DISCUSSION. Mr. C. A. P. Southwell, in reply to the various questions connected with unit operation, said that Prof. Uren also mentioned the valuable work that Dr. Umpleby had done in connection with the struggle against wasteful oilfield development in the U.S.A. No one appreciated Dr. Umpleby's work and the difficulties with which he had to contend more than the speaker, and he wished to take that opportunity of thanking Dr. Umplebyfor his paper. He felt that with only a few minutes at his disposal it was impossible to discuss the various details of the operations, but he would point out that certain aspects of these problems which came up for discussion would also be discussed in the Production Section, and he hoped that many of those present would take that opportunity of further discussion.
800 ml. of oil is charged to the still. and, the pressure on the apparatus reduced to 10 mm. Heat is now applied to the flask until the liquid commences to boil and vapours to ascend the column. The heating on the column is now adjusted so that the amount of reflux down the column is as great as - s possible, short of flooding the column, and the distillation rate is from 3 to 4 ml. per minute. As distillation proceeds and the lighter components are removed from the oil, the pressure on the .apparatus is reduced to 1 mm.in mm. in order to keep the still temperature points at 760 mm. pressure, and curves relating temperature with percentage distillate were drawn for the diluted and undiluted oils. Curves of the type obtained are shown in Diagram 1. The viscosities of the fractions were determined as a check, on the efficiency of the fractionation, since it was expected that a fairly sharp change in the gradient of the 'viscosity-percentage distillate curve would be obtained at the point where the lubricating oil itself commenced to distil. Diagram 2 illustrates a case where the diluent amounted to 42%. N t Z K cc F DIAGRAM ILM 600 400DlCUT/ON 42 I zoo MOUS /3 23 33 43 04 Io D15T1f.LATE as. low as possible, while maintaining the stipulated distillation rate, by adjustment of the heat supplied through the windings. It is thus possible to distil 50% of the charge in about one and a half hours. The method of performance of the test and the interpretation of the results obtained were worked out from a series of runs on mixtures of lubricating oils to which had been added known amounts of gas oil. These were distilled in the manner described,. the temperatures and pressures being recorded at each 2-5% of distillate.The temperatures thus obtained were converted to boiling A consideration of the first diagram shows that the distillation curves of the diluted and undiluted oils parallel themselves in the' region of the initial boiling point of the undiluted lubricant, and that tbe.distance measured along the percentage distillate axis between the straight and diluted oils at any point corresponds to the percentage of diluent to within 3%. The accuracy of the test is therefore taken as this figure. When it is considered that in some of the early Diesel engines where trouble was experienced the dilution was often in excess of 40%, this degree of accuracy was very acceptable.. DISCUSSION. Prof. H. Weiss souligne: que l'un de ses. rapports est seulement . un exposé administratif indiquant les dispositions qui ont été prises par la Commission. Electrotechnique Internationale. Ces dispositions ont reçu un commencement d'exécution; un premier échange des résultats des travaux aura lieu dans le courant de la semaine prochaine. Le -rapport de MM. H. Weiss et E. Vellinger est au contraire un rapport technique indiquant les premiers résultats 'des travaux entrepris à la deman
NOTE SUR LES SPéCIFICATIONS DES éMULSIONS ROUTIèRES DE BITUME Par SYNDICAT DES FABRICANTS D'éMULSIONS ROUTIèRES DE BITUME
. Ix addition to the paper presented by Professor Meunier, concerning the establishment of a standard method of testing asphaltic road emulsions, a group of members of the " Syndicat Français des Fabricants d'émulsions Routières de Bitume " is desirous to bring before the World Petroleum Congress a few remarks concerning the specifications and methods contained in the official specifications of various countries. These remarks are mainly inspired by the desire to see retained as compulsory, only those specifications which are necessary to characterise a suitable emulsion for the surfacing of roads, to the exclusion of any obligations likely to hinder or delay. the adoption of products which are constantly improving. A detailed and concise report has been drafted for the benefit of the members of the Congress. This report, leaving out a few specifications of secondary importance, deals only with the points where precision seems to be most desirable or necessary.These points are the following Water and Bitumen contents. Emulsifying Agent content. Properties of the Bitumen contained in an emulsion. Measurement of the Viscosity. Coagulation at low temperature. Homogeneity. Stability in bulk (Storage). Speed of breaking. Miscibility in water. Adhesivity tests. Sampling. Our observations, resumed in the report referred to above, lead to the following conclusions 1. Each sort of emulsion should possess characteristics corresponding to the method by which it is applied for each particular utilisation. 2. The characteristics of an emulsion should be taken into account, with the materials to be used and the climatic conditions where it is to be utilised. 3. Emulsions being actually in a phase of constant amelioration, it is essential that the limitations of certain characteristics should not be an obstacle to the improvements continually introduced into their manufacture. 4. Specifications of an emulsion can only be usefully established so long as it is possible to prove in a positive manner that a constant relation exists between the specifications imposed and the results obtained on the road. Only carefully controlled and often repeated experiments can establish this relationship. 5. In that the various experiments carried out in different countries, on similar emulsions, may be easily compared and conclusions usefully drawn from same, it seems desirable that the methods of testing should be standardised, thus limiting the possibility of error in the interpretation of results. Le programme des travaux du prochain " World Petroleum Congress " qui doit se réunir à Londres vers la fin du mois de juillet, comprenant une discussion sur less spécifications applicables aux émulsions bitumineuses, il nous a paru intéressant de passer r
NOTE SUR L'éTABLISSEMENT' D'UNE METHODE STANDARD D'ESSAI DES éMULSIONS POUR ROUTES Par LOUIS MEUNIER CETTE méthode devant être utilisée pour le contrôle de la, fabrication et des livraisons de chaque usine de préparation des émulsions, elle est appelée à être appliquée, ournellement à des séries importantes d'échantillons. Pour pouvoir être mise en oeuvre aussi fréquemment surr.~a .kA-.%CC eliv ri. que possible, il importe donc que cette méthode soit simple, rapide et qu'elle ne nécessite pas un personnel exceptionnel. Il y a lieu, en effet, de remarquer que si les méthodes d'essai sont complexes et longues, il y a une tendance naturelle à diminuer de plus en plus leur usage, de telle sorte qu'au lieu de renforcer le contrôle, elles finissent par le rendre illusoire. Il suffit d'étudier les méthodes auxquelles on a fini par se rallier dans les industries les plus délicates pour se rendre compte de l'exactitude de cette remarque. Er second lieu, il y aurait le plus grand intérêt à ce que ces méthodes simples soient rigoureusement standardisées, afin que les observations faites dans les divers pays puissent être utilisées pour fixer de plus en plus exactement les normes à appliquer à chacun des * Professeur A la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université de Lyon. ,i e a) Pteeamtnt otr ié~/rioo Joui /a ù,? C) Me-tun at lldhtlivili b) T-git ov d-9 otr leite* o< e~/J1;" c Ji essais et afin que lés techniciens de différentes nationalités puissent interpréter exactement les chiffres fournis par leurs collègues étrangers. En troisième lieu, les essais doivent être conçus de telle sorte qu'ils renseignent aussi exactement que possible le fabricant et l'employeur sur la valeur marchande du produit essayé, d'une part, et, d'autre part, sur le résultat qu'il donnera à l'usage. Certaines déterminations scientifiques, fort utiles pour la recherche des perfectionnements à apporter à une fabrication, mais ne répondant pas aux conditions ci-dessus énumérées, ne trouvent pas leur place dans une méthode de contrôle et la compliqueraient inutilement, c'est le cas, par exemple, de la détermination du nombre et de la grosseur des particules contenues dans un volume donné d'émulsion. En dernier lieu, les normes à adopter ne doivent pas être uniques et immuables. Elles doivent, dans chaque cas particulier, être adaptées au but spécial que la marchandise doit remplir, au climat,du pays où elle est utilisée, à
DISCUSSION. Dr. A. E. Dunstan said that, before asking Dr. Rergius to take the Chair, he wished to welcome the most representative gathering that has ever taken place in the discussion of hydrogenation in Great Britain. Although Great Britain was not a producer of mineral oil-except by the distillation of shales, and that on a relatively small scale-it was true that Great Britain was not without its influence on the industry as a whole. In opening this session on hydrogenation, it was his special pleasure to have had personal knowledge and friendship with most of the pioneers of hydrogenation. He had seen Dr. Bergius' early and pioneering experiments on the hydrogenation of coal. Whatever may happen to hydrogenation, whatever great future appertains to it, whatever national destinies are controlled by it, whatever may be its impact on naturally produced petroleum, there will always be the great glory attached to the name of Bergius. It was to him a peculiar pleasure, a particular privilege and a great delight to welcome Dr. Bergius. More than that-his eminence is borne out by his being the recipient of that great award, the Nobel Prize, in 1931, and perhaps in this international gathering once more at this late day he may be congratulated as a chemist, by chemists, on that great honour. Dr. Bergius is not only a chemist, and a famous chemist, but also he is a visionary, and after all, chemical research is a matter of vision.It is a form of art, and the true chemist is an artist.We welcome Bergius the artist-the visionary-the man of imagination-who could see that solid coal could only attain its maximum use when fluidified.So long ago he dreamed this vision, and how near he was to that dream being realised to-day. He also wished to pay particular tribute to the work of the Standard Oil of New Jersey, associated with the name of Haslam. It had also been his personal good fortune to have known Haslam and his associates for some years, and the genius of a great chemical engineer had pointed the way to a fuller utilisation of petroleum derivatives-he had shown how the up-grading of these fractions could be accomplished. Dr. W. R. Ormandy-one of our own national products-needed no welcome here to-day from him. He also had the pioneering mind, and he might be described as a "free thinker." He took all chemistry as his province, but to-day he spoke with particular authority on hydrogenation, and primarily he did so as a man of science as well as a technologist of the first order. Further, Mr. K. Gordon of the I._ C. I. was especially welcome.It was perhaps particularly apposite that the I. C. I. was represented.The great technical achieve- ments of this company in producing, from this intricate and somewhat unpromising organic material, a series of pure hydrocarbons were well known. In welcoming our speakers to-day we should be guilty of grievous negligence in omitting to mention the Interessen Gemenschaft, who, in the person of Dr. M. Pier, have
DEVELOPMENT OF THE TENDENCY TO SMOKE TEST By B. H. MOERBEEK THE Tendency to Smoke Test, which determines only one of the properties of an illuminating oil, was developed out of a burning test which was intended to afford an impression regarding all the properties of the kerosine. The kerosine was burned in an Hinks Duplex lamp with a rather narrow reservoir; the initial candle-power was determined, after which the candle-power was determined every hour until a given quantity of kerosine had been burned. From the following abridged summary of two burning tests of kerosines containing different percentages of aromatics, it will be seen that there is some difficulty in intrepreting these burning tests of the kerosine rich in aromatics is far less bright and much more sensitive to draught. It is very difficult to determine this by direct means, for one reason because it would mean again trimming the wick extremely carefully. Experiments in causing draught artificially to play upon burning kerosine lamps produced but little satisfactory results. It therefore seemed simpler to determine sensitiveness to draught indirectly from maximum ir;itial candle-power or maximum size of flame. For, if the wicks were very well trimmed to a perfect maximum flame, the maximum initial candle-power and maximum size of flame proved to be proportionate; that is to say, the larger the flame, AromaticEdeleanu Kerosine. IRaffinate. Specific gravity 1514 C. ...08150790 Do. after extraction with acid of 98% ... ... ... ...07940-7815 Aromatics ... ... ... ...23% by wt.10% by wt. Viscosity, 20 C. ... ... ...1-4 op.1-8 op. Initial candle-power ... ...27J Hefner35 Hefner candlescandles Final candle-power ... ... I24 H.C.10 H.C. Average candle-power ...26J H.C.23 H.C. One would be inclined to assume that the average candle-power is the criterion, because one would prefer to have a source of illumination which, from 271, deteriorates only to 24 H.C. (average 262) in five hours than one which provides 35 H.C. during the first hour and finishes at the end of five hours at 10 H.C. (average 23). The difference in initial candle-power in favour of the kerosine poor in aromatics did not seem to be very great; it is certainly not possible to distinguish 27 from 35 H.C. with the naked eye. Nevertheless, the public prefers a kerosine of low aromatic content of this kind. The average candlepower in this test cannot, therefore, play a part; indeed, on the basis of the above, one might even say that candle-power does not play any part at all, for nobody can detect the difference between 27 and 35 without instruments. Hence, what the public sees is not a difference in candle-power, but maybe a difference in size of flame, for the difference in size of flame between the two kerosines is strikingly greater than that in candle-power. On the other hand, this can scarcely be what the public observes, for, to get the maximum flame from a good kerosine, very particular attention has to be paid to tri
üBER DIE ANALYSE VON MISCHUNGEN VON ASPHALTBITUMEN UND STEINKOHLENTEER Von Prof. Dr. H. MALLISON, Berlin
. IN the year 1921, J. Marcusson published his sulphonation method for analysing mixtures of Trinidad asphalt and coal tar; and recently it has become necessary to analyse quantitatively mixtures of asphaltic bitumen and coal tar such as are used in road construction. In 1928 the author worked out a sulphonation method for this purpose which gave useful results, and it was adopted as an official German Standard Method, and by the Deutsche Strassenbauverband. The results that were obtained from the study of this method of analysis enabled conditions to be so chosen that the loss by emulsification in water of the bitumen-sulphonic compound could be balanced by the increase in weight of the asphaltic bitumen during sulphonation. All asphaltic bitumens, however, did not behave in a similar manner; for instance, the bitumen from Trinidad asphalt gave much too low results, whilst Mexican bitumen could be determined with great accuracy.Distillation residues from Galician oil and from Estonian oil schist also did not give normal results. Carrying, investigation further, the author selected three different asphaltic bitumens of similar softening point, namely, Mexican oil residue, the soluble bitumen in Trinidad asphalt, and a Galician oil residue.The specific gravity and elementary analysis of these three bitumens were determined.It was found that the quantitative analysis by sulphonating a mixture of each with coal tar became the more accurate the lower the specific gravity and the higher the hydrogen content. Asphaltic bitumens with saturated chains and naphthene rings give more correct analytical results than those in which unsaturated chains and aromatic ring compounds predominate. Parallel to this behaviour goes the miscibility with coal tar: asphaltic bitumens of low specific gravity, which give correct values by the author's method, tend to form heterogeneous mixtures and agglomeration of the " free carbon " occurs in mixtures of certain proportions. In contradiction to this is the complete miscibility of the Trinidad bitumen with coal tar. The three asphaltic bitumens separated by Suida and Pöll's physical method into oil, oil resins, asphaltic. resins and hard asphalt showed no important difference; but the separated substances, particularly the oils, when mixed with coal tar, showed a quite similar kind of behaviour as when the whole bitumen was mixed with tar, both as regard the sulphonation analysis and the miscibility. The different fluorescence shown by tar and asphaltic bitumen has not led to any quantitative method of determination; but F. J. Nellensteyn has published a solvent method of analysis based on the use of carbon disulphide, benzine (light petroleum), aniline, and alcohol. This method yields good results but is rather long. In der Technik der Isolierung von Bauwerken, Tunneln und,Brücken haben
A STUDY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR THE REFINING OF OIL By T. G. HUNTER, A.R.T.C., A.I.[., and A. W. NASH, M.Sc., F.C.S., M.I.Mech.E., M.Inst.P.T., F.Inst.F
. Tan refining 'of petroleum fractions by the use of solvents is becoming an operation of steadily , increasing significance, and it is desirable that the, process should develop on scientific lines. It is. essential that -in, an industrial operation it should be possible to reach reasonably correct conclusions as to the size and nature of the equipment required, the results of the process, and the capital .and running costs well in advance of the actual installation. Such conclusions can only be reached by means of mathematical. calculation based on established facts. This paper is an attempt to show how such mathematical computation can be founded on physical laws. - The problem is exceedingly complex and therefore only the ;simpler aspects of it are examined.. The complex cases,, however, have not been entirely neglected and suggestions for solving some of these are-put. forward. An attempt has been made in the first portion of this paper to classify and compare extraction methods and to show how the process results obtainable by such methods can' be forecasted.In the second part of the paper process equipment has been dealt with.in with. in a similar manner, CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRACTION METHODS. The methods employed for contacting two liquid phases in a solvent extraction process may be classified as follows : (1) 'Single contact processes. (2) Co-current multiple contact processes. (3) Counter-current contact processes. In the single contact process, contact or mixing of the treated and the solvent liquid is carried out in a - FIGURE I - single stage or operation.After contact the two phases are separated. The process may be carried out either by batch or continuous working.In the latter case the two liquids are mixed continuously in a suitable mixing device and separated by centrifuges or by continuous settling. In the co-current multiple contact process, mixing and separation of the two liquids, exactly as in the previous method, is followed by contact of the treated liquid, after separation, with fresh solvent. This operation is repeated as often as required. The process may be carried out in batches, or semi-continuous working as shown in Fig. 1 may be employed. In the counter-current process the treated liquid is contacted with solvent which has been employed in a previous contacting stage, except in the final stage of * Department of Oil Engineering and Refining, University of Birmingham. the process where the treated liquid is extracted with fresh solvent. This effect is most readily produced by continuous working, where the two liquids are made to flow counter-currently through some suitable form of apparatus. This may consist of a vertical tower, the incoming liquid to be treated entering at the bottom and leaving at the top,, wh
üBER DIE EIGENSCHAFTEN VON TEER-BITUMENMISCHUNGEN Von Dr. FRANZ MACHT
. TAR and Bitumen possess certain properties which make them especially suitable for particular kinds of road construction work. By mixing Tar and Bitumen the desirable properties of both materials should be united and detrimental substances eliminated. Tar is a fluid that is sensitive to the influence of temperature and weather conditions, and it should be made more stable by mixing with the more viscous and better resisting product Bitumen. Extensive experiments have been conducted with various Tars and Bitumens mixed in various proportions. It was ascertained that Tars rich in oils tend to become more stable, whereas Tare rich in pitch tend to produce heterogeneous mixtures. 1. Stabilisation of Tar by Mixing with Bitumen.-The hardness of Tar, measured by its melting point according to the Ball and Ring test, increases with the increased addition of Bitumen. The consistency, measured by the time taken to flow out of a viscometer or by resistance to the penetration needle, at first considerably increases on adding small quantities of Bitumen, and then increases slowly on adding further quantities of Bitumen until it has reached the penetration point of pure Bitumen. Contrarily, adhesion, measured by the disruption of mixtures made of a Tar-Bitumen mixture and a Mineral aggregate, at first increases slowly on adding small quantities of Bitumen and then considerably increases on adding large quantities of Bitumen. A hard Bitumen stabilises better than a soft one. A Tar-Bitumen mixture can, therefore, be made to suit the particular purpose for which it is intended to be used. 2. Heterogeneous Tendencies.-In the case of mixtures of Tars, rich m pitch, with Bitumen, a separation occurs when certain proportions. are used. The exterior appearance of such a condition is dull surface, grey in colour, and of a granular appear ance.An agglomeration of dark particles can be discerned with the aid of a microscope.The more rich in pitch the Tar is or the softer the Bitumen, the greater is the loss of homogeneity. This is not identical with the separation of original materials of the mixture, but is rather the coagulation of ingredients of the Tar Pitch. There may even be a segregation into a thin fluid upper layer and a thick deposit containing the pitch ingredients. The Bitumen remains unaffected by this behaviour, and passes into the thinner layer of tar oil. The properties of such heterogeneous mixtures are abnormal; irregularities are indicated on the curve. As an example; in the viscosity test, the time taken for the substance to flow out of the instrument is abnormally high and the resistance against the penetration needle is abnormally low.The ability to form a thread, indicating ductility, is, therefore, lost. An explanation to these unusual occurrences is found by considering Tar and Bitumen as colloid systems. A coagulation into larger particles occurs, whereby surfac
DISCUSSION. Prof. V. C. Illing said they were greatly indebted to Mr. Goldstone for his excellent exposition of the principles on which reflection shooting is based and for his description of the method of its application. As a geologist he was mainly interested in the method from the point of view of the results it had achieved, and the accuracy with which it enabled one to forecast the depths of particular horizons and so delineate structure. He was also interested to note the reliability of correlation which was obtained by the use of the form of the reflected wave.He understood that not all the main geological horizons gave such reflected waves, but that some, like the Arbuckle Limestone, had failed in this respect in certain instances. He would be glad if the author could explain this anomaly. Mr., T. C. Richards said that in Mr. Goldstone's paper reference was made to the fact that in practice the ,amplitudes of the reflected waves received at the surface remained almost constant over angles of incidence ranging from 0-30. It did not appear, in the brief theoretical introduction, that account had been taken of the actual movement of the ground, due to the longitudinal wave arriving at the earth's surface and the reflected longitudinal and transverse waves there. Should this be done, it might be found that there was a correspondence between theory and practice which was so necessary in accepting with complete satisfaction the result of surveying with the reflection method. Furthermore, as in all seismic methods, the treatment of the theory should involve the diffraction effect on account of the lengths of the wave paths being comparable with the radii of the wave fronts. Mr. H. Rainbow (on behalf of the author, F. Goldatone), said that the problem of the reflection of waves had not been completely solved either theoretically or by experiment. Until such time as this had been done, any explanation of different effects must be necessarily rather unsatisfactory. Perhaps the reason why some beds did not give good reflections might be explained as follows. If there were two or more reflecting planes close together, then the waves from the lower planes might be in or out of phase with those from the upper. In one case the total effect was roughly the arithmetical sum of the individual effects, and in the other the total effect might be nearly zero. With regard to Mr. Richards' question, the wave reflected at the deep reflecting planes had a certain form which was different from the motion of the ground caused at the surface when the wave reached the surface, and this might explain the discrepancy between Goldstone's observations and Knott's theory. Undoubtedly there was no simple relation between the form of a wave coming to the surface and the actual motion of the surface, and until the relation between them had been established it was always possible to explain discrepancies in this manner.We could only say that it might be the explanation.It might be remarked that other observers claimed to have observed that the reflection was less at the critical angle than at other angles. Velocities derived by the reflection method do not always agree with those determined by the refraction method. This confirmed the assumption that the velocity along the beds may be different from the velocity across the beds.Whether this was so for any particular formation was s matter of experience.