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GoNew dual-sensor streamer 2D data have been compared to legacy conventional streamer data offshore Cyprus to analyze the differences and quantify the improvements in seismic resolution. A comparison of PSTM stacks after processing through the same flow of the vintage hydrophone data and the up-going pressure field (P-up) showed in general a higher signal-to-noise ratio and better resolution of the P-up image. Spectral analyses quantified the amplitude versus frequency level and showed a significant increase of low and high frequencies. The low frequency enhancement was particularly significant deeper in the sections with spectacular penetration below the highly reflective Messinian Salt layer.

Comparison, conventional hydrophone, dual-sensor cable, dual-sensor data offshore cyprus, dual-sensor seismic offshore cyprus, hydrophone, international exposition, line, Messinian, offshore cyprus, PSTM, pup, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, SEG Houston, seismic processing and interpretation, stack, streamer, Upstream Oil & Gas, vintage, vintage hydrophone seismic

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

We present a method of reducing random and certain types of coherent noise from post-stack 3-D and 2-D seismic data using principal component analysis along with structure oriented filtering. Such noises contaminate seismic data and their removal leads to improved continuity of reflections, improved continuity of amplitudes, and better quality data for further processing such as spectral whitening and high resolution curvature along with providing a better data set for structural interpretation.

The noise-reduced data set also permits auto-picking routines to operate with more consistency and over larger areas of the data volume as compared to the original data.

Artificial Intelligence, bandwidth, coherent noise, conditioning, continuity, correspond, curvature, dip, Houston, input, international exposition, machine learning, noise, post-stack reduction, principal component analysis, reflection, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, sample, seismic processing and interpretation, subvolume, survey, technique, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning > Statistical Learning (1.00)

Triaxial induction tool with transmitting and receiving coils oriented in three mutually perpendicular directions was developed to detect formation anisotropy. It is sensitive to the effective vertical resistivity, which is determined by the hydrocarbon-bearing zones, at any dip angle. [1] In this paper, our purpose is to investigate the influence of dipping angle on its magnetic field responses by applying 1-D electromagnetic anisotropic modeling.

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Formation Evaluation & Management > Open hole/cased hole log analysis (1.00)

Permanent seismic installations at the sea-floor have emerged as a potential tool for oil companies in their work to actively monitor oil/gas flows and injection processes in order to increase hydrocarbon recovery and optimize production. In-well sensors for the purpose of monitoring pressure and temperature, in addition to down-hole VSP sensors, are actively used during production. Almost all the existing technology which exists in connection with the instrumented oil field has been based on electrical components. The next step in technology development is to change all the in-sea and in-well sensors from electrical to optical sensing technology.

The advantage of fiber optic over electric sensors is that the fiber optic sensor technology is completely passive at the wet-end, i.e. no short circuits will happen, longer life-time of components, high sensitivity, high dynamic range, less intrinsic noise, no corrosion of sensing components, fewer parts and potentially cheaper complete receiver systems. Large fiber optical ocean-bottom receiver systems for 4Dapplications, can now be produced and installed at locations where the oil companies would like exploit the life-of-field seismic concept. We are advocating optical sensing technology to be an important part of the tool box for the oil companies in their work to implement the instrumented oil field in a cost efficient way. After our opinion, the “optical oil field” should represent the next step in technology in connection with reservoir monitoring.

cable, component, connection, fiber optic, field, hydrophone, installation, instrumented oil field, international exposition, optical oil field, production, receiver, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, seismic processing and interpretation, sensor, Station, system, technology, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (1.00)

The Eshelby approach has been used to successfully model the stress, strain and displacement fields associated with a depleting reservoir. A modified Cam- Clay material model was implemented for the constitutive equations for the reservoir material. The exterior of the reservoir is modeled as linear elastic material, which allows an analytical approach. This enables solutions to be calculated far more quickly than using a purely numerical approach to the problem. Applications may include “quick look” solutions for well failure estimates, evaluating time-lapse seismic candidates, effects of reservoir tilting, CO2 sequestration, estimates of fault activation etc.

coefficient, depletion, ellipsoidal elasto-plastic, ellipsoidal inclusion, Eshelby, Fluid Dynamics, fracture characterization, Horizontal, international exposition, model, nonlinear, occur, plasticity, reservoir, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, reservoir tilt, SEG Houston, strain, stress, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines:

- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Fluid Dynamics > Integration of geomechanics in models (0.35)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Faults and fracture characterization (0.35)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (0.31)

Desa, Nor Dalila (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) | Mejus, Lakam (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) | Rahman, Mohd Tadza Abd (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) | Samuding, Kamarudin (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) | Mostapa, Roslanzairi (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) | Dominic, Jeremy Andy (Malaysian Nuclear Agency)

This study focuses on the effect of the leachate to the surface and groundwater pollution at Taiping landfill site.mThe site was previously used for tin ore and other alluvial ore minerals mining. Consequently, the soil stratification of the area was extensively disturbed by tin mining activities in the past. Geologically, the area consists of mainly recent alluvium of Quaternary in aged. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) technique is used in mapping the pollution distribution in the form of leachate plumes. Results show that groundwater at depth of 5 to 15m was contaminated by the leachate from the dumping site as indicated by resistivity values less than 10 Ohm-m in the pseudosections. In addition, leachate plumes appeared to have seeped to about 30-50m in depth. Resistivity of the backfill surface covering material is found greater than 100 Ohm-m. The study has led to the delineation of the groundwater contamination zones within the study area as well as the distribution of the pollutant in the soil strata at depth less than 30m. This implies that the ERI technique is an effective tool in detecting contaminated groundwater zones or layers.

The existences of dumping sites that are mostly not properly engineered and managed have raised a major public concern related to groundwater contamination especially in developing countries. Pollutants released or discharged from the dumping sites could contaminate groundwater system, flora and fauna which in turn can impacted on people’s lives. The infiltration of rainfall into landfill, together with the biochemical and chemical breakdown of the wastes produces a leachate which is high in suspended solids and of varying organic and inorganic content. If the leachate enters surface or groundwater before sufficient dilution occurs, serious pollution incidents can transpire. This in turn causes groundwater contamination which is an extremely costly operation to remove. Although many landfills today are constructed in permeable layer, leaks can still occur. Colucci and Lavagnalo’s (1999) study for example indicate that on average, 15 leaks per hectare on impermeable layers transpired.

Today, although the open dump approach is considered the primitive stage of landfill development, it remains the dominant waste disposal option in most of the countries. The main reason is that it is cheap and easy to operate. However, the disadvantages of this approach include the indiscriminate disposal of waste, limited measures to control operations, and the negative environmental effects to its surroundings.

Malaysia is currently experiencing acute problems with solid waste management (MSW) although we have more than 230 landfills (many of them are open landfills). Malaysians generate about 6 million tons of solid waste per year, or about 15,000 tons daily. To accommodate the amount of waste, an average of 1.8 dumping sites per municipal council is needed (Ministry of Housing and Local Government, 2002). Malaysia’s high annual rainfall depth (an average of 3000mm) (DID, 2000), has somehow influences the production of leachate at these landfills. With high rainfall depth, leacheate production is also expected to be very high due to the infiltration of rain water through solid refuse.

contamination, distribution, electrical resistivity imaging, eri, groundwater, health safety security environment and social responsibility, landfill, Malaysia, site, solid waste management, study, subsurface contamination flow path, survey, TAI, technique, Upstream Oil & Gas, Waste Disposal, Waste Disposal Site, water management

Industry:

- Water & Waste Management > Solid Waste Management (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)
- Water & Waste Management > Water Management > Lifecycle > Disposal/Injection (0.42)

SPE Disciplines: Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Social Responsibility > Environment > Waste management (1.00)

Within the viscosity-extended Biot framework of wave propagation in porous media the existence of a slow shear wave mode is predicted. This is a highly diffusive shear mode wherein the two constituent phases essentially undergo outof- phase shear motions (slow shear wave). Using the method of statistical smoothing in a randomly heterogeneous poroelastic medium we analyze the process of conversion scattering from fast compressional waves into slow shear diffusion waves. In particular, we compute a dynamic-equivalent wave number from which attenuation and dispersion characteristics are inferred. We observe that this conversion scattering process results into fast compressional wave attenuation having similar nature as the dynamic permeability attenuation mechanism.

Wave-induced flow is an important wave attenuation mechanism in heterogeneous porous media and may occur in different frequency bands depending on the characteristic length scales involved (Pride et al., 2004). M¨uller and Gurevich (2005) showed that for mesoscopic heterogeneities this mechanism can be described by conversion scattering from fast compressional wave into slow compressional

Within the viscosity-extended Biot framework a slow S-wave mode is predicted. For frequencies much lower than Biot’s critical frequency

(here h is the unperturbed porosity, k is the permeability, n

where

In arbitrary heterogeneous media each wave mode can be converted into another through conversion scattering at heterogeneities. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the conversion scattering from fast compressional waves into the slow shear diffusion wave mode and to analyze the nature of the resulting attenuation mechanism. In particular, we find that the mechanism of conversion scattering into slow shear mode has similar physical nature as the dynamic permeability attenuation mechanism as proposed by Johnson et al., (1987) by generalizing the permeability term of the Biot theory to be an operator.

This extended abstract is structured as follows. We recall the basic results of the viscosity-extended Biot framework providing the equations of motion and explicit expressions for the Green’s functions. Then we analyze the conversion scattering of a plane fast compressional wave into the diffusive slow shear wave mode using a Green’s function approach and the method of statistical smoothing. The characteristics of the resulting compressional wave attenuation and dispersion are analyzed. We discuss the similarities of the conversion scattering mechanism with the dynamic permeability attenuation mechanism.

The viscosity-extended Biot constitutive relation is developed in Sahay (2008; Appendix B). Fluid-stress tensor, upon incorporating for the viscous stress term

attenuation, compressional, conversion, diffusion, dispersion, equation, frequency, function, international exposition, matrix, mechanism, mode, porosity, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, resonance frequency, seismic processing and interpretation, slow shear, Upstream Oil & Gas, viscosity-extended biot framework, Wave

It is well known that the change of fluid saturation and pressure are two of most important parameters during the oil and gas production scheme adjustment. So it is an important issue to study presently that how to obtain these two parameters from seismic data. Here we put forward the method of computing the fluid saturation and pressure with multi-parameter regression. First, P-wave impedance and S-wave impedance should be relative accurately obtained by time-lapse seismic elastic impedance inversion, therefore the Vp/Vs ratio, Poisson''s ratio and other elastic parameters will be computed. Then link these parameters with fluid saturation and pressure by network methodology to predict the fluid saturation and pressure change on each sample of the reservoir interval, which provides proofs for finding the remaining oil and enhancing the recovery factor.

change, difference, elastic impedance inversion, fluid saturation, gather, international exposition, inversion, method, network, prediction, production, reservoir, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir parameter prediction, SEG Houston, seismic processing and interpretation, shot gather, time-lapse seismic elastic parameter inversion, Upstream Oil & Gas, variation

Understanding formation pore pressure distribution is critical not only for the seal integrity and hydrocarbon accumulation column height evaluation of a prospect, but also for the drilling plan and hazard prevention of a well in today’s competitive exploration and production environment.

There are two main approaches for pore pressure estimation: geological using basin modeling and geophysical using seismic velocity. In this paper, seismic velocity was used for pore pressure estimation. The impact of the input data quality in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and frequency bandwidth on the accuracy of seismic velocity analysis and, ultimately, the reliability of pore pressure estimation were reviewed at selected milestone processing steps that were used to enhance the prestack time migrated (PSTM) seismic data..

It was shown that the prestack data quality in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution can significantly affect velocity analysis and the quality of pore pressure estimation when the results are compared to known geophysical, geological, and engineering data. Finally, pore pressure and its related data were used for seal integrity assessment in prospect evaluation and multiple pressure attributes with predicted lithology from inversion were integrated for well design and hazard prevention in drilling with much less uncertainty.

analysis, data quality, distribution, Drilling, enhancement, evaluation, international exposition, model, mud, pore, Pore Pressure Estimation, prospect, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, seismic data quality influence pore, seismic processing and interpretation, Upstream Oil & Gas, Visualization, well

Finite difference simulations in discontinuous media are only first-order accurate regardless of the formal order of the method. Stairstep diffractions are a widely known manifestation of this first-order error. To recover the optimal convergence rate, we apply a finite element approach with mass lumping to a constant density acoustic wave equation. This approach results in an explicit second-order accurate difference scheme with specifically averaged sound velocity. Two numerical experiments confirm theoretical convergence rate. In particular, application of finite element discretizations with mass lumping leads to elimination of stairstep diffraction observed in simulations based on standard finite difference discretizations.

Finite difference (FD) methods have long been accepted in a seismic industry as an easy-to-implement and computationally efficient tool for forward wave propagation simulations. these methods have been extensively studied (see, for example, Moczo et al. (2006) and references cited therein) and the properties of FD solutions in smooth media are well understood. Theoretical analysis shows that stable FD methods with smooth coefficients converge at the rate predicted by truncation error as time and space steps go to zero. However, this theory does not apply to models of interest in seismic applications, since material properties that describe the subsurface are essentially discontinuous as functions of spatial location. Brown (1984); Gustafsson and Wahlund (2004) have shown that FD simulations in heterogeneous media are affected by two kinds of error. In addition to the error that corresponds to the truncation error of the homogeneous problem, there is another error that stems from inability of a FD scheme to resolve the position of the interface within a grid cell. The interface misalignment error is insensitive to the order of the scheme and can easily dominate overall error once grid dispersion is controlled. In practice this means that RMS error can be as large as 100% even when conventional grid-points-per-wavelength requirements are well satisfied (Symes and Vdovina, 2008; Symes et al., 2008). Reducing RMS error to 5% can require dramatic spatial oversampling, which suggests that FD schemes are unlikely to be cost effective for higher accuracy large-scale simulations.

Several methods that attempt to reduce interface error have been proposed over the years (Moczo et al., 2006; Zhang and LeVeque, 1997; Cohen and Joly, 1996). In this work, we consider finite element (FE) approach with mass lumping. By construction, coefficients of discrete systems resulting from FE approximations involve integration of the material properties over grid blocks and, thus, incorporate subgrid information about the medium. In the case of the constant density acoustics, this incorporation of the subgrid information is sufficient to eliminate first-order error due to sound velocity discontinuities. Symes (2009) proves that for constant density acoustics and smooth in time right-hand side, mass lumped FE method preserves optimal order of convergence in energy norm even if sound velocity is merely bounded and measurable. The justification is based on the fact that smoothness of solutions in time in case of constant density acoustics implies enough spatial regularity to give both optimal order of convergence of the FE approximation and the same order of convergence for the mass-lumped approximation.

acoustic wave, analysis, Artificial Intelligence, computational, difference, equation, gustafsson, international exposition, mass, mathematics, method, propagation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir simulation, Rice University, scientific computing, SEG Houston, seismic processing and interpretation, subgrid modeling, Syme, Upstream Oil & Gas

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