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**Industry**

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SUMMARY

The elastic response of clastics rocks and grain packs is controlled to a large extend by the arrangements of grains and the strength of the contacts between them. For well-cemented rocks like Fontainebleau sandstone, the elastic moduli of the grains and the contact moduli can be taken as the one of quartz with good agreement to experimental data. In general, and in particular for less well cemented granular rocks, this is not the case, the contact moduli typically being weaker than the surrounding grains. In this study, we utilize microtomographic images and grain-partitioning techniques to assign grain moduli, and employ effective medium theories based on a relation between Xray-CT density and porosity to assign contact moduli between grains. We numerical derive the macroscopic effective elastic moduli of several reservoir rocks, and study their sensitivity to variations of contact moduli between grains in a parametric study. **INTRODUCTION**

Developing accurate relationships between pore structure or grain fabric and elastic properties of rocks is a long standing problem in geophysics. The elastic properties of porous rock depend strongly on microstructure. In the absence of full structural information, past attempts to incorporate structure have used rigorous bounds (Hashin and Shtrikman, 1962; Milton, 1981), effective medium theories (Berryman, 1980), simple deterministic models (Wyllie et al., 1956; Raymer et al., 1980), or empirical relationships (Han, 1986). Direct calculations of elastic properties of composite materials from high-resolution 3D images were presented by Garboczi and Day (1995); Roberts and Garboczi (1999); Arns et al. (2002); Knackstedt et al. (2006) for model composites, Fontainebleau sandstone, and industrial foams. These studies, using directly the 3D representations of structure, did consider either materials which are not granular, or well cemented sandstone, where the cement was considered to have the same elastic properties as the grains themselves. In general, the effective elastic properties of granular rock depend strongly on the stiffness of the grain-to-grain contacts (Leurer and Dvorkin, 2000). For larger applied strains, the number of grain contacts increases with increasing pressure (Makse et al., 1999) and grain slippage or cracking of grains could occur. Here, we are interested in the case of linear elastic responses under small applied strains, as characteristic for seismic wave propagation. The digital core group at ANU previously demonstrated the ability to directly measure rock fabric and texture from 3D images of core material and developed robust techniques for partitioning the grain space of a porous material (Saadatfar et al., 2005; Sheppard et al., 2005), in addition to large scale computation of physical properties, including elastic moduli. In this work we expand on our previous work on elastic properties of composite materials and use a combination of Xray-CT density maps, segmented phase fields and grain partitions to assign the elastic properties to the granular phase, and to the contact regions between grains. The purpose of this study is to highlight some of the issues involved in the calculation of elastic properties of non-ideal granular media from tomographic image data.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.89)

We discuss the phenomenon of ‘turning noise into signal’ (one of the main properties of seismic interferometry) in the light of changing worldviews, starting with the ordered view of the nineteenth century, via the chaotic world of the twentieth century, to the present view, in which the chaos is tamed.

Bournas, Nasreddine (Geotech Ltd.) | Gacem, Salah (Agence Nationale du Patrimoine Minier) | Fairhead, J. Derek (GETECH Group plc) | Hamoudi, Mohamed (Houari Boumediene University) | Galdeano, Armand (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris.)

We present the results of reprocessing and interpretation of the aeromagnetic data, originally acquired by Aeroservice Corporation during the early 1970’s, over the Algerian territory. Comprehensive processing procedures of these data are outlined in this contribution to bring them to a modern standard. The interpretation of the resulting aeromagnetic map using modern derivative and inversion techniques has helped to identify and map the deep structures that control the tectonics of Algeria. The interpreted structural map suggests the presence of important mega shear zones that are associated with different tectonic events that have shaped the geology of Algeria.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.69)

Plona, T. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Valero, H-P. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Bose, S. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Walsh, J. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Wielemaker, E. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services) | Saldungaray, P. (Schlumberger Oilfield Services)

Cross-dipole wireline sonic tools measure the shear wave anisotropy in the plane perpendicular to the borehole. This measurement of formation azimuthal anisotropy is important for various geophysical and geomechanical applications. The reliable detection of small-percentage azimuthal anisotropy, i.e, less than 5%, is critical for determining stress direction in hard formations for hydraulic fracturing. In this paper, we show three field examples of small percentage azimuthal anisotropy, in the 1-4% range, measured in vertical wells with a new modular wireline sonic tool incorporating improved cross-dipole transmitter technology while featuring an extensive receiver array incorporating 13 axial levels of 8 azimuthal sensors each. Dispersion analysis is a key QC of the anisotropy determination.

SPE Disciplines:

In this study, the frequency and incident-angle dependence is investigated with respect to both tuning and pore-fluid effects. Spectral decomposition cubes were developed from seismic sections and two observations were found. First, the spectral amplitude difference between water- and gassaturated reservoirs is maximum near the peak frequency. Second, the difference is larger at far offsets than at normal incidence. Based on the two observations, spectra cross plots have been developed, which integrate Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) and spectra analysis. It provides a quick and useful tool to distinguish gas- from watersaturated reservoirs. An AVO Class 2 synthetic model and field data have been tested. The results are preliminary but are encouraging. Spectra Cross Plots clearly discriminate the gas- from the water-saturated reservoirs.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Zishun, Li (Research Institute of E and D of Daqing Oilfield Ltd.,Co) | Xuebin, Guo (Research Institute of E and D of Daqing Oilfield Ltd.,Co) | Xingcai, Fan (Research Institute of E and D of Daqing Oilfield Ltd.,Co)

After studying dual holes micro-seismogram-log data, it shows that the main reason of surface seismic data’s resolution is low is resulted from wave attenuation in near source area and near surface low velocity layers. A new deterministic deconvolution method, which improves the seismic resolution in a large scale, is proposed. Using MVSP from dual holes micro-seismogram survey deriving filter operator of near source area, ghost reflection and near surface low velocity layers, using the filter operator to do deconvolution to the surface seismic data and recover the mentioned several seismic wave decays.

ntroduction

Since the seismic wave attenuation makes the bandwidth of the recorded seismogram narrow, the resolution low in the surface seismic exploration (Toksoz, M. N., and D.H. Johston, 1981). We could not finely recognize thin reservoirs using the conventional seismic data. Based on the convolution model theory (Robinson, E. A. and S. Treitel, 1980; Oz Yilmaz,2001), the recorded seismogram can be modeled as a convolution of the earth’s impulse response with the seismic wavelet. The statistical deconvolution (Peacock, K.L. and S. Treitel. 1969; Oz Yilmaz,2001) is under several hypothetic conditions, for instance the reflectivity of subsurface formation is a random process. As the reflectivity of subsurface formation is not a random process, the high-frequency components have a tendency to strengthen gradually (Walden, A. T. and Hosken, J. W.J., 1984), a random process postulation has much different with practice, and there are some shortcomings in the statistical deconvolution.This method was used for processing of seismic data in Songliao basin, which can only improve seismic bandwidth 10~30Hz. Another deconvolution method is deterministic deconvolution (Arya and Holden, 1979). After analyzing the near surface dual holes micro-seismogram survey data, it has been realized that the seismic wave attenuation was mainly from near surface low velocity layer and near source area. Recovering the decays of the seismic wave in near surface low velocity layer is as same important as recovering the decay of the seismic wave in the source area. Thus, A new deterministic deconvolution approach, which improving the seismic resolution in a large scale, is proposed.

In order to analyze the rule of the seismic wave attenuation near surface, some dual holes measurements are made in Songliao basin ( Li Zishun. 2002). When the exciting point(Fig1) is in the high velocity layer, the frequency of the recorded seismogram received at the bottom is very high, and the frequency of each trace is almost same when the shot point is from 30m to 7m depth. This shows that the frequency of seismic wave excited at the high velocity layer is high and during the seismic wave propagation in the high velocity layer the seismic wave attenuation is not large (Fig.2a). When the exciting point is in the low velocity layer, the frequency of the recorded seismogram received at the bottom is low, and the frequency becomes lower and lower gradually when the shot depth is from 6m to 0.5m.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Telesca, Luciano (Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council,Italy) | Lapenna, Vincenzo (Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council,Italy) | Macchiato, Maria (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, INFM, Universita¿ "Federico II", Naples, Italy) | Hattori, Katsumi (Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Japan)

SPE Disciplines:

The 2005 Fukuoka-ken Seiho-oki earthquake with magnitude of 7 caused heavy damage of the masonry retaining walls of residential areas in the Genkai Island. It is difficult to evaluate the structure and earthquake resistance of the masonry retaining walls from wall surface non-destructively. A seismic investigation has been carried out in the Genkai Island in order to evaluate the internal structure of masonry retaining walls. P-SV waveforms were observed and their dispersion characteristics were studied to estimate averaged stiffness of the retaining walls. A sledge hammer was used as a source and 28Hz geophones were used as receivers. Continuous waveform data were observed and the multi-channel analysis of surface-waves provided clear dispersion curves in which velocity increases with frequency. It seems that S-wave velocity models obtained through the dispersion curve analysis reflect retaining wall structures. In order to study wave propagation in heterogeneous masonry retaining walls, 3D finite-difference modeling was carried out. Calculated waveforms and dispersion curves agreed with observed ones very well.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Ivanov, Julia (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS) | Miller, Richard D. (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS) | Xia, Jianghai (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS) | Dunbar, Joseph B. (Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS)

We apply the joint analysis of refractions with surface waves (JARS) method to several sites and compare its results to traditional refraction-tomography methods in efforts of finding a more realistic solution to the inverse refractiontraveltime problem. The JARS method uses a reference model, derived from surface-wave shear-wave velocity estimates, as a constraint. In all of the cases JARS estimates appear more realistic than those from the conventional refraction-tomography methods. As a result, we consider, the JARS algorithm as the preferred method for finding solutions to the inverse refraction-tomography problems.

Oilfield Places:

- North America > United States > Texas (0.98)
- North America > United States > New Mexico (0.98)

The effects of bathymetry on controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) responses cannot be neglected when aiming for reliable and accurate modeling and inversion results, owing to the high seawater conductivity, 3.3 S/m on average, and thus potentially high contrasts in the electrical properties between water and seabed. In the presented study, we further make use of the possibilities of the finite-difference method to allow 3D inversions with a high degree of model discretizations in order to simulate a 3D seafloor surface. At the same time, we separate the computational mesh for the forward operator from the model discretization mesh, through usage of a proper conductivity-averaging scheme, limiting the computational requirements. Reliability of the method is demonstrated through a modeling and an inversion study for a marine survey scenario.

SPE Disciplines: