Despite the discovery of and production from thousands of fields worldwide, the major amounts of oil produced still come from a few giant fields with hydrocarbon reserves exceeding one billion barrels. This session will address the following question: Where (in which geologic habitats) were such fields discovered in past decades and when and where will similar fields be discovered in the not too distant future?
In the present study, the anaerobic bio-desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (OBT) in the presence of hydrogen gas by three strains of Oesulfovibrio desulfuricans (OSM 642, OSM 1924, OSM 1926) has been investigated. Among sulphur containing compounds present in crude oils, dibenzothiophene is least susceptible to hydrodesulfurization. Hence, the conditions under which the latter compound is desulfurized may be regarded as the optimum operating conditions for desulfurization of petroleum cuts. It was observed that 1924 and 1926 strains had a lower capability for desulfurization compared to that of 642. Oesulfurization of OBT was followed both in an anaerobic jar without injection of hydrogen and in a down flow jet loop bioreactor (OJR) with the continuous injection of hydrogen gas. It was found that in the OJR, due to the effective mixing of the contents and saturation of the medium with hydrogen, higher rates of desulfurization was feasible in comparison with the isolated systems with no injection of hydrogen. A kinetic model for the degradation of OBT, on the basis of Michaelis'Menten scheme has been presented and the related parameters have been determined. Increasing the concentration of bacteria within the system promoted the rate of desulfurization, however, no linear relationship between the enhancement of the reaction rate and increase in bacteria concentration was observed.
At the current price levels of conventional crude oils, there is a renewed interest in nonconventional hydrocarbon sources that could serve as feedstocks to existing or modified refineries. The most prominent representatives of such feedstocks are extra-heavy crude oils and syncrudes from oil sands. The session will be devoted to all aspects related to the production of syncrudes from oil sands, the transportation of such syncrudes and their use as feedstocks in conventional refineries. Likewise, the salient features of extra-heavy crude oils will be discussed along with the available technologies for their conversion into today's high-quality refinery products.
National Oil Companies have developed into formidable, global competitors to the traditional International Oil Companies. Fuelled by globalization, economical growth, strategic positioning and strong government support, NOC's are expanding rapidly. The session will introduce two speakers representing an lac and NOC respectively, who will discuss their vision of future interactions between these different models.
The Paleogene Wilcox trend has emerged as an important frontier play in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, as confirmed by several recent discoveries. The Wilcox trend is an onshore prolific producer along the Gulf Coast region, but its potential in deepwater settings has been recently recognized. At Repsol, a regional evaluation of the Wilcox depositional system was conducted using 2D seismic data sets and limited 3D surveys available from the western and central areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the area is characterized by the presence of allochthonous salt, thus, seismic imaging is generally poor. Mapping of both Upper and Lower Wilcox sequences of more than 35,000 square miles indicate a widespread distribution for the Wilcox strata. These anomalously thick and extensive sedimentary deposits extend 200 miles downdip from the paleoshelf edge. Wilcox age-equivalent paleocanyons have been previously recognized and mapped along the Gulf coast, and they could have been the conduits for sediment transport and dispersal into the deepwater depositional environments. The Lower Wilcox records sand deposition in amalgamated channel a basin floor setting, whereas the Upper Wilcox seems to represent channelized sands in a slope setting. The deepwater interpretation was linked updip to the shelf area, and downdip into the abyssal plain to better understand the entire Wilcox depositional system. Regional isopachs shows the major depocenters and three major source areas in Texas and Louisiana. The western Gulf of Mexico areas were sourced from the Rio Grande and the Houston Embayment. The Eastern Keathley Canyon and Walker Ridge areas were sourced from Louisiana, via the ancestral Mississippi River.
EITI, launched in June 2003, is recognized as very successful among various Initiatives (PWYP, EU, G8) for transparency in the resource-rich countries. After considering the negative consequences of huge flows of wealth from natural resources into developing countries - the 'resource curse' and 'Dutch disease' the international community searched ways of introducing more transparency in the sources, management and use of such wealth. The expected outcomes being a large debate at local and international levels, higher accountability of governments, more effective involvements of civil society, etc. - After 4 years of implementation and immediate support by western governments, pilot developing countries, companies, international financial institutions and NGOs, EITI achieved a rapid institutional and technical development, through a set of recognized principles and criteria, a general framework for implementation (the 'Source Book')and the set up of an International Board in 2006, representing developing and developed countries, companies and NGOs. - Out of 53 potential 'EITI countries'more than 20 rapidly endorsed EITI. At the top of the list, 3 had reached the fourth and final EITI phase - publishing audited and reconciled data. In two other countries, numerous Transparency publications resulted in significant worldwide discussions. At the bottom, some of the 15 countries least performing might be de-'EITIlisted', by the Board, this September. Also, the Board will soon submit listed EITI countries to control by independent professionals, thus responding to many requests for EITI's enhanced 'brand' and credibility. - EITI, NGOs and professionals have listed crucial pending issues for the future, among which - involving 'heavy weight' extractive emerging countries (China, Brazil, Russia, India) - work closer with other existing Initiatives and norms - implement EITI at sub-national levels develop specific tools for Mining industries - promote supports at technical and financial levels - and provide protection to EITI actors.
Emergencies, crisis and disasters can strike an organization at anytime. It is more devastating when it is sudden and the organizations are not prepared, therefore for any such eventuality there is a sheer need to have plans, procedures, and response/recovery teams. In order to ensure that RasGas is appropriately prepared to respond and recover from emergencies, crisis and disasters, the integration of RasGas crisis management, and business continuity took place and phrased as "RasGas Business Resilience Programme" The RasGas Business Resilience Programme addresses; Risk assessment of all possible emergencies and crisis, Preparation of response, recovery and business continuity processes. Development of policies and procedures Provision of periodic training, testing and development of response and recovery teams.
The oil and gas industry continuously strives to drill and complete wells better, faster, cheaper, safer, and with environmentally sound practices. This session will focus on extending our knowledge of drilling and completion practices by examining state-of-the-art techniques and exploring new and emerging technologies. Examples include: . Integrated Well Planning (well design for completion, optimizing, selecting drilling parameters, risk analysis, etc) . Rigs and Drilling Equipment (hybrid rigs, non-steel risers, robot drilling, etc) . Drilling Challenges (remote locations, Max Reservoir Contact, small targets, well bore stability, etc) . Drilling Techniques (drilling with casing, percussion drilling, lasers, managed pressure drilling, under balanced drilling, etc) . Controlling the Well Path (data acquisition, vibration slide drilling, rotary steering, smart drill pipe, etc) . Well Completion (under balanced completion, smart well completion, equalizers, inflatable packers, expandables, etc)
The governments of the EU member states have transferred a part of their Kyoto commitments to the industrial sectors affected by the EU ETS. Those oil companies that operate facilities under the EU ETS have assumed the commitment of limiting their greenhouse gases emissions in accordance with the National Allocation Plans of the countries they operate in. Nevertheless, the relative size of their allowances deficit is typically lower than the deficit of electricity utilities operators, whereas their geographic diversification tends to be higher. These circumstances influence oil companies carbon strategies, which involve the selection of the extent of use of the different available carbon market instruments. One of these instruments is the purchase of COM units (CERs) in the primary market. In other words, the purchase of CERs from emission reductions projects, before their effective issuance, in procedural steps previous to the registration of the projects under the COM. This paper assesses the strategic advantage for those oil companies with a proper international position, of internally using this market instrument, i.e. of purchasing CERs from emission reductions projects to be developed in their own operated facilities. Three key elements for the use of this instrument have been analyzed: 1. The transaction costs of COM projects. 2. The way to add these transaction costs to models for the assessment of internal oportunities portfolios. 3. The use of such models in the process of searching for COM opportunities. This assessment allows to draw some conclusions on the perspectives for COM projects development in upstream and downstream facilities of COM target countries.
The basic conclusions drawn from this study of the carbon markets and the COM (Clean Development Mechanism) procedure, as well as from handling the model of COM opportunities portfolios evaluation, can be summarized as follows: . The CERs (Certified Emission Reductions issued for emission reductions from COM project activities) are essential for optimizing a business strategy for long-term carbon management, the latter being understood as optimization of the cost of compliance. The CERs will flow massively towards the European market because their price is competitive in the long term with the price of the EUA (European Union Allowances issued under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme), thus being quoted at a discount. The reason for this is the existence of risks which affect the CER but not the EUA. In spite of the discount, promoters still find the COM incentive attractive, because, ultimately, the marginal costs of emissions reductions are lower in developing countries than in Europe. This is evident by the active participation in the emission credits markets of most European oil companies with commitments under the EU ETS (European Union Emissions Trading Scheme). The optimization referred to should contemplate maximum
In addition to the cost of feedstock one of the main cost components of the final refined products is the consumption of energy at refineries, particularly in those of higher complexity that utilize Hydrogen based processes. With current energy prices very significant cost reductions can be achieved with the implementation of energy efficiency measures. Innovative energy efficiency solutions, and their cost/benefit impacts, will be discussed in detail in this session