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GoRemote sensing of hydrocarbon reservoirs using controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys is a powerful tool in de-risking of exploration prospects. This study demonstrates how seabed logging (SBL) data acquired by Reliance was incorporated into the workflow in selection of drilling targets in the Krishna-Godavari basin resulting in a significant gas discovery.

anomaly, area, depth, discovery, exploration, Exploration Prospect, Figure, frequency, gas hydrate, hydrocarbon, modeling, prospect, reference, reservoir, resistivity, Response, result, source, survey, target

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.70)

In this work, we present a simple yet robust method to predict sub-tuned bed thickness from seismic amplitudes. We estimate the time thickness of a sub-tuned bed from the amplitude ratio of its seismic response filtered at two judiciously selected bandwidths. This amplitude-ratio method allows us to estimate thickness at far below the tuning thickness. It also tends to mitigate many overburden effects that hinder other thickness-estimation techniques. Furthermore, for isolated symmetric beds (identical rock properties above and below), the resulting thickness estimates are insensitive to lateral changes in rock properties. This technique can be applied to the near-stack or to multiple angle-stacks in AVO analysis. In the latter case, a consistent thickness prediction from different anglestacks increases our confidence in thickness estimates and angle conversion.

amplitude, amplitude ratio, bandwidth, curve, data, effect, estimation, Figure, method, ratio, reflectivity, reservoir, reservoir thickness, rock property, seismic modeling, technique, Thickness, thickness prediction, wedge

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Theoretical and numerical modeling results show the feasibility of residual oil mapping and dynamic monitoring of steam or water driven reservoirs by using the electric source TEM method. A pilot survey of customized array TEM was carried out over a steam driven heavy oil reservoir. Field results confirm that the resistivity anomalies are well correlated with residual oil saturation.

application, area, array, difference, exploration, field, Figure, formation evaluation, interpretation, method, reference, reservoir, residual oil saturation, resistivity, source, steam, survey, TEM, time, water

We present two-and-half dimensional (2.5D) and threedimensional (3D) integral equation modeling of the marine controlled source electromagnetic (MCSEM) method. The assumed reservoir is embedded in a three-layered earth and the in-line acquisition configuration used in seabed logging is used. We show that even for relative small cross-line dimensions of the reservoir, 2.5D modeling gives reasonable results for a symmetrically placed reservoir and the in-line acquisition configuration.

Since the last five years we have seen a rapid development in modeling capabilities with different approaches in the field of MCSEM in general and for seabed logging in particular. In the seventies and eighties of the previous century a large volume of modeling papers have been published, 2.5D and 3D implementations of both local and global methods. Early examples are Stoyer and Greenfield (1976) who presented a 2.5D finitedifference formulation, while Lee (1978) used a finite-element method to solve 2.5D problem. For three dimensional problems the early examples are Raiche (1974), Hohmann (1975) and Weidelt (1975) who all used integral equation formulations. Local methods in the seventies modeled 3D structures for MT purposes and one of the first finite difference solution was presented by Zhdanov et al. (1982). Most of these methods were developed for finding conductors in a relatively resistive embedding, while today we are interested in thin resistive bodies in a conductive embedding.

We focus here on integral equation methods. The basis for the most important improvement was obtained through the conjugategradient fast Fourier transformation method (CG-FFT) (Hestenes and Stiefel, 1952). This development allowed for solving a very large systems of equations without the necessity of forming the systems matrix because in a homogeneous background medium the kernel operator has a three-dimensional discrete convolutional structure. A discrete convolution of two quantities is computed exactly by multiplying these two quantities after applying an FFT to both quantities. An example of an early implementation is the three-dimensional weak form of the conjugate gradient FFT method for solving scattering problems addressed by Zwamborn and van den Berg (1992). In a layered background medium the horizontal shift-invariance still allows a 2D FFT to be used at every depth location. A three-dimensional integral equation is easily transformed to a 2.5D formulation by assuming the scattering object is of infinite extent in the cross-line direction. In the plane containing the vertical axis and the line of acquisition, the problem can be solved for a small number of different cross-line wave numbers and sum the results afterwards to map the solution to the desired plane. We investigate a three-dimensional reservoir type scattering object for which the plane containing the vertical axis and the line of acquisition is the plane of symmetry. For such a configuration we expect the best results compared to the full three-dimensional solution.

The configuration for our problem is depicted in figure 1, it shows the electromagnetic fields in a configuration of three layer background medium consisting of air as the homogeneous upper half space, a homogeneous sea layer with variable finite thickness and the ground as a homogeneous lower half space.

configuration, curve, difference, domain, equation, field, Figure, Horizontal, incident field, inline, line distance, method, modeling, problem, receiver, reservoir, reservoir model, reservoir simulation, Response, source

The demands that reservoir characterization place on seismic data far outweigh those of traditional structural interpretation. Because of this, gather conditioning is seen by many as a prerequisite to pre-stack inversion. This paper discusses three conditioning processes-signal/noise (S/N) improvement, stretch removal, and reflector alignment. It then seeks to document the improvements that these processes achieve in the gathers and in the inversion. Specifically, the gathers were measured for AVO fit using a 2-term Shuey equation and found to be improved by 20%. A comparison of wavelets extracted from the angle stacks found amplitude and phase spectra to be much more stabilized, even out to the far angle stack. The far angle stack seismic/synthetic inversion residuals showed a 40% drop in amplitude and completely different frequency and reflector character. Finally, the AI/SI cross-plot showed a much more compact signature that allowed lithology and pay discrimination. Conversely, the raw data cross-plot contained noisy data that entered into the area of the polygon where the pay signature lay. Geobodies captured from improperly conditioned data are thus (1) inflated in size, and (2) have lower impedances. These errors, in turn, lead to incorrect rock property and reserve estimations.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

A well log based reservoir study together with post stack 3D seismic data analysis was used to assess the petrophysical rock type distribution in an area located on the West side of Lake Maracaibo-Venezuela. The calculated petrophysical rock types were obtained using the Windland R35 (Gunter, et al, 1997) equation which includes information collected from core data: pore throat size distribution, porosity, and permeability. Permeability and rock type curves at the non-cored wells were predicted using available core data. Several consistency checks and quality control revisions were applied to obtain the results from these predictions in order to have a reliable relationship between petrophysical properties and petrophysical rock types.

The resulting curves at the depth interval of interest were correlated throughout the field and calibrated with 3D seismic data. In order to obtain the correct parameter to enhance spatial rock type distribution, seismic attribute analysis was performed and a well log vs. seismic attribute cross-plot relationship was established to predict petrophysical rock properties in the interval.

The predicted petrophysical rock type map provides extremely valuable constraints for the development of the field. The results clearly indicate that the application of this workflow is valuable for determining new locations to be drilled either for production or injection.

analysis, core, data, distribution, equation, field, Figure, formation evaluation, machine learning, permeability, porosity, property, reference, relationship, reservoir, rock type, water saturation, well logging

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

There is abundant geological information in pre-stack seismic data. Unearthing and utilizing the information is a new technological way for reservoir prediction. This paper gives the reservoir prediction using pre-stack RADON attributes. The effect of this kind of reservoir prediction is better.

Artificial Intelligence, data, field, Figure, formation evaluation, gather, inversion, machine learning, migration, parameter, prediction, property, radon, Radon domain, RADON Field, Radon transformation, reservoir, reservoir prediction, Reservoir Prediction Technology, technology, transformation, well

Theoretical models and laboratory measurements both suggest that the interaction of solids and fluids in a reservoir formation can lead to strong attenuation measured by a low quality factor

Many direct hydrocarbon indicators have been proposed to make use of seismic data to better locate economic concentrations of oil or gas in the subsurface. For example, amplitude variation with offset (AVO) methods often provide useful results (Shuey, 1985; Castagna et al., 1993; Ross, 2000; Stovas et al., 2006). This method, and other approaches based on detecting velocity changes associated with hydrocarbons, typically assume purely elastic wave propagation. On the other hand, some recent investigations suggest that attenuation may also be an important process that affects seismic data (Goloshubin and Korneev, 2000; Goloshubin et al., 2002; Castagna et al., 2003). The propagation of waves through an highly attenuating layer will cause preferential loss of high frequencies, motivating the search for changes in frequency content that may provide additional hydrocarbon indicators. This is especially true since careful laboratory measurements suggest that the quality factor

However, there is another interesting problem that may arise is practical settings, since many reservoirs are not very thick, perhaps 10 m or less. Under such conditions, the distance of propagation through the attenuating medium with a low

amplitude, change, coefficient, effect, Figure, frequency, layer, perturbation, Phase, reflection, reflection coefficient, reservoir, result, seismic modeling, source, value, wavefield, waveform, wavenumber

Time-lapse VP/VS volumes have been estimated in order to enhance the dynamic characterization of the tightgas sandstone reservoirs in Rulison Field, Western Colorado. Based on compressional (PP) as well as fast- (S11) and slow (S22) shear datasets from 4D-9C surveys, the VP/VS volumes were generated after cross-equalization, post-stack inversion and multi-component registration. Previous work has shown the feasibility of using VP/VS as a characterization tool for lithology and pressure was established through cross-dipole sonic logs analysis and ultrasonic core lab measurements. In this paper we show that by combining VP/VS and rock physics data it was possible to predict reservoir pressure wherever the sandstones are over-pressurized. Since the absolute magnitude of time-lapse amplitude anomalies is not enough to determine the actual pressure regime on partially depleted intervals, a classification scheme for time-lapse VP/VS anomalies is proposed in order to judge whether an anomaly corresponds to a still-over-pressurized interval or a depleted interval. Our methodology can help on well placing and completion in order to optimize the development of this unconventional but significant gas accumulation.

analysis, anomaly, characterization, classification, classification scheme, Colorado, Figure, formation evaluation, impedance, interval, lithology, pressure, pressure mapping, production control, production monitoring, reservoir, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir pressure, reservoir simulation, Rulison Field, sandstone, volume, well logging

Oilfield Places:

Asanuma, Hiroshi (Tohoku University) | Kumano, Yusuke (Tohoku University) | Moriya, Hirokazu (Tohoku University) | Niitsuma, Hiroaki (Tohoku University) | Schanz, Ulrich (Geothermal Explorers Ltd) | Häring, Markus (Geothermal Explorers Ltd)

Microseismic multiplets, which are groups of events showing highly similar waveform despite different origin time and magnitude, can be effectively used to determine relative location of the hypocenters with high accuracy. The authors clustered multiplets from microseismic events collected during a hydraulic stimulation in the Deep Heat Mining Project at Basel, Switzerland in 2006. The similarity of waveform was quantitatively evaluated in the frequency domain using the magnitude square coherence function, and this made it possible to cluster the events with different criteria which correlate to different physical phenomena associated with shear slip on fractures. We then interpreted the behavior of each multiplet cluster from the orientation and size of the multiplet seismic structure, fault plane solution, source radius, and hydraulic record. Multiplets which correlate to (a) identical shear slip on a macroscopic single fracture or thin fracture network, (b) repeating slip within a microscopic fracture, and (c) extension of rupture zone on a microscopic fracture, are identified and their response to the stimulation was also interpreted.

Basel, cluster, distribution, event, Figure, fracture, frequency, frequency domain, hypocenter, identification, location, Magnitude, mechanism, multiplet, multiplet cluster, reference, reservoir, source, structure, Switzerland

SPE Disciplines:

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