It gives me immense pleasure in sharing my active experience in development of CNG infrastructure in India, particularly in Delhi through this paper and presentation. Emissions from vehicular pollution adversely affect the quality of air resulting in health hazard. The use of CNG in automobile sector has made a very significant impact on air pollution particularly in the cities which have very dense vehicle population. More and more countries have initiated the use of CNG so as to reduce the air pollution. After independence, Indian cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai became major centres of commerce, industry and education. Rapid growth resulted in significant increase in environmental pollution. The vehicular pollution increased rapidly as the number of automobiles increased in these cities. In Delhi alone, the numbers of vehicles have increased from 235,000 in 1975 to 2,100,000 in 1991 and at present, there are about 5,138,000 vehicles in the metropolitan city of Delhi. Vehicular pollution in the form of emissions have posed serious threats to the life of the common man. Until 1992, no way was seen by the common man to come out of this miserable situation. GAIL (India) Limited, in 1992, took an initiative to develop CNG/NGV through a pilot project to establish the viability of the project, to analyse its effects on pollution and to resolve technical & safety issues. However, till 1998, desired progress was not achieved as only 9 CNG stations were established in Delhi and about 1400 vehicles were converted to CNG till then. This, although insignificant, gave a ray of hope to the Judiciary which asked Union Government and GAIL (India) Limited, to take initiatives in promoting the use of CNG, an established clean fuel in the world, as transport fuel in Delhi to control increasing levels of ambient air pollution and to make common man's life easier. As part of GAIL's initiatives, two joint venture companies namely Mahanagar Gas Limited (MGL) and Indraprastha Gas Limited (IGL) were formed in 1995 and 1998 for Mumbai and Delhi respectively and they were made responsible for creation of the necessary infrastructure for setting up CNG retail outlets in Delhi and Mumbai. Today, both the cities of Delhi and Mumbai have full fledged CNG infrastructure, with the City of Delhi having 154 CNG stations & 128,000 NGVs and Mumbai having 127 CNG stations & 180,000 NGVs. With the active & constructive role & support of both local and central Government, today life in Delhi and Mumbai is much safer as far as pollution from vehicles is concerned and Delhi is the only city in the world having its entire city bus fleet running on CNG fuel.
Solar photovoltaics and stationary fuel cells in distributed generation applications create value for electric and natural gas ratepayers in many (often unrecognized) respects. This value comes from the fact that these distributed energy resources: (i) Typically displace electricity generated by large central station generators located far from electricity consumers (ii) have high on-peak availability; and, in the case of fuel cells (iii) often displace boiler fuel by capturing waste heat for cogeneration (iii) may operate using "renewable" digester gas from landfills or wastewater treatment plants. This paper will present the comparative results of a detailed economic evaluation of both distributed solar photovoltaics and stationary fuel cells in the State of California, United States. The purpose of the economic valuation was to quantify numerous 'distributed value elements' that reflect various attributes of distributed energy resources. The distributed value elements can be grouped into four general categories of value: (i) Generation-related (avoided fixed and variable costs, including fuel) (ii) grid-related (increased reliability, avoided transmission and distribution costs) (iii) avoided emissions and related health benefits (iv) job creation potential. To establish a range of value within the State of California, solar photovoltaics were compared to natural gas-fired combined cycle and peaking plants; stationary fuel cells were compared to natural gas-fired generators and to typical pulverized coal-fired generators. The calculated range of value was 6.7-23.8 Euro cents/kWh for solar photovoltaics and 5.1-15.7 Euro cents/kWh for stationary fuel cells.
The oil and gas industry continuously strives to drill and complete wells better, faster, cheaper, safer, and with environmentally sound practices. This session will focus on extending our knowledge of drilling and completion practices by examining state-of-the-art techniques and exploring new and emerging technologies. Examples include: . Integrated Well Planning (well design for completion, optimizing, selecting drilling parameters, risk analysis, etc) . Rigs and Drilling Equipment (hybrid rigs, non-steel risers, robot drilling, etc) . Drilling Challenges (remote locations, Max Reservoir Contact, small targets, well bore stability, etc) . Drilling Techniques (drilling with casing, percussion drilling, lasers, managed pressure drilling, under balanced drilling, etc) . Controlling the Well Path (data acquisition, vibration slide drilling, rotary steering, smart drill pipe, etc) . Well Completion (under balanced completion, smart well completion, equalizers, inflatable packers, expandables, etc)
The first generation of bio fuels (bio-diesel from vegetable oils and ethanol from sugar and starch) are rather limited in supply and it is questionable if it really makes sense to 'downgrade' these valuable edible feed stocks to transportation fuels. The story is different for the second generation of bio fuels which is based on using abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass wastes. Cellulosic ethanol can be produced via enzymatic conversion of lingo-cellulosic biomass. Unfortunately the conversion and separation of ethanol and water remains difficult and costly, while eventually ethanol volatility may limit the quantity which can be blended into the fuel pool. An alternative route is to gasify the solid biomass and reform this into synthesis gas which can then be converted into a liquid fuel. This route requires several complex process steps and is rather expensive in investment as well as energy consumption. A simpler and more robust approach is to convert the solid biomass into a bio-oil by direct thermal liquefaction. The bio-oil can then be transported (by pipe-line) to existing refineries for further upgrading. Unfortunately the quality of the bio oil produced is poor and extensive further treatment is required in order to produce the right quality for transportation fuels. An interesting new development in this area called Biomass Catalytic Cracking (BCC) is presented. The advantage of BCC is that the solid biomass is made susceptible to conversion at milder conditions. This results in improved bio oil quality and process economics including of the subsequent processes involved. BCC can be applied industrially rather soon making use of and building on existing refinery technologies and infrastructure.
In the present study, the anaerobic bio-desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (OBT) in the presence of hydrogen gas by three strains of Oesulfovibrio desulfuricans (OSM 642, OSM 1924, OSM 1926) has been investigated. Among sulphur containing compounds present in crude oils, dibenzothiophene is least susceptible to hydrodesulfurization. Hence, the conditions under which the latter compound is desulfurized may be regarded as the optimum operating conditions for desulfurization of petroleum cuts. It was observed that 1924 and 1926 strains had a lower capability for desulfurization compared to that of 642. Oesulfurization of OBT was followed both in an anaerobic jar without injection of hydrogen and in a down flow jet loop bioreactor (OJR) with the continuous injection of hydrogen gas. It was found that in the OJR, due to the effective mixing of the contents and saturation of the medium with hydrogen, higher rates of desulfurization was feasible in comparison with the isolated systems with no injection of hydrogen. A kinetic model for the degradation of OBT, on the basis of Michaelis'Menten scheme has been presented and the related parameters have been determined. Increasing the concentration of bacteria within the system promoted the rate of desulfurization, however, no linear relationship between the enhancement of the reaction rate and increase in bacteria concentration was observed.
Emergencies, crisis and disasters can strike an organization at anytime. It is more devastating when it is sudden and the organizations are not prepared, therefore for any such eventuality there is a sheer need to have plans, procedures, and response/recovery teams. In order to ensure that RasGas is appropriately prepared to respond and recover from emergencies, crisis and disasters, the integration of RasGas crisis management, and business continuity took place and phrased as "RasGas Business Resilience Programme" The RasGas Business Resilience Programme addresses; Risk assessment of all possible emergencies and crisis, Preparation of response, recovery and business continuity processes. Development of policies and procedures Provision of periodic training, testing and development of response and recovery teams.
The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) works on behalf of the industry along different perspectives on these issues. Retaining and recruiting are based on the same challenges, its all about competence and personnel. A significant portion of the future workforce is already employed or in the education system, so some of our challenges are stated below. Young people choose an education that can maximise their opportunities. The ideals of young people are by no means contradictive to what the oil and gas industry has to offer, but we just need to get the message across, communication seems to be crucial. Norway is an oil and gas nation. Why do only 16 % of high school graduates apply for S&T studies, and why are there so few who take interest in science and technology careers? The share of S&T graduates in the EU is at 24%, lightly higher compared to USA (19%) and Japan (23%). Is this because of the subjects, or how they are presented both as study programs and careers? Europe in general and Norway in particular has a typical gender divided workforce. 20 % of the S& T students are women, but they represent 60% of the students. The oil and gas workforce consists of 80 % males. Because the industry is meant for men, or simply a question of competence? Companies focus on retaining key employees, but do they focus on retaining people within the industry? Is there a strategy for providing equal career opportunities regardless sex and age, or are we focusing only on the young and talented? An internal image is crucial. The industries employees must believe that the industry can provide life long careers, so why do the industry's own spokesmen use terms as a sunset industry?
Mature fields are both a major medium term challenge to delay oil rarefaction (mobilisation of additional incremental reserves) but also a shorter term challenge to boost production and to cope with an increasing demand (1,5% per year) which should reach between 115 and 120 Mbbls/day in 2030. Three fundamental relevant criteria (reservoir maturity, degradation of asset integrity and maladjustment between needs and means) can be used to define maturity: -The reservoir maturity (more water, more gas, less pressure) is linked to the natural evolution of the conditions prevailing while extracting oil, - The degradation of the asset integrity has to be understood in a broad sense (integrity of the equipment but also integrity of the methods as well as quality of human resources) - The progressive maladjustment between needs and means results both from an increase of the operating envelope (envelope of needs) and a decrease of the functioning envelope (envelope of means). Divergence between needs and means will generate bottlenecks with sometimes heavy consequences on production. Management of maturity criteria are quite often made more diffificult by worsening factors (technical, issued from new regulations, contractual, financial, lack of logistic means). Along those lines, short, medium and long term mature fields management will be addressed through a number of examples: -production and HSE risks associated with asset vulnerability (Gabonn North Sea, Indonesia) -tie back of several gas fields on mature surface facilities (North Sea) -redevelopment of a mature asset using an on-shore centralisation strategy (Gabon) -stop flaring and valorisation of associated gas using conventional or micro GNL (Congo, Cameroun)
In today's drive to improve plant availability and utilisation, process control systems provide refinery operation staff with more information than they know what to do with. However, is this surfeit of information useful or is it actually a draw back in managing a state of the art refinery? Do operators actually know what the temperature and pressure of a specific process stream means in terms of that streams physical properties? How does an operator control the properties of a stream when that property can not be measured directly? How can this information be used to deliver improvements in availability and utilisation. The use of process modelling has been with us for over forty years since being founded by simulation sciences. Today's process models provide a range of information capabilities that give engineers and operators the ability to calculate numerous process parameters. However a traditional steady state model, built as part of the original plant design, if not constantly updated will soon be totally out of step with the actual plant performance. Today by linking the plant operational data, generated by the control system, and thus tuned to the actual performance of the plant allows operators and engineers to interrogate the process, quickly and accurately, and make operational decisions based on facts not educated guesswork. This paper details how an operation decision support system has been developed and implemented around the globe brining increases in availability and utilisation. The capabilities of the system are described and ways in which it can be applied by operators, engineers and plant management to deliver cost savings of up to 5%; increased throughputs up to 2%, engineering productivity increases up to 10% and up to 5% improvements in maintenance efficiency; thus delivering the desired availability and utilisation increases. Introduction Economic constraints have forced manpower levels in manufacturing industry to decrease to half of what they were 20 years ago. At the same time the complexities of chemical plants and their related production methodologies have increased exponentially. Thus overall production levels have almost doubled in some sectors.