the thickness (B), was reduced to 4mm, dominant for both LC and SSR tests. Results because of thickness limitation of the pipe. are plotted as a function of opening rate in Specimens were not precracked prior to Fig.2. testing. Tests were performed at room temperature CONCLUDING REMARKS both in air and in NS4 aqueous solution1. The solution was continuously purged with a CO The examined high strength pipeline steel 2/N2 mixture (5% CO2), in order to ensure a pH of 6,8. is susceptible to TGSCC due to the combined Two test techniques have been used, a action of increasing load and a diluted conventional one (SSR) and a innovative one: aggressive environment (NS4). Crack Load Control (LC). The testing equipment for propagation is the results of a SCC component LC tests is a servopneumatic loading machine, superimposed to a mechanical crack growth with a control system able to rise the load at rate. When decreasing the opening velocities low velocity (range 10-3 - 10-2 N/s). After below 5·10-6 mm/s, the SCC component of testing, the specimens were broken open at crack growth rate is dominant and can be liquid nitrogen temperature, and fracture measured of the order of 10-6mm/s. surfaces were examined with a Scanning The observed loss of ductility (Thickness
BONGKOT FIELD GULF OF THAILAND BONGKOT FIELD GULF OF THAILAND, A SUCCESSFUL OPERATORSHIP TRANSFER STORY Jean-Paul Azalbert, Yemen ING Company, Michel Baraban , TotalFinaELF S.A. France This provision did not imply however any
changes in participation of the Joint Venture partners after transfer. On July 1st 1998 Total Exploration and In practice, the first gas delivery having Production Thailand (Total) transferred the been made on July 15th 1993, notice of intent Operatorship of the Bongkot Field to PTT was given by PTTEP on July 15th 1996 and Exploration and Production (PTTEP), the E&P the transfer successfully achieved on July 1st affiliate of the Thai National Oil & Gas 1998 in accordance with the POA dispositions. Company (PTT). This concluded a very aggressive A TRANSFER MANAGED AS A development program, which brought up PROJECT Bongkot Field production from 150 MMSCFD in September 1993 to 550 MMSCFD in July From the beginning, it was decided that 1998 after 3 successive phases of accelerated the transfer would be managed as a joint development. project between Total and PTTEP. To this effect, This marked also the successful 1. a common project organisation managed completion of a very original process by a Joint Steering Committee was set up involving the initial and the current operator in in 1993 a true "Operatorship Transfer Project (OTP)", 2. joint working groups were established to initiated as soon as the Participation and propose action plans in the various areas Operating Agreement (POA) was signed back of activity; in 1990 and culminating with the transfer 3. a Transfer Project Manager was appointed ceremony on July 1st 1998. by Total with a Deputy Transfer Project Manager appointed by PTTEP; The originality of the process arises from: 4. a Master Plan was drafted to set up the · the acceptance of the transfer option in the detailed of the project organisation and to POA, propose common OTP objectives; · its management as a project, with a 5. key principles governing the transfer were specific organisation and a detailed agreed very early in the project and planning, published as part of the Master Plan. · the emphasis put on human resources development, After PTTEP had notified in 1996 its · the establishment of relationship of mutual intention to exercise the contractual option to trust, confidence and respect between the become operator, the project organisation was initial and the future operator modified slightly to allow an improved monitoring of activities: 1. an OTP sub committee was created within THE TRANSFER OPTION the Joint Venture to ensure a proper information and involvement of the other partners. The Participation and Operating 2. the Joint Steering Committee was replaced Agreement signed between Bongkot Joint by a PTTEP / Total Joint Management Venture partners at the time PTTEP¨(40%), Committee meeting more frequently Total (30%), British Gas (20%) and Statoil 3. a detailed action plan was then pub
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: The living business plan: Using IT to turn data into information for use in planning, risk analysis and decision making in the oil and gas industry Valerie McIntyre, Merak Projects Ltd, Canada Abstract:- Petroleum companies are required to record and manage massive amounts of specific data. By using an integrated software system (from field data capture and economic modelling, to budgeting and risk analysis), this data can be "pushed" through a company in the form of a living business plan, which permits enhanced, near-real- time decision making. Using economic models, "what if" risk analysis scenarios, and up-to-the-day information, a realistic snapshot of a company's operations can be created. Unlike an annual budget, which is static, a living business plan is routinely updated to consider changes in oil prices, currency, operations, new wells, etc. [The author did not provide a full text of this paper. An Extract from the Visual aids used in the above presentation is reprinted below:- ...............Editor.]. The Living Business Plan - Using IT to turn Data Into Information for use in Planning, Risk analysis and Decision Making in the Oil and Gas Industry Do you spend more time finding and organizing data or analyzing portfolio alternatives? If you were evaluating a major acquisition, could you easily determine the impact on your portfolio and make the necessary changes?Is the source of the calculations consistent and secure throughout the business process? How do you currently evaluate past decisions to make better ones the next time?How effectively do you react to change? Business Process Data Flow...Consistent Analysis Dynamic Corporate Stewardship How can you achieve a more dynamic business process? Internal processes must provide information that is: · Current · Complete · Consistent Planning tools must be able to evaluate changing external conditions Is this a viable concept today? · Yes... one Merak client ran 73 business plans in 1999 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: · How long does it take your company to turn around an new business plan? How do we get there? ·Develop the internal processes to ensure consistent evaluations, world-wide ·Drive economic evaluations down to the asset ·Train the evaluators and decision makers to be working with similar understandings ·Implement tools that are scalable - usable at the asset level and corporate levelA Complete Foundation. Enables quality data integration and availability throughout an oil and gas corporation To create a Living Business Plan, focus on these basic areas: · Data gathering · Data storage · Data analysis The Goal is to focus your time primarily on data analysis Integrated software and a Data Model are the keys to optimizing these processes. What is the objective of a workflow process? · To create a Living Business Plan. · A Living Business Plan is a concept whereby a corporation can adapt quickly to new info
THE IMPACT OF IT AND TECHNICAL COMPUTING IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY THE IMPACT OF IT AND TECHNICAL COMPUTING IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY J. R. Katzer and A. V. Sapre, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company Abstract. Information Technology (IT), technical computing and knowledge management techniques have enabled many of the transformations that the Petroleum Industry has been undergoing. IT, technical computing and knowledge management will rapidly fuse further, aided by exploding telecommunications bandwidth and increasing computing power, and will accelerate their role in adding greater value to the Petroleum Industry. Enormous amounts of additional information and data, from both inside and outside a company, will become available to become fused and personalized. To avoid information overload, intelligent agents will manage and filter it so that only the key person- and/or position- specific information is made available, when and where needed. Pre-filtered, integrated data sets will be brought to world-class geological experts for critical additional analysis and evaluation, to enhance finding oil and gas and for life- cycle reservoir optimization. Massive real-time optimization will be applied to manage the entire producing enterprise and manage the manufacturing and marketing enterprise. To provide maximum value, real-time optimization and control will require real-time data provided by new generation sensors and in-situ measurement devices. The business decision making will be supported by real-time knowledge management and IT systems that will source data from the entire value chain of the business. IT and technical computing will ultimately complete the transition from a data-sparse to a data-rich environment, and they will enable and even drive the further reductions in workforce required to run the business and will produce significant further productivity improvements. Virtual teams, continuous access to world-class experts, and the formation of the virtual knowledge enterprise will become the winning norm. In summary, IT and technical computing will, over time, modify the organization and nature of the business, as we know it. 1. TECHNICAL COMPUTING, IT address the business in ways not even AND KNOWLEDGE imagined 20 years ago. To address the impact MANAGEMENT that IT and technical computing will have in the ensuing years we will first look at some of This paper considers technical computing, the developments that will occur in these fields IT, and knowledge management as if they and then discuss how they will impact the oil were the three legs of a stool. Today, in many and gas industry. parts of the world the manufacturing-based This paper considers three propositions economy is giving way to an information- that will shape the future of the industry: based economy, where the intellectual content · The information revolution that began of a product far exceeds the value of its twenty years ago has generated enormous physical co
NETWORKING BETWEEN THE PETROLEUM AND AUTOMAKER INDUSTRY NETWORKING BETWEEN THE PETROLEUM AND AUTOMAKER IN- DUSTRY, FUEL QUALITY AND EMISSIONS CONTROL H.H. Giere, Aral AG, Bochum; N. Metz, BMW Group, Munich, Germany Abstract. Both the oil and the automobile industry have undertaken considerable efforts in solving environmental problems caused by road transport. Improved fuel qualities and clean exhaust gases are the ongoing aim to further improve air quality and ensure a sustainable en- vironment worldwide. In many countries, emissions have been considerably reduced thus im- proving air quality significantly. One of the main targets is a further reduction of the ozone precursors-volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, the air toxics and the greenhouse gases to reduce the Greenhouse effect. Worldwide trends as regards the fuels are: Unleaded gasoline, a reduction of sulphur, benzene and aromatics, lower vapour pressure, an increase in oxygen compounds and multifunctional additive packages as well as trends to higher octane and cetane numbers. As regards the automobile industry the worldwide trends are: Improved engine concepts, new injection systems and technologies (multipoint direct injection systems), improved and new catalytic conversion systems (Denox/adsorber catalytic converters) and the further reduction of fuel consumption and CO2. Possible future alternatives for fuels (metha- nol, natural gas, hydrogen and synfuel) and for combustion engines (fuel cell, electric drive trains) are predicted for the future.
right way to make an ecologically and eco- nomically effective contribution to a clean There has been a sharp increase in environment. Finally, a number of world- the number of passenger cars and commer- wide activities and research programmes in cial vehicles worldwide. This trend will the fields of alternative fuels and engine continue unabated in the future, particu- systems will be dealt with in some detail. larly in Asia and Eastern Europe. The re- sulting range of environmental problems 1. Worldwide vehicle growth rate/- caused by road transport will be outlined. effects on fuel consumption and en- Measures already introduced to reduce vironment traffic-related environmental problems in the fields of: cleaner fuels, new, more eco- Man's increasing desire for mobility nomical engine technology and more ef- has led to an increase in the number of fective exhaust emission cleaning systems vehicles worldwide. In the past 20 years will be outlined from the standpoint of the alone, for example, the number of passen- oil and automotive industries using exam- ger cars has risen from 330 millions to ples from the USA, Europe and Japan. The around 550 millions. Inevitably, this is presentation shows the successes already linked to a distinct rise in fuel consumption achieved in maintaining clean air. A joint from approx. 500 million tonnes in 1980 to plan of action by the automotive and oil 700 million tonnes in
COMBINED HYDROTREATING OF LIGHT AND HEAVY GASOILS COMBINED HYDROTREATING OF LIGHT AND HEAVY GASOILS C. Sievering, VEBA OEL Verarbeitungs GmbH; U. Balfanz, VEBA OEL AG. Abstract. RUHR OEL GmbH is operating a Hydrotreater for combined treatment of both light and heavy gasoils at its Gelsenkirchen Horst refinery (Germany). Most of the hydrotreater feedstock is cracked material. While the light gasoils are desulphurized in order to send it to the domestic heating oil pool, the heavy gasoils are pre-treated for catalytic cracking. With respect to new fuel specifications as result of the European Auto Oil Program, the requirements of mogas and diesel has to be taken into account. Referring to the overall refinery structure the complexity of the feedstock situation is shown as well as the various modes of operation due to the refinery target setting. Interactions of feedstock and product qualities as well as their influence on operability and planning are indicated. Extended pilot plant studies has been used to identify the major constraints of operation and to develop vectors in order to implement into the LP planning model. Single feedstock components as well as combined feedstock has been tested. Analysis follow the most important parameters. Yields, conversion rates and hydrogen consumption has been considered. the light and heavy gasoils. There is no
reboiler for these columns; the Geographically located near the river reactor/separation-system is completely heat Rhine and 250 km away from the North Sea integrated. coast, the Gelsenkirchen refinery complex of Most of the hydrotreater feedstock is RUHR OEL GmbH is orientated to its local cracked material. The light gasoil, going to the home market. RUHR OEL GmbH, the German unit, is a mixture of light cycle oil from the joint venture between VEBA OEL AG and FCCU and light coker gasoil. Because the PDVSA, is an integrated system, that uses heavy coker gasoil is given to that same advantage of synergies between refinery reactor, the separation at the main fractionator products and petrochemical feedstock. of the delayed coker is poor. Additional heavy Due to increasing installation of gasoil streams are: visbroken gasoil and conversion capacity, in order to decrease the vacuum gasoils with cut points up to 590°C. heavy fuel oil production, hydro treatment has While the light gasoils are become a more and more important issue. desulfurized in order to send it to domestic While the old 250 bar-reactors from the very heating oil pool, and, to some extend, to the beginning in the 1930ies are still in service for diesel pool, the heavy gasoils are pre-treated upgrading kerosene and cracked light gasoils, for catalytic cracking. Starting up the the refinery profile has seen a lot of changes commercial unit, the overall required and has to be modified again under the desulfurization was about 95 %. The key pressure of the more stringent specifications parameter had been the sulphur content of