KEROSINE Chairman: J. KéWLèY, M.A., F.I.C., F.C.S., M.LCHEaz.E., .M.INST.P.T. General Reporters: W. W. GouLsToN, B.A., B.Sc., A.I.C., XINST.P.T., and W., J., WILSON, F.I.C., A.C.G,I., ,M.INST:P:T. GENERAL REPORTéRS'
IN spite of the fact that the kerosine production is at present only about 8% of the total crude oil. refined, there are large areas of the world where kerosine is the most important petroleum product in use. . Countries such as India, China, Egypt and the Dutch East Indies together consumed about: two; million tons of kerosine in 1932 compared with only half a million tons of gasoline in the same period. A .good deal of the success of the marketing of petroleum products in such areas depends on the supply of a kerosine of suitable quality. It is therefore important to study the question of suitable tests to be applied to the kerosine and also the precautions to be taken to keep the kerosine up to the required standard of quality for these markets. where such a double-purpose kerosine is used quite successfully. Small farmers find it very convenient to use the same drum of kerosine for their lamps and their pumping engines or tractors.It is quite a recent innova tion to market a " power' kerosine.Up till recently only one type of kerosine was marketed and this was used for all purposes. A standard quality of -kerosine, or in fact of any petroleum product, would not necessarily be suitable for all parts of the world owing to variations in climate. The methods of testing the kerosine should,, however, be standardized so that a comparison can readily be made between the different qualities on the market. By the universal adoption of standard tests, the drawing up of specifications is greatly simplified. Kerosine is made from various types of crude oil so that it would be quite impossible to standardize the quality of kerosine by its chemical composition. The tests for kerosine should be designed so as to predict its performance in actual use by the consumer; and the specifications should consist of such tests in, order to ensure that the required standard of performance will be obtained. In Jackson's paper it is shown that three tests give sufficient information to judge the quality of a kerosine as to its performance in wick-fed amps. These tests are: (1) the Smoke Point, (2) the Viscosity, and (3) the Sulphur Content. The Smoke Point Test or Tendency to Smoke, as it is sometimes called, will be dealt with in some detail at a later stage of this meeting. This test measures the initial size of flame obtainable with the kerosine tested and is the maximum height of flame which can be obtained on the testing lamp before smoking takes place. This test is a guide to the type of flame which will be obtained when the kerosine is burnt in a wick-fed lamp. The result of this test depends on the chemical composition of the kerosine. The Viscosity is measured in absolute units-centipoises the apparatus
IL PETROLIO IN ALBANIA Per AZIENDA ITALIANA PETROLI ALBANIA
. THE occurrences of bitumen in Albania were alluded to by Roman and Greek naturalists over nineteen centuries ago. The country can be sub-divided into two main zones: (1) The autochtonous coastal belt and (2) the belt of translated nappes. The oil occurrences are limited to the first zone only. Several oil occurrences in the bituminous limestones of the Mesozoic strata are mentioned, but only the horizons from Middle Eocene to Upper Miocene appear to have economic interest. The majority of wells have explored the latter strata in various localities. The paper includes statistics of all the drilling in Albania undertaken by the following oil companies: Anglo-Persian Oil Co., Azienda Italians, Petroli Albania (A.I.P.A., Italian State Railways), Credit Général des Pétroles, Societâ Italians, Miniere di Selenizza (S.I.M.S.A.). Up to the period April 30, 1933, 65 wells have been drilled, with a total depth of 35,808' metres. L'interpretazione moderna delle notizie tramandateci dalla antichitâ fanno classificare l'Albania fra le primissime regioni del mondo ove le manifestazioni petrolifere vennero segnalate come meravighoso prodigi della natura verso i quali convergevano l'ammirazione, il culto, la superstizione e l'interesse economico dei popoli. In questa nostra epoca, di febbrile ricerca di nuove fonti del prezioso combustibile liquido tanto necessario ai crescenti sviluppi dells civilté, motorizzata, siamo alquanto sorpresi nel leggere the oltre 19 secoli addietro venivano segnalate in questo piccolo territorio balcanico le classiche " Fontane Ardenti " (Strabone, Plutarco, Dione Cassio, Eliano, Aristotele, Plinio) ; le gemicazioni naturali di petrolio (M. Vitruvio, Pollione, Eliano, Aristotele) ; il Bitume (Strabone, Eliano, Aristotele) i vulcani di fanno (Plinio) ; ed infine la associazione delle sorgenti solfidriche- ai fenomeni idrocarburacei (Eliano, Aristotele)-Particolarmente interessanti sono le notizie tramandate da Strabone secondo le quali. gli antichi giâ praticavano uns industria estrattiva dell'asfalto (. . . in uns cava di bitume di uns collina vicina, la terra, secondo Posidonio, con la quale si riempie la cava man mano the si estrae il bitume si converte in questa sostanza). Queste notizie hanno trovato riscontro, in epoca assai recente, nelle lampadine ed attrezzi di lavoro di foggia romana the le escavazioni sotterranee dells miniera di Selenizza hanno riportato alla lute. Alle sorprendenti segnalazioni degli Antichi segue un lungo silenzio di secoli durante i quali nessuna notizia é stata tramandata sulle manifestazioni idrocarburacee dell'Albania.' Solo nel 1868 il Geologo francese H. Coquand apre la serie cells nuova era d'indagine studiando i giacimenti bituminiferi di Selenizza, giacimenti the vennero concessi fin dal Marzo 1875 e the formano ancora oggi uns c
TREATMENT OF CRUDE OIL EMULSIONS By Dr. J. L. VAN DER MINNE
. IN regard to the origin of crude oil emulsions, it is held nowadays that they are not formed until they are mined. Factors which may give rise to their formation are: The concurrent pumping of the oil and the water; the passage of the two liquids through pipes; then the development of gas or the movement of gas. Almost invariably emulsions are thus formed in which the water is distributed in the oil; only sporadically are emulsions of oil in water formed. Many of the emulsions contain the water in a coarsely divided state and, if allowed.to allowed.to stand, cede it readily, though sometimes, to do this, the emulsion has to be slightly heated. Others, on the other hand, require special treatment necessitated by the presence of substances which have the property of preventing the drops of water from coalescing; these substances are called " emulsifiers."These emulsifiers are present in the crude oil, while clay may also act as an emulsifier. The action of these substances has to be eliminated.For the better comprehension of various processes, a few of the properties of emulsions and emulsifiers are passed under review. The emulsifiers in water-in-oil emulsions are mostly soluble or dispersable in the oil, whereas in the other type they are, on the other hand, water-soluble substances or are readily dispersed in the water. The most divergent kinds of matter may prove to be emulsifiers; there are molecularly soluble substances (colloids) and also more coarsely divided substances (suspen sions).They must, however, have the property of preferably accumulating in the interface between the oil and the water; in other words, they must be capillarily active and, by the properties which they develop in the interface, prevent the particles from coalescing. Usually the emulsifier impresses its mark upon the properties of the emulsion; in nearly every case it determines whether a water-in-oil or an oil-in-water emulsion shall continue to exist as such. Now, the chemical separation of emulsions is based in many instances on the fact that emulsifiers of contrary types counteract each other. Thus, by adjing an emulsifier of the contrary type, one can destroy or diminish the protective action of the emulsifier in the interface, by means of which the emulsion can be made to coagulate.Sometimes, however, the separation of crude oil emulsions is effected by emulsifiers which in themselves may often stabilise emulsions, which, from the point of view of the knowledge of emulsions of water in oil, must on the whole be regarded as remarkable. Other substances may also sometimes be used as emulsion coagulators. Little can be predicted about these, and although, so far as the agents required for separation are concerned, the oils mày be roughly classified, it has been found that the large number of emulsions that occur in practice demand the use of a large number of different substances. Asphalt
DIRECT AND INDIRECT USE OF METHANE AS MOTOR FUEL By Prof. C. PADOVANI METHANE is available from natural and artificial' sources in enormous quantities. It can be assumed that approximately 50,000 million cubic metres of gas containing at least 85% of methane are obtained annually from petroleum wells. The distillation and cracking of petroleum and the destructive distillation of coal produce a further quantity of methane which may amount to a quarter of that given above. If translated into calories this quantity would be as important as the total quantity of petrol produced by distillation or cracking of petroleum. In Italy the total sum of " gaseous calories" that are evolved from petroleum wells, from water wells or natural wild sources is probably much greater than the " liquid calories " that up till to-day have been won. from the soil. The ability to use methane from natural or artificial sources as a motor fuel would be a definite contribution to the world requirements. of fuel and it would have a special importance for Italy. The problem is, however, not so simple. Methane considered from a thermodynamical point of view is an excellent motor fuel. Tests with Italian natural gas in petrol engines confirm the good results obtained by others. A motor running on methane is easy to start, is very flexible, and has a good thermal efficiency; moreover it gives a power output about equal to that obtained with petrol. One cubic metre of natural gas containing 9,000-10,000 calories is equivalent to 1 kilo gram of petrol.Engines constructed for petrol do not require special modifications to run on gas if we only substitute for the carburettor a simple air-gas mixer, but to make full use of the gas it is advisable to increase the compression ratio to 5-7 to 1. A disadvantage of a gaseous fuel is small heat content per unit volume. Its gaseous state takes away from methane those characteristics that justify the supremacy of the petrol, viz. great concentration of heat both in volume and weight, the freedom of the vehicle to travel anywhere, easy refuelling, distribution and storage. To overcome these inherent defects in adapting methane to motor propulsion one can follow two ways physical concentration by compression or liquefaction_ or chemical transformation into liquid fuels. COMPRESSION OR LIQUEFACTION. The compression of methane at pressures of at least 180-200 atmospheres in steel cylinders adapted for fitting to heavy motor vehicles reduces the volume of the gas and facilitates refuelling, but it increases the price of the gas and causes further problems in the adaptation of cylinders for motors. In particular the construction of a compact and robust reducing valve that will continually reduce the varying pressure in the cylinders to a constant pressure near to that of the atmosphere and which quickly responds to the variations in the engine requirements, presents not inconsiderable difficulties. Above all, the compression system adds to t
THEORETICAL ASPECT OF THE RELATION OF BITUMEN TO SOLID MATTER By F. J. NELLENSTEYN, Ph.D. Tam relation of asphaltic bitumen to mineral matter is principally a wetting and adhesion problem. In connection herewith three problems are discussed (1) The relation of liquids to solids (wetting problem). (2) The relation of semi-liquids to solids (adhesion problem). (3) The factors which cause the transition of the liquid to the semi-liquid state of asphaltic bitumen. In connection with the two first-mentioned problems, the determination of the interfacial tension solid-gas and the complete surface tension-temperature curve of asphaltic bitumen is necessary. The work done in this field, and the voids in our knowledge still to be filled, are discussed, especially in connection with the application of Antonow's law for liquid-liquid on liquid-solid systems. For the third problem the signification of the transition point in the surface tension-temperature curve and recent X-ray researches on asphaltenes are discussed. When asphaltic bitumen acts as a binder between broken stone particles, the binding is due to thin films of the bitumen. External forces exercised on the agglomerate may cause destruction, either by breaking the films or the mineral aggregate, or by separating the films from the mineral aggregate.Besides the cohesive forces of asphaltic bitumen and mineral aggregate, the adhesion between bitumen and mineral aggregate plays an important part. In the practical use asphaltic bitumen is brought into contact with mineral matter in the state of a pure liquid; it acts as a binder when it is a semi-liquid. The problems we meet with in this field are 1. The relation of liquids to solids.' 2. The relation of semi-liquids to solids. 3. The factors which cause the transition of the liquid to the semi-liquid state of asphaltic bitumen. THE RELATION OF LIQUIDS TO SOLIDS, OR THE WETTING PROBLEM. When a liquid wets a solid, the solid-air surface disappears, being replaced by a solid-liquid surface. The liquid-air surface may increase (spreading wetting), remain constant (immersional wetting), or decrease (adhesional wetting).' Spreading wetting takes place when a liquid spreads on- a plane surface. If s, f, and g represent the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases, and a the interfacial tension, Gag.
. FIG. 1. Another case of immersional wetting is the rise of a liquid in a cylindrical capillary tube, which has not been wetted before by the liquid.z Then, too, the liquid-gas surface is unchanged; the height of the liquid in the capillary tube is determined by a, - a8 f.Adhesional wetting takes place when a horizontal plane surface of a solid body is brought into contact with the horizontal part of a liquid surface. When mixing liquid asphaltic bitumen with smooth surfaced broken stone, spreading wetting takes place. Fine powders, e.g. fillers, which are immersed in the molten bitumen show immersional wetting; also the filling of the pores i
MEASUREMENT OF OIL IN BULK Chairman: J. MCCONNEZS, SANDERS, F.I.C., F.C.S., M.INST.P.T. General' Reporter : PETER KERR, M.A., B.Sc., A.I.C., KINST.P.T. CHAIRMAN'S
THE inclusion in the programme of the Congress of a special section dealing with the measurement of oil was decided upon by the organisers as a result of recommendations made by Sub-Committee No. 10 of the Institution of Petroleum Technologists' Standardization Committee. This. Sub-Committee had been working for a year: past investigating the whole subject of bulk measurement of, oil, and its researches had, revealed the somewhat disconcerting fact that considerable confusion existed even as regards the fundamental units of measurement commonly used in commercial transactions, and more especially as regards the inter-relationship of these units in the three best-known systems of measurement, i.e. the Imperial, the United States and the Metric systems. To set this matter right was obviously the first task of the Sub-Committee, and the result of their labours, working in collaboration with other authoritative standardizing bodies, is already published and available to all interested. The next step was to determine the most convenient and practical method of utilising these results, and as a preliminary to the prosecution of their studies in this direction, the Sub-Committee felt that the World Petroleum Congress presented a unique opportunity for providing a platform where the subject could be adequately ventilated, and where first-hand information and assistance could be obtained from representatives of other countries. It was somewhat disappointing to find that only five communications were received by the section, and of these four came from authors in Great Britain and one from Poland, the latter actually arriving too late for printing, only a short summary being available for the information of members. The whole subject of bulk measurement of oil is beset with difficulties, this being largely due to the manifold aspects of the matter at issue. The strictly scientific or correct aspect is not altogether compatible with the commercial one, and neither is invariably in accord with the legal aspect which varies from country to country. Over-riding all aspects is the overwhelming effect of trade custom or national habit, which in itself is a subject complicated by the fact that it is not uniform throughout a trade or nation, but is subject to variation according to the particular petroleum product dealt with. Minor factors which sometimes have a profound influence are concerned with the temperature of measurement, the instruments used and the interpretation given to the indications of those instruments under varying conditions of use. Closely :associated with these considerations is the degree of accuracy obtainable or desirable by known methods of measurement. The paper by Mr. W. F. Jelffs deals with a subject of fundamental importance, for it is in the measureme
DISCUSSION. Mr. G. F. Tagg said he was very interested in the paper by Mr. Weiss describing a new method of geophysical surveying, but there were one or two points which were not quite clear. In dealing with the interpretation, Mr. Weiss talked of a " time-ratio," 'but he did not indicate what this means or how it was arrived at.Mention was also made of the " absolute value of the polarisation current." This current varied in magnitude from moment to moment; and he would like to know exactly what was meant by the above expression. In dealing with the electrical methods generally, a much-discussed point was the " depth of penetration." Each method appeared to have its own value, but it seemed to him that where current was passed through the earth between two electrodes, the depth of penetration must be the' same in all cases. In the method described by Mr. Weiss this depth was apparently equal to the electrode separation; in the methods due to M. Schlumberger it was one-quarter of the electrode separation, and in the Wenner four-electrode method it was taken as equal to the distance between adjacent electrodes. There were three different values and he would welcome information on their correlation. Very little mention had been made of the resistivity methods in connection with prospecting for oil. These methods were very simple, and he would like to know if there was any serious objection to their use in this connection. It may be that there was usually a lowresistance surface layer, or that the resistivities of the successive layers did not differ very much, or there might be some other reason; if so, he would like to know what it was. In some cases, it had been stated that the " depth of penetratio" was not very great with resistivity methods, but this was merely a question of obtaining sufficiently sensitive instruments. Prof. A. O. Rankine confessed that, in spite of Mr. Weiss's description now, and of long talks he had had with him previously, the operation of the method he had been using remained a mystery to him, chiefly in relation to the measuring circuit. By analogy with the charging and discharging of an accumulator, if, in Fig. 1, the electrode El was made positive (with respect to L'2) during the passage of the input current, it would also be positive with respect to E, when the input current was cut off, and the remainder of the polarisation current flowed. Consequently both currents would flow through V, and none through Va.This seemed to him to be demanded by the principle of the conservation of energy.The polarisation current must surely oppose the input current in the earth, otherwise the former would grow indefinitely without further stimulus. Also, quite apart from this, he did not see how the polarisation effects on the electrodes themselves did not show (as was claimed) in the records. The very fact that the resistance of the measuring circuit was so high meant that it was a very efficient voltmeter. Ho
THE REFINING OF CRACKED GASOLINE AND THE USE OF INHIBITORS FOR GUM PREVENTION Chairman: GUSTAV EGLOFF, PH.D., M.A., M.AM.INST.CHEM.E., M.AM.CHEM.SOC., M.INST.P.T.General M.INST.P.T. General Reportem : W. H. HOFFERT, M.A., B.Sc., F.I.C., and GUSTAv EGLOFF, PH.D., M.A., M.AM.INST. CHEM. E., M.AM.CHEM.SOC., M.INST.P.T. GENERAL REPORTERS'
. SINCE cracked gasolines were first produced in marketable quantities, the refining of this type of motor spirit has been an important problem. These gasolines, owing to the comparatively high content of unsaturated compounds, are unstable and readily form gum and darken in colour on storage.Refining has been difficult owing to the necessity of rendering them stable on storage and otherwise satisfactory as a motor fuel, without incurring heavy refining losses. Recent advances in vapour-phase cracking processes for producing gasoline of high anti-knock value has still further emphasised the importance of this problem. The high anti-knock value of this type of cracked gasoline is due both to the particular character of the unsaturated hydrocarbons and the large amount present.Moreover, it has been found that many of the least stable unsaturated compounds have the highest anti-knock value, so that refining them sufficiently to render them stable on storage usually results in an appreciable decrease in antiknock value. Similar difficulties have also arisen with regard to the refining of spirits obtained by the high- and low-temperature carbonisation of coal, and to a less extent those obtained by the hydrogenation of coal and tars. Clearly, any refining treatment applied- to such products should be reduced to. the minimum to achieve the desired results of rendering the refined material stable on storage and of removing sulphur, malodorous, and other objectionable constituents with the least destruction of the unsaturated and other valuable hydrocarbons. When it is necessary to market a "water-white " product, the refining treatment must also remove colour and ensure that the product remains colourless on storage. At the present time there is an increasing tendency for the complete refining treatment to consist of a number of processes, each applied for a specific purpose. In this way, the refining losses can be kept lower than when only one process is employed capable of achieving simultaneously all the desired objects of the separate processes. The choice of any particular method of treatment obviously depends very largely on the character of the material to be refined. In order to obtain a stable product, the refining treatment must remove the unstable gum-forming compounds, unless inhibitors are used. The addition of these substances delays for considerable periods the formation of gum from the unstable unsaturated compounds, thus enabling both the stable and unstable unsaturated hydrocarbons to be retained for use as motor fuel, and allowing the refining treatment to be cut down still further. From th
A REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS IN GAS-LIFT AND PUMPING By HALLAN N. MARSH
. RECENT developments in gas-lift and pumping practice have been characterised by research and engineering rather than precedent and invention. The fundamental purposes of production engineering are maximum ultimate recovery and minimum total unit cost of production. Progress is being made towards both of these objectives. The sub-surface pressure gauges recently developed are proving a valuable tool in providing definite information upon points previously the subject of conjecture. They permit of determining the effectiveness of any producing method, the productivity factor of any well, and an estimate of the potential production of the well without an open-flow test.Application of sub-surface pressure data is not complicated where producing zones are thin, and formulae for taking into consideration the thickness of zones are presented. Gas-lift efficiency is dependent upon utilising the correct flow string, the minimum back pressure, and correct amount of circulated gas. Methods of determining the efficiency of the flow string and the correct amount of circulated gas are illustrated.The advantages of tapered tubing are questioned. Requirements for securing maximum rate of production from pumping wells are stated and discussed, together with technique of measuring effectiveness of pumping installations. Study of volumetric efficiency continues to be the most profitable point of attack upon pumping problems and some new formulae, tables, and methods are presented.Power efficiency is improved by increasing volumetric efficiency,, and is also dependent upon the type and size of pumping machinery and the counterbalance used. Counterbalancing is discussed and a table given. The first cost of pumping equipment is being greatly reduced at the same time that convenience and efficiency are being increased. Costs are quoted. The two most common types of A.P.1. standard pumps are still generally used,. but one new type is proving advantageous for some conditions. Relative operating costs of motors, gas engines, and steam engines are discussed briefly and limited data given.. GENERAL. Recent developments in gas-lift and pumping practice have been characterised by research and engineering rather than precedent and invention. There have been few radical changes in either equipment or methods, There has been a noticeable tendency towards the elimination of fantastic machines, methods, and devices that have cluttered the field of the past, and it is coming to be recognised that oil production follows the well-known physical laws rather than being a law unto itself. The two fundamental purposes of production engineering are maximum ultimate recovery and minimum total unit cost of production. While the value of pressure maintenance in securing high ultimate recovery has been recognised for some years, a new and more definite conception of its importance has been secured , through recent r
THE REFINING OF -MOTOR SPIRITS OBTAINED BY THE LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBONISATION OF COAL, OR BY THE' HYDROGENATION OF COAL OR LOW-TEMPERATURE TAR By A. B. MANNING, Ph.D., M.Sc., D.I.C.
. SPIRITS from the low-temperature carbonisation of coal have been successfully refined by treatment with 80% sulphuric acid. The stability of the refined spirits has been studied by following the variation in octane number, gum content and peroxide content during six months' storage. By treatment of the spirits NI-ith anhydrous AlCls a stable light spirit (50%), a middle fraction of boiling range 170-360 C. (20%) and a lubricating frac tion (6-10-0) have been produced.Spirits obtained by hydrogenating low-temperature tar or coal have been successfully refined by acid treatment, preferably using 70% sulphuric acid. The object of this paper is to present briefly the results of some attempts at refining light spirits obtained by the low-temperature carbonisation of coal, by the hydrogenation of low-temperature tar, or by the direct hydrogenation of coal. LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBONISATION SPIRITS. On carbonising a bituminous coal at about 600, C., 3 to 3-5 gallons of light spirit boiling to 170 C, are obtained. About two-thirds of this spirit is recovered from the gas, either by scrubbing with oil or by means of a solid adsorbent, whilst the remainder is constituted by the lightest boiling fraction of the tar.The following are typical analyses of the crude spirits after these have been freed from tar acids and bases by washing with dilute caustic soda and dilute (10%) sulphuric acid. Gas Spirits.11Tar Spirits. Unsata- AromaUnsatuAromaNaph thenes Coal.rated ticand Parrated ticthenes Hydro- HydroHydroHydroand Par affins. Naph-~~ carbons. ~ Carbons.carbons. =bons.atria. Shafton " (weakly caking) ...46-0 16-437-641-8 36-5217 ',! DaItonMain " (medium caking)32-1 31-136-827-3 46-626-1 " Mitchell Main" (strongly caking)20.0 l 37-043-019-320-9 i 59-8 The results tabulated above are in percentage by weight. The method of analysis employed is described by :Manning and Shepherd in Fuel Research Technical Paper, No. 28 (published by H.M. Stationery Office). The crude spirits therefore contain considerable amounts of unsaturated compounds. A small proportion of these are unstable, especially on exposure to light and air, and more or less rapidly oxidise and/or polymerise to form " gum."The problem in refining such spirits is to remove the unstable, gums-forming hydrocarbons without appreciably affecting the more stable unsaturated hydrocarbons. Attempts to use small amounts of concentrated sulphuric acid as a refining agent showed that the action of the acid was too drastic, leading to overheating, to the oxidation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons with the evolution of sulphur dioxide, to the formation of unstable sulphuric acid esters which were retained in the washed spirit, and to the formation of persistent emulsions on subsequent washing with water. Much better