The most critical real-time data required for drilling directional wells is the angle of inclination. The advantages of measuring inclination within a few feet of the bit are enormous as it allows the driller to determine the directional behaviour of the bottom hole assembly, reduce the number of sidetracks due to directional steering problems, and more precisely place a wellbore in a reservoir.
This paper discusses operational procedures, best practices, and lessons learned during the drilling of Bonga 10ST 3(sidetrack # 3) horizontal well in Deepwater Offshore Nigeria. In the course of the well execution, achieving the well objective necessitated the introduction of at-bit-inclination sensor and agitator tools in optimally placing the Bonga 10ST 3 drain hole in the reservoir.
The application of these particular horizontal drilling technologies was a first for the operator.
The Bonga field lies 120 kilometers off the coast of the Niger delta in water depth between 3100 ft and 3600 ft. Quite a number of challenging horizontal wells have been drilled since the inception of operations in late 2000 and one of them was the Bonga 10 horizontal sidetrack well drilled and completed in early 2004. The key drivers for the operator, Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company, were completion reliability and sand control which could be achieved if the wellbore is less tortuous.
In the 80's and early 90's, drillers have had to contend with the lack of at-bit sensors. Hole problems such as well tortuosity, high doglegs, spiral hole, poor weight transfer to the bit and poor rate of penetration have been common experiences, especially in extended reach horizontal wells. In this case report, the introduction of ABITM¹ (at-bit inclination sensor) and the Andergauge Agitator helped to minimize all of these problems while also providing a comparable cost effective alternative to rotary steerable systems. The at-bit inclination sensor was developed to specifically measure inclination at the bit as opposed to the practice of measuring it about 60 feet from the bit thereby eliminating guess work and keeping the bit within the pay zone. Drillers can also react quickly to changes in the build or drop tendencies of the Bottom Hole assembly (BHA).
The Agitator used in conjunction with a mud motor was selected because of its proven ability to aid weight transfer to the bit, provide excellent toolface control and improve rate of penetration in rotary and oriented drilling modes.
The Bonga 10 horizontal producer well was designed to be drilled and completed as a high rate producer in a major reservoir complex in the Bonga field. The well's target is to complete a minimum of 1000 ft of net sand along hole, with the completed section passing from the reservoir top through the reservoir base.
The well was successfully drilled into the reservoir, placing the 12 1/4” hole at 82degrees inclination and setting the 9-5/8” casing just above the top of the reservoir. Two sidetracks were required.
Deep marine basin floor channel and basin floor fan (bff) complexes are well developed in the third order Barremian (9A) to Aptian (13B) sequences in the Bredasdorp Basin, offshore the Southern Cape of South Africa. The bff com-plexes contain stratigraphically and structurally trapped hydrocarbons, within moderate to good reservoir quality turbidite channel sandstones. The Sable oil and gas fields are reservoired within the upper part of this turbidite system.
The sequences fall within a stage of early drift history with a progressively enlarging basin that flooded and integrated the initial post-rift embayments with connections to the proto- Indian Ocean. Deposition of well-defined systems tracts together with associated type1 erosional unconformities developed. The third-order (onlap-fill) sequences reflect both thermal subsidence along the ba-sin axis and episodes of re-activated faulting. Generalized facies distributions, determined from log patterns, core data and maximum grain size data have assisted in generating geological models for the region. Poorer quality channel overbank and sheet sand (distal fan) deposits are not resolvable from seismic and geological models must take this into account so that allowances can be made for these 'invisible' volumes.
Ideally, bff systems should be radial in shape but because deposition occurred in the relatively confined Bredasdorp Basin their shape is controlled by the ba-sin topography and as such are predominantly elongated.
The provenance for these sandstones consisted of Table Mountain quartzites and Cape granites sourced from the mainland and the Agulhas Arch. The ba-sin maintained it's strong northwest - southeast elongation, inherited from the synrift sub-basins and was open to relatively free marine circulation to the southeast with the Southern Outeniqua Basin and the Indian Ocean. Sedimen-tation into the Bredasdorp Basin thus occurred predominantly down the axis of the basin with main input direction from the west.
The Bredasdorp Basin, located on the southern continental margin off the coast of South Africa is mostly filled by marine Aptian to Maastrichtian deposits, which were deposited on pre-existing Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous fluvial and shallow marine synrift deposits.
Drilling for hydrocarbons in the Bredasdorp Basin commenced in 1973, leading to the discovery in 1980 of the F-A gas field in the Berriasian to Valanginian shallow marine synrift sandstones along the northern flank of the basin (Figure 1). Further discoveries led to the gas-to-liquids (GTL) project at Mossel Bay commissioned in 1992, which produces syn-fuels from gas and condensate production from the F-A and E-M fields. Most recently the South Coast Gas Project (SCG) has been ratified to make available several central basin Barremian (9A) to Aptian (13B) gas and condensate discoveries in order to sustain and extend production of syn-fuels at the GTL plant. The generally thin pre-Aptian central basin gas charged reservoirs, confined to narrow channels, have proven to be a challenge to model, both geologically and commercially and their contribution to the basin's success will soon be realised.
Deep-water basins such as those found offshore West Africa, the Guld of Mexico and other locations offer great promise in satisfying the world's growing need for oil and gas reserves. At the same time, they pose special challenges in finding, developing and producing the reserves to realize this potential. Traditionally, 3-D seismic surveys have been a main factor in reducing risk and lowering costs in both exploration and production. Now, new-generation surveys involving Q-Technology are proving that higher resolution and improved control and fidelity significantly improve reservoir imaging over conventional seismic data. In particular, applications of Q-Technology promise to lower costs and reduce risk for offshore West Africa exploration and production.
Deep-water seismic data are often plagued by reverberations that can obscure the primary information. The sensitivity and fidelity of Q data allow these reverberations to be attenuated to reveal the underlying geological structure and rock properties. A second important challenge in deep-water plays involves seismic imaging around salt. In this regard, Q data provide better penetration and imaging in salt tectonic environments. Although current drilling targets in West Africa are not generally pre salt, nevertheless, imaging beneath salt is important in understanding the petroleum system since delineating source rocks and migration paths can be critical for field development. Moreover as West Africa matures, sub salt plays likely will become important. Finally, the high resolution of Q data is proving seminal in early field development by identifying potential permeability barriers. Indeed, the results obtained in such early stages of field development promise that the value of Q data can be realized even earlier in the process. By using Q technology in the exploration phase, Q information can be used in locating first targets and in the planning of facilities, _
Deep-water basins offer great promise in satisfying the world's growing need for oil and gas reserves. However, although the rewards can be great, the financial and safety risks are enormous. Traditionally, 3-D surveys had been the main factor for reducing those risks, but new-generation 3-D and 4-D surveys utilizing Q-Technology* are now making further strides. There are many features that distinguish this new technology. The four most prominent ones are the Calibrated Marine Source (for determining the far-field wavelet at each shotpoint), the acoustic positioning system (for accurately measuring the locations of the hydrophones), the streamer steering system (for mitigating feather and maintaining constant streamer. separation), and single-sensor recording (for finely sampling the signal and noise wavefields).
This paper discusses how these aspects of Q-Technology favorably influence the reduction of risk in deep-water surveys. High-resolution surveys.
High-resolution surveys In an empirical study, Kallweit and Wood (1982) observed that when at least two octaves of bandwidth are present in a white, zero-phase, noise-free wavelet, the temporal resolution is determined solely by the maximum frequency component in the wavelet. In towed streamer surveys, that maximum frequency value is largely dictated by ghost filters associated with the depths of the sources and receivers. Shallow tow depths allow high frequencies to be passed.
Environmental legislations are challenging hydrogen technology licensors to develop and apply steam reformer design technologies to meet the requirements on emissions and low energy consumption. This paper is dealing with Technip's answer to those challenges and will discuss latest ultra low NOx combustion technologies to reduce NOx emissions to lowest possible levels.
This paper also covers topics related to application of an EHTR (post reformer) to increase hydrogen production in an existing unit at reduced energy consumption to meet growing demand of hydrogen for various hydroprocessing processes in the refinery.
Processing of heavier & more sour crude oil, growing demand of middle distillates and more stringent environmental regulations are putting pressure on refiners for a need of more hydrogen. Continuous increase in the demand of hydrogen in refinery industry has led to installation of large number of on-purpose hydrogen production plants in last two decades. As “need” is also called as “mother of inventions”, the emerging needs of hydrogen gave big challenges to hydrogen technologists to find out new developments so that refiners can be benefited with more hydrogen, which is not only cost effective & efficient but at the same time the hydrogen production plant is reliable, safe, operable and fulfils the environmental emission norms. Since majority of the on-purpose hydrogen production in refinery are based on steam methane/hydrocarbon reforming (SMR) route, this paper covers the new developments introduced by Technip in hydrogen production based on steam methane/hydrocarbon reforming (SMR) route.
Hydrogen Production by SMR Route
Typical process configuration of a modern SMR plant, for production of hydrogen, consists of following process steps:
Successful regulatory reform of the energy market and industry has contributed to a rapid growth in production, consumption, demand and supply of the various forms of energy such as oil, gas, coal etc. The general energy policy of most countries in the world is premised on the three pillars of overall competitiveness, security of supply and protection of the environment. Most countries in Africa are dependent on imported oil, gas, coal, nuclear and hydro energies to meet domestic needs. This paper examines this increase in dependence with economic and population growth against a background of a declining reserve base coupled with uncertainties associated with prices and supply. Legal, economic and political policies as they impact on the energy scene will also be discussed.
The world history is dotted by changing world events. These changing world events, which may be legally, economically or politically motivated affect the supply, demand, consumption, production and price of energy derived from oil, gas, coal, nuclear and hydro sources. For example, the first and second world wars, which were politically and economically motivated, had a direct economic consequence, which was evident, the world over. It devastated the economies of the world. This led to the recessions of the 1930's and 1960's. by the late 1960's, the economies of Western Europe were already faltering and the 1970's, punctuated by two oil price crises, were uncomfortable years of adjustment prior to the descent into the second great economic recession of the twentieth century. The mid-1980's marked the beginning of economic recovery for most countries of the world although we are now experiencing another round of global economic recession in this new millennium. The drop in consumption of energy between 1930 and 1935 reflects the seriousness of the worldwide depression that occurred then. Before and during the early 1900's, the use of energy almost doubled every 20 years. Causes of this growth according to Catania (2002), have been attributed to the following:
The success of the drilling operations mainly depends on rheological parameters of fluids (mud), the choice of an adequate mud to the specific particularities of a crossed formation and to a geological conditions permits therefore, not only to increase the efficiency or drilling apparatus, but also to avoid the damage (plugging) of producer layers allowing a better productivity of a drilled well. The aim of this first part of this work is to study the influence of the pressure and the temperature on rheological behavior of drilling fluids used to drill the reservoir, composed of emulsions of air, water and different additives.
The second part of this work is to present a general analysis of how the oil recovery and the overall efficiency of miscible gas injection process is influenced by the well pattern configuration. Due to the impact of using horizontal wells an the increase of the ultimate oil recovery, the improvement in the technology of horizontal well construction is one of the advanced technologies in the petroleum industry during the lest decades. Using horizontal wells in miscible gas injection process, higher sweep efficiency for less cost is expected as opposed In the use of classical pattern by using vertical wells. This part first evaluates weIl configurations in synthetic homogeneous model. In total, four cases have been considered in this study using different combinations of horizontal and vertical wells. In the second step of this part, performance of different development scenarios was investigated by optimizing the type of injection wells in Hassi Messaoud field.
FIRST PART: NEW CONCEPT TO EVALUATE HPHT DRILLING FLUIDS USED TO DRILL HORIZONTAL DEEP WELLS Introduction
During the drilling, a fluid circulates form the surface to the bottom of the well inside the string and from the bottom toward the surface in the annular space between the string and the formation drilled. This fluid creates a hydrostatic pressure permitting to assure the stability of formation surfaces on one hand, and prevent the arrival of fluids coming from hole walls. Therefore the knowledge and the control of rheological properties, success and the modelling of out-flows have a major impact on the good progress of drilling operations. Drilling muds are non newtonian fluids, viscous or viscoplastic, and most often thixotropic [1-8]. The usual methods of determination of rheological characteristic that suppose a Bingham fluid have only a value of comparison. They can be kept for measures of control. But, for problems requiring the application of rigorous formulas a more precise rheological characteristics knowledge is of great importance.
Experiments and methodologies
Characterization and modeling of rheological behavior of fluid under surface conditions
The mud system 'Versadrill 80/20(Oil/Water)'is used to drill the reservoir. The composition of this system is: oil, brine (320g/l NaCl), Versamul (primary emulsifier), Versacoat (secondary emulsifier), lime, Versatrol (reducer filtrate) and VG69 (viscosifier). Different rheological are carried out on a system of mud Versadril 80/20 used to drill the reservoir under surface conditions have been done with the help of the FANN35 viscosimeter.
With 152 national member bodies and a collection of over 14 900 International Standards, ISO is the leading international standardization organization. These standards cover a broad spectrum of technical issues, industrial sectors and management practices, as well as conformity assessment practices and recognition. Many are of interest to the petroleum and natural gas industries, for their own use and for their relations with their suppliers, stakeholders and society at large. ISO provides this sector with a value adding and widely recognized system for the development of International Standards, with an already extensive portfolio of standards to support the three dimensions of sustainable development, i.e. economic, environmental and social:
• Economic dimension. ISO and the oil and gas sector have collaborated to produce more than 100 International Standards that, by replacing industrial and national standards and company specifications, reduce costs and delivery time, facilitate procurement and crossborder trade, whilst disseminating technology and good practices.
• Environmental dimension. ISO offers a complete package comprising the ISO 14000 family for environmental management, standards for measuring and reducing pollution, environmental considerations for product design and labelling, as well as for the validation and verification of greenhouse gas emissions.
• Social dimension. ISO standards address many aspects of health and safety and these will soon be complemented by guidelines on social responsibility.
The world is flat, after all…
After all, “the world is flat", to quote the title of the current bestseller by Thomas Friedman, the three times winner of the Pulitzer prize and foreign affairs columnist at the New York Times. His thesis reviews ten "flattening" factors in the past decade, from the fall of the Berlin wall to Google, from the global collaboration to overcome the Y2K bug to outsourcing in the global village and the revolution of the global supply chain. At the inception of this 21st century, with this levelling of the playing field, International Standards of the type produced by ISO, based on a double level consensus - between nations and across stakeholders - are, more than ever, in demand, and in production, for a broad range of economic activities. The main drivers are:
The role of natural gas as a primary energy source globally is growing rapidly. Over the fiveyear period through 2005, the use of natural gas as primary feedstock for the manufacture of chemicals and petrochemicals is also expected to make some rapid advances. Resource availability, cost and environmental considerations all indicate strong reliance on natural gas in industrial applications and electricity generation. Natural gas is also replacing other traditional fuels in residential, commercial and transportation end uses as well. Therefore natural gas offers the unique opportunity of making a significant contribution to the global program to reduce reliance on high carbon content fuels and thus facilitate compliance to international agreements. The study will therefore be useful to marketing managers, strategic planners, forecasters, new product and business developers, decision makers in the chemical, petroleum and energy industries as well as government agencies, venture capitalists, and those involved in research and development work worldwide.
This paper assesses and evaluates the global demand and utilization of natural gas in the chemical and energy production markets as well as the near term options for its production to meet the forecasted demand. The global marketed supply of natural gas is presented and production of natural gas by region/country, by source (offshore and onshore) and the reserves/production ratio is also discussed. International aspects of natural gas demand are also considered in this paper including forecasts for the 2005-2025 time frame. The effects of foreign and U.S. investment and technology by country and/or region are quantified. Major overseas companies involved in the natural gas business in processing, delivery and other activities are also assessed.
This paper begins with an overview of the natural gas industry. The overview describes the importance of the natural gas industry in relation to the overall global economy including a brief history and important indications for the industry.
The study then goes on to analyze the structure of the natural gas industry and competitive aspects including the driving forces of the industry. Important strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. Trade practices of the natural gas industry and the impact of natural gas on the petroleum and power industries are discussed.
This study also includes projections for natural gas production. The largest increase in production is projected for the Middle East—from 8.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2001 to 18.8 Tcf in 2025. The smallest increase is projected for the industrialized countries—from 39.3 trillion cubic feet(Tcf) in 2001 to 46.8 Tcf in 2025, an average increase of 0.7 percent per year over the forecast period. Natural gas processing is increasingly becoming a major part of the world natural gas business, as more countries with associated gas look for more economic ways of monetising this resource. This study also presents data on global natural demand by type of processing including natural gas liquids. Some interesting figures of global natural gas reserves and global/regional natural gas consumption are also included in the end of this paper.
In every country the stake holders in the local down-stream oil industry engage in negotiations and interact in an ongoing process that results in a local industry dynamic. The overall objective of an efficient and appropriate industry is universal but the resulting outcomes vary significantly. The local forces that have resulted in these differences are examined.
The local State strives to broker a process to balance down-stream industry income with local consumer interests. This dynamic is of particular importance in developing markets where inward investment is often wanted but domination by foreign multinationals is not welcome. There is little correlation between local levels of affordability and fuel trade margins gained by the trading companies. Driving forces noted include; land control, local and foreign company influence, oil company vs dealer leverage, operational standards with linked controls. Guide lines on fuel trade margins with linked resultant industry facilities are reported.
Multi-national companies, locked into their own publicized non-negotiable international standards, will drive up local standards to level the playing field, while local operators will typically adopt "local pragmatic standards". The multi-nationals will leverage their strong brands in price control markets or on locations of high volume trade. The growing regional oil companies have their strength of lower overheads and linked capacity to operate smaller sites. The State strives to balance these forces, supporting local small business and employment. Foreign policies are easy to copy and legislate but typically difficult to manage. The case study of the differing outcomes of Kenyan and Uganda deregulation of the retail fuel price are examined.
Upgraded fuel specifications, tougher environmental standards, closer fuel retail linkage to shops, increased automation and broader access to international best practice will continue to require the adjustment of the respective local down-steam markets. We have the shared responsibility to increase our shared knowledge of this dynamic and build a more efficient industry.
Managing Constructive Down-Stream Competition.
This paper considers the down-stream market of Africa in the broader context of Europe and the Middle East. It considers the driving forces of competition, state and economic environment interaction that result in a local market. Differing processes and forces have fashioned these markets with resultant differing outcomes. This paper strives to examine some of these to better understand this dynamic.
In words taken from the World Petroleum Council, we are here to “encourage the application of scientific and technological advances and the study of economic, financial, management, environmental and social issues relating to the petroleum industry” It is hoped this paper contributes to this advancement and triggers further debate of value to participants and their domestic industries.
Forces that shape a local down-stream market.
In each local down-stream market the quality of offer and service enjoyed by the local consumers is driven by the fuel marketing margin and the volume concentration of the trade. Volume concentration must be included because if local land controls result in a few large trade volume sites, these sites are able to offer better services.