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**File Type**

We present robust implementations of two vertical fracture detection methods. Assuming that the fracturing can be described by a horizontally transverse isotropic (HTI) medium, we implement two independent algorithms that examine the azimuthal dependence of P-wave reflection amplitudes and stacking velocities, respectively. In the amplitude approach, we use multi-azimuth and multi-offset data to extract the standard Rüger parameters. In the velocity approach, we employ a new technique using the difference between time-variant trim statics measured at the top and base of the target to invert for fracture orientation and Thomsen''s delta parameter. Field data results obtained using the two methods are similar except for some spatial offset.

Accurate fracture characterization is becoming increasingly important in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. Because open fractures may hold fluid and may provide a pathway for hydrocarbon flow, detailed information about fracture distribution and intensity can help optimize drilling locations. In recent years, geophysicists have proposed various fracture detection methods using P-wave reflection data, most of which exploit either Amplitude Variation with incident angle and AZimuth (AVAZ) (Lynn et al., 1996; Rüger, 1998; Gray etal.,2000 or velocity Variation with AZimunth (VVAZ).Typically, the amplitude method provides superior spatial resolution compared to the velocity method, but it is less stable (Todorovic-Marinic et al., 2005). Zheng (2006) developed a fracture detection method that keys on the difference between time-variant trim statics (defined below) measured at the top and base of the target to directly extract Thomsen''s delta parameter and fracture orientation. This technique retains the stability associated with the velocity method, but at the same time it provides good vertical resolution by effectively removing the confounding influence of the overburden. In this paper we implement this method for wide-azimuth land data for the first time in the industry. For comparison, we also implement the amplitude method based on Rüger’s equation (1998).

Amplitude method

We have also implemented the popular AVAZ technique based on Rüger’s equation which describes the P wave amplitude dependence on azimuth and incident angle in an HTI medium (Rüger, 1998)

amplitude, anisotropy, Artificial Intelligence, AVAZ, azimuth, Comparison, fracture, fracture detection, fracture detection method, fracture intensity, fracture orientation, information, inversion, method, orientation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, seismic processing and interpretation, target, trace, Upstream Oil & Gas, VVAz, vvaz inversion

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Representation & Reasoning > Diagnosis (1.00)

Carbonate rocks are important hydrocarbon reservoir rocks, characterized by a wide range of facies, porosity, and rock fabric. Such a complexity challenges a proper prediction of reservoir properties from remote seismic surveys. We started a comprehensive laboratory study on carbonate rocks to understand how physical properties such as mineralogy, pore shape, porosity, pore connectivity, fluid type, and pressure control seismic wave propagation. Such an understanding helps to delineate failures of seismic property predictions in these rocks. We built a database of hydraulic, transport, and acoustic properties of carbonate samples capturing a broad variability of lithofacies and depositional environments. This paper focuses on how mineralogical composition and microstructure affect porosity-velocity trends as well as pressure-velocity sensitivity. Results show that carbonates may not be as homogeneous as often reported in the literature: such heterogeneity controls the elastic behavior of carbonate rocks affecting both the velocity-porosity trend and the elastic input parameters to be used while modeling the seismic response. Furthermore, acoustic measurements under variable pressure show that carbonates experience anelastic deformation which, together with pore shape, controls velocity sensitivity to pressure.

anhydrite, calcite, carbonate, carbonate rock, chalk, composition, condition, eberli, effect, formation, geophysics, Mavko, mineral composition, pore, porosity, Raymer, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, sample, seismic processing and interpretation, sensitivity, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

algorithm, array, blue gene, blue gene system, communication, core, core node, correction, decomposition, direction, FFT, Implementation, management and information, massively parallel, migration, mpi alltoall, node, performance, processor, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, scientific computing, SEG San Antonio, seismic processing and interpretation, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines:

hear-wave splitting study

Closely spaced parallel fractures behave like an anisotropic medium in the seismic frequency band. The type of anisotropy induced by the fractures depends on a number of factors, namely fracture type (rotationally invariant or corrugated), number of fracture sets present in the medium, fracture orientation and fracture infill (fuid-filled or dry).

angle, anisotropic media, Comparison, component, equation, finite-difference modeling, fluid-filled fracture, fracture, fractured reservoir, geophysics, particle, propagation, reflectivity, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, s-wave splitting, s-wave splitting study, scheme, seismic processing and interpretation, source, synthetic seismogram, Upstream Oil & Gas, wave propagation

Oilfield Places:

- North America > United States > Wyoming > Green River Basin (0.98)
- North America > United States > Utah > Green River Basin (0.98)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

In marine CSEM or SBL one looks for thin resistive layers in conductive sediments by using a horizontal electric dipole (HED) source that emits strong electromagnetic fields into the surroundings. The source is towed close to the seabed and the low-frequencysignals are recorded by receivers that are situated on the seabed (Eidesmo et al., 2002). The principle behind marine CSEM/SBL is simple; hydrocarbon reservoirs in the subsurface appear to low-frequency electromagnetic fields as thin resistive layers within more conductive sediments. Hydrocarbons can thus in principle be directly detected by transmitting electromagnetic fields into the subsurface and recording the returning signal that has been guided in the thin resistive layer. However, in shallow water, the lateral field propagation in the air halfspace becomes significant, and may dominate the recorded signals at the receivers. The signal that travels through air is often referred to as the source-induced “airwave” or “air-response”. Since the subsurface responses are present in the data even if they are dominated by the air-response, the air-responses can in principle be included in inversion schemes. However, it can often be advantageous to separate the air-response from the subsurface data in order to simplify the interpretation and to make the inversion schemes more efficient. Several methods have been proposed to separate the air-response from the subsurface signal. One proposed solution is to generate synthetic data in a water-layer model in order to subtract the synthetic data from the real data for the relevant source-receiver geometries. Another method is to apply electromagnetic field decomposition into upgoing and downgoing components just below the seabed as suggested by Amundsen et al. (2006). Instead of, or in addition to, decomposing the electromagnetic field into upgoing and downgoing field components, the field can be split into a TE and TM part. It is known that the subsurface response from a thin resistive layer is due to a TMpolarized refracted response whereas the air-response is dominated by a TE-mode lateral wave (cf. Løseth, 2007). That the TM mode is sensitive to a thin resistive layer is one of the main points in Eidesmo et al. (2002).

Sansonowski, Rui C. (PETROBRAS/UN-BC/ATP-MRL/RES) | de Oliveira, Rildo M. (PETROBRAS/UN-BC/ATP-MRL/RES) | Júnior, Nier Maciel da S. (PETROBRAS/UN-BC/ATP-MRL/RES) | Bampi, Dirceu (PETROBRAS/UN-BC/ATP-MRL/RES) | amarão Junior, Luciano F. (PETROBRAS/UN-BC/ATP-MRL/RES)

The growing application and acceptance of 4D or time-lapse seismic technique as a key reservoir management tool has been well documented. The technique has been successfully applied to numerous mature fields in order to optimize reservoir production and recovery. This paper will describe such a case study on the Marlim Field where the application of 4D seismic has contributed significantly to critical reservoir management decisions. The giant Marlim field is located on the eastern Brazilian coast in water depths varying from 600 to 1200m. The reservoir is characterized by an unconsolidated sandstone turbidite related to the regressive mega sequence of the Brazilian eastern continental margin. It is the largest producing oilfield in Brazil (average 450.000 bpd), with the original oil-in-place volume of 6.4 billion STB. Production started in 1991 and injection of water in 1994. Three seismic surveys cover the Marlim Field. The first one was acquired in 1986, the others in 1997 and 2005. The most recent survey was acquired using WesternGeco's Q-Marine acquisition system and was specifically acquired for reservoir monitoring and characterization purposes. Analyses of the 4D results started in June 2006 after parallel processing of the 1997 and 2005 datasets. This paper will highlight how the results of the 4D interpretation are being used to make critical reservoir management decisions with greater confidence and reduced risk.

acquisition, amplitude, analysis, anomaly, Campos Basin, difference, information, management, map, Marlim field, Offshore, Petrobras, production, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, SEG San Antonio, seismic interpretation, seismic processing and interpretation, survey, Upstream Oil & Gas, water

Oilfield Places:

- South America > Brazil > Rio de Janeiro State Offshore > Campos Basin > Marlim Leste Field (0.99)
- South America > Brazil > Campos Basin (0.99)

We apply 3D frequency domain full waveform inversion to the 3D SEG/EAGE overthrust model. Just as for for depth imaging techniques, the type of seismic acquisition will influence the quality of the velocity model estimated by waveform inversion. Wide-azimuth surveys yield superior velocity reconstructions compared to narrowazimuth acquisition, and significantly reduces artifacts due to the sparsity of shot spacing. The convergence rate of 3D inversion is slower than 2D waveform inversion but remains suitable for application on current computers.

WAVEFORM INVERSION AND ACQUISITION

acquisition, convergence, dip direction, direction, frequency, function, Influence, inversion, iteration, misfit function, model, narrow azimuth, narrow azimuth acquisition, NAZ, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, SEG San Antonio, seismic processing and interpretation, strike, Upstream Oil & Gas, Waveform Inversion

This paper presents the application of source signature deconvolution for improving the resolution of VSP data and removing shot-to-shot variations. The method has low complexity and requires minimal changes to current deployment and acquisition practices, and is applicable for land and marine surveys. We have applied the algorithm to vertical incidence offshore data. The method successfully removes shot-to-shot variations, and compresses the wavelet to zero phase, improving the resolution of the data and uncovering events which were hidden by the long air gun signature. We suggest this method should be adopted as a routine processing step in all VSP surveys, although the technology will be of greatest benefit in time-lapse experiments.

amplitude, application, arrival, deconvolution, far-field signature, filter, method, near-field signature, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, San Antonio, seismic processing and interpretation, Signature, source signature, source signature deconvolution, trace, Upstream Oil & Gas, VSP, VSP application, vsp deconvolution, wavelet, zero-phase wavelet, Ziolkowski

Parra, Jorge (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas) | Hackert, Chris (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas) | Richardson, Emily (South Florida Water Management District, Florida) | Clayton, Ned (Schlumberger Water Services, California)

analysis, aquifer, equation, flow in porous media, Fluid Dynamics, high water production, image, impedance, impedance image, interwell region, log, matrix, permeability, permeability image, porosity, porosity image, production, region, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, secondary porosity, seismic processing and interpretation, South Florida, Upstream Oil & Gas, well

Standard geophysical methods for monitoring CO

Thank you!