DISCUSSION REVIEW PAPER-ADVANCES IN MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF PETROLEUM Chairman: M. G. KRISHNA (INDIA) Scientific Secretary: A. SATOH (JAPAN) Initiating the discussion, M. SAJUS (France) referred to the statements on page 2 of the paper comparing agricultural and microbiological production of proteinous materials. He commented that single cell protein (SCP) production and use involve more drastic requirements than in agriculture for control of pollution and product quality. He asked the authors for their views on this subject and whether these restrictions will slow down the development of SCP production in the USSR as in some other countries. He also asked views of the authors on the choice between paraffins and methanol as Substrate for future industrial production of SCP in the USSR. The authors, in reply, agreed that SCP production requires new techniques and strict control of environ- ment and product quality and stated that these are, however, generally applicable to modern agriculture and also other human needs. They thought that these requirements would not slow down SCP production in the USSR. In regard to production of SCP in the USSR, n-alkanes are used as main raw material in all industrial plants. At the end of 1975, the industrial production capacity is expected to reach one million tons of powdery SCP per year. Some of the units with 240000 tons of powdery product per year capacity are being built as a part of a planned programme. Extensive studies in the USSR on utilisation of different feed- stocks showed that methanol is a very promising Substrate for SCP production. Replying to a question from Mr B. ALI (Trinidad and Tobago) on the desirability of using molasses in preference to hydrocarbons as Substrate for SCP products, the authors stated that molasses sometimes is not a preferable feedstock. It contains some com- ponents which damage the quality of the yeast product; pure ethanol would be much better as feedstock for food yeast. Besides, it is difficult to base large sized plants on use of molasses, whereas this is feasible when hydrocarbons are used. Referring to the statement of the authors on the microbiological method of deparaffinisation of gas oils and distillates, Dr I. B. GULATI (India) asked if the method has been used on an industrial scale in the USSR or elsewhere and whether it is considered technically and economically feasible for lowering the pour point of gas oils and lubricating oil stocks. He also asked if the paraffinised stocks had shown any tendency to gum and sludge formation and how the biomass, obtained as byproduct of deparaffinisation, could be used, considering its quality. The authors replied that the microbiological method has been used in industrial plants in the USSR for reducing pour points of gas oils and lubricating oil- stocks. The method is being used for obtaining special products with very low pour points. No particular problems on sludge and gum formation have been noticed w
Krylov, N. A. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow, U.S.S.R.) | Semenovich, V. V. (Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R.) | Zhabrev, I. P. (Ministry of Gas Industry, Moscow, U.S.S.R.) | Zubov, I. P. (All-Union Geological Research Institute for the Oil Industry, Moscow, U.S.S.R.)
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE OIL AND GAS POTENTIAL OF THE EPI-PALEOZOIC BASINS OF THE U.S.S.R. Abstract This paper describes the principal structural and stratigraphic features of the oil and gas-bearing basins of the Epi-Paleozoic platforms of the USSR. The basins in question are the West Siberian, Karakum, South Mangyshlak, North Ustyurt, Tersko-Kumskiy and Azovo-Kubanskiy basins. The distribution of the oil and gas accumulations in the stratigraphic sequence, the tectonic setting of the petroleum and gas-bearing provinces, as well as a discussion on the stratigraphic range of the source-beds, are presented. The structural style as well as the oil and gas prospects of the Intermediate Complex (Triassic and p.p. Paleozoic Sediments) of these Epi-Paleozoic platforms are briefly discussed. The prospects for the discovery of new oil and gas fields on the Epi- Paleozoic platforms are also examined. Résumé Cette communication expose les principales carac- téristiques structurals et stratigraphiques des bassins de pétrole et de gaz des plates-formes épi-paléozoïques de l'URSS. I1 s'agit des bassins de la Sibérie Occiden- tale, du Kara-Koum, du Sud Mangychlak, du Nord- Oustyart, du Terek-Koum et d'Azov-Kouban. On indique la répartition des gisements de pétrole et de gaz dans la coupe stratigraphique, la situation tectonique des régions productives et on discute la répartition stratigraphique des roches-mères. On discute brièvement du style structural et des possibilités pétrolières du complexe intermédiaire (à sédiments triasiques et paléozoïques p.p.) de ces plates-formes épi-paléozoïques. Enfin on examine les possibilités de découvertes nouvelles sur les plates- formes épi-paléozoïques. 1.
last twenty years resulted in the discovery of large reserves (predominantly of gas) and determined to a Young (Epi-Paleozoic) plates cover a vast area of large extent the development of oil and gas production about 40 million km', i.e. about 35 % of all the pros- for future decades. pective areas of the USSR territory. Three major young In 1960 91.1 % of the total crude oil reserves and plates have been distinguished: West Siberian, 57% of the natural gas reserves were located on the Turanian and Scythian (Fig. 1). The study of their East European platform and in the basins of the geological structure and oil and gas potential in the folded areas, while the reserves of the young platforms accounted for only 3 % and 43 %, respectively. By 1973 by I. P. ZHABREV, the young platforms already accounted for 47.1 % and Mingasprom, Geological Department, 73.5% of total crude oil and natural gas reserves, Ministry of Gas Industry, 11731 1 Moscow, U.S.S.R., respectively. I. P. ZUBOV, As a result, the distribution of the oil and gas re- All- Union Geological Research Institute for the serves over the stratigraphic unit
PILOT PLANT AND FIELD RESULTS OF OIL DISPLACEMENT BY Abstract An increase in pressure up to 100 atm has been achieved by CO,-gas injection followed by water dis- placement in one of the depleted Budafa fields con- taining light oil. The injection and production well pattern is random. During the field experiment, an oil- bank formed, which is indicated by the increase in production and the decrease in the water fraction. As a result of the injection the yield increased by 10%. The increase in the relative permeability and the presence of free gas saturation brings about favour- able effects. CO, and water injection in 42 injection wells takes place in another reservoir with a large gas cap. Here the phase saturation at well completion must be taken into consideration. Résumé La pression dans un réservoir épuisé contenant du pétrole léger des gisements de pétrole de Budafa a été augmentée jusqu'à 100 atm par l'injection du gaz CO,, suivi du déplacement du pétrole par l'eau. Les puits d'injection et de production sont disposés au hasard. Pendant l'expérience d'exploitation un bouchon de pétrole s'est formé ce qui est démontré par l'augmen- tation du rendement des puits et par la diminution de la fraction d'eau. La valeur du facteur de production a augmenté de 10% à la suite de l'injection. L'effet favorable est dû à l'augmentation de la perméabilité relative et à la présence de la saturation des gaz libres. Dans le cas d'un autre réservoir avec un grand chapeau de gaz, on injecte de l'eau et du CO, dans 42 puits d'injection. Ici, lors de la complétion des puits, on doit considérer les conditions de saturation. 1.
Important natural gas reserves with CO,-content in Hungary create favourable conditions for an oil dis- placement method by CO, flooding. The secondary recovery processes using CO, and water for oil dis- placement in the depleted or partly depleted Budafa and Lovászi fields containing light oil have become very important. Extensive theoretical and laboratory research work has been done to determine an optimal method per- taining to depleted reservoirs using oil displacement by CO,, for elucidating the mechanism of action of this method, for predicting the main technological parameters that are characteristic of the process and for planning field experiments. 2. LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS When displacing oil by CO,, the oil comes into contact with the CO, and with the mixture of hydro- by AKOS BAN and VALER BALINT, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Hungary carbon gases. Consequently, it is necessary to deter- mine and use thermodynamic parameters characteristic of the mixed systems. In a PVT laboratory the follow- ing properties have been determined : gas-solving capacity of oil and water, changes of volume, viscosity and density as a function of pressure, temperature and CO,-content of the dissolved gas. The examination has been carried out from
ESTIMATE OF WORLD GAS RESERVES Abstract Natural gas occurs over a broad range of sedi- mentary basins, but major new discoveries will be concentrated in the Middle East and the USSR. Current world proven recoverable reserves are estimated as 2300 tcf, and total ultimate recoverable reserves are thought unlikely to exceed 6000 tcf. Just over 10 % of this ultimate volume has been consumed. Résumé Les gisements de gaz naturel se manifestent dans une grande variété de bassins sédimentaires, mais les plus importantes découvertes se concentreront dans le Moyen Orient et en URSS. Les réserves mondiales récupérables actuellement identifiées sont estimées à 65000 milliards de m3. On estime que le total maximum des réserves récupérables a peu de chances de dépasser 170000 milliards de m3. Jusqu'à présent, un peu plus de 10% de ce volume total a été consommé. 1.
Despite the virtues of gas as a high-energy clean fuel, problems of distribution have-and will probably continue-to limit the main market to areas of high population and industrial concentration. The develop- ment of LNG technology has now rendered accessible to the international market various supplies previously too remote for exploitation.' We have attempted to compile a realistic set of worldwide gas reserves. The accuracy of such numbers is clearly very variable, in part due to the inaccessi- bility to us of the basic data and in part to the intrinsic difficulty of estimation given the complexities of nature and the lack of adequate wells to define many large fields. Also, it has to be said that much confusion has been caused by misuse of the term "reserves", which appears to mean many things to many people. We have confined ourselves to economically recoverable reserves of marketable gas remaining in the ground in known fields. We have felt it desirable to use a somewhat broader definition of proven reserves than that used by the API and AGA, which by T. D. ADAMS, Regional Geologist, British Petroleum Company Ltd., London, England, and M. A. KIRKBY, General Manager, BP Petroleum Development Ltd., Aberdeen, Scotland presumably implies some reduction in confidence in the numbers. This course was necessary since many large fields in various areas are inadequately defined; nevertheless sufficient information may be available to permit a reasonably accurate estimate of reserves which will be more helpful than the much smaller volume which can be considered as fully proven. Throughout this paper the abbreviation tcf is used to represent scf. For a variety of reasons, it has not been possible for us to produce an independent estimate of the volume of condensate reserves. Major problems are lack of data, variability of recovery factor, and the options open to producers to vary the split of volatile components between the gas and liquid phases. There is much interest in the volumes of "Ultimate", "Potential" or "Speculative" reserves, both
SEAFLOOR PRODUCTION WITH SAFETY AND RELIABILITY Abstract This paper will describe a deepwater production system, featuring high reliability, fail-szfe subsea com- ponents, that has been developed and field tested. A cluster of directionally drilled wells, manifolded to- gether on a support structure on the ocean floor, is monitored and controlled from shore, from a nearby platform or from a permanently moored floating storage and support vessel. Maintenance of subsea components is performed by a remote controlled manipulator. Oil is moved to surface through a multi- line production riser or to shore through pipelines with subsea pumps. Résumé Cette communication décrit la grande fiabilité et la sécurité des composants sous-marins, d'un système de production en eaux profondes qui a été mis au point et testé dans des conditions de travail réel. On contrôle et on commande un ensemble de puits déviés, reliés à un système de collecte posé sur le fond, à partir de la côte, ou d'une plate-forme proche, ou d'un navire de support ou de stockage ancré en permanence. L'en- tretien des éléments sous-marins est effectué par un télémanipulateur. Le pétrole est ramené à la surface par une colonne montante multiple de production, ou à terre par des pipelines avec des pompes sous-marines. 1.
Worldwide exploration for hydrocarbon reserves is moving towards deep waters offshore. Discoveries in moderately deep waters have prompted the rapid ex- pansion of industry capabilities for producing these reserves from seafloor facilities. The need for subsea production systems is evident for areas where sizable fields exist beyond the technological or economic depth limits for conventional platforms. Subsea systems represent an alternative to the customary method of field development with con- ventional platforms. Exxon's Submerged Production System (SPS) is one such system that provides tech- nical and economic advantages over both platform and satellite development schemes for certain fields. In combination with platforms, SPS wells can either function as the primary development mode or simply act as an extension of the platform's drilling capability. Exxon's commitment to the development of a com- plete subsea production system has included over 200 man-years of engineering effort and the expertise of several subcontractors. The design, selection, and testing of high-reliability parts, the interfacing of these by C. R. PATTERSON and M. C. SONS, Exxon Corporation, 1251 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N. Y. 10020, U.S.A. components to form functional subsystems, and the integration of these subsystems to form a complete package, were all crucial steps. Both dry and wet land tests and offshore trials with selected subsystems were conducted to check system reliability and safety1. Last year, Exxon completed fabrication and installation of a three-well prototype SPS for use in an offshore production pilot test in
VACUUM GAS OIL CRACKING Abstract A steam cracking plant designed to produce olefins from vacuum distilled heavy gas oils boiling in the range of 700-1000" FVT was started up in 1967 by Esso Chimie, an affiliate of Exxon Chemical, at Port Jerome, France. The plant was sized to produce 200000 metric tons per year of ethylene. The paper will describe the facility, its performance and special features installed to handle the high coke make. Olefins and by-product yields, investment and operating costs will be compared with steam cracking of naphtha feed. Environmental considerations will also be presented. Résumé Une unité de cracking à la vapeur pour la production d'oléfines à partir de gas-oil lourd provenant de la distillation sous vide à été démarrée en 1967 à Port- Jérôme par Esso Chimie, filiale de Exxon Chemical. Le gas-oil sous vide est une coupe 370-540°C et l'unité a une capacité de production d'éthylène de 200000 tonnes par an. L'article décrira l'unité et ses performances, ainsi que les caractéristiques particulières exigées par la production importante de coke. Les rendements en oléfines, en produits secondaires et les coûts d'investissement et d'opération seront comparés avec ceux du cracking à la vapeur d'un naphta. Les considérations concernant la protection de l'environ- nement seront aussi présentées. 1.
Twenty-five years of experience with steam cracking of atmospheric gas oils led to the design and construc- tion of the Port Jerome vacuum gas oil cracking unit. Even so, steam cracking a 370/535"C vacuum gas oil represented a considerable departure from previous experience. This paper will describe the facility, its performance and special features. In addition, a comparison of yields, plant investments and operating costs will be made between vacuum gas oil steam cracking and naphtha steam cracking. The vacuum gas oil steam cracking plant described in this paper was started up by Esso Chimie, an affiliate of Exxon Chemical, at Port Jerome, France, in 1967. It is of historical interest that the first com- mercial test of gas oil steam cracking was made at the same site in 1939. The early test was made in a conventional thermal cracking coil that was repiped for steam addition. Following the test, design work for the first commercial gas oil steam cracking plant began and the first unit went onstream at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, in September, 1941. The first unit had a feed rate of 140000 tons/year of a 20O/40O0C atmospheric gas oil. A second gas oil cracking unit, almost three times the size of the first, followed within two years, and gas oil has been a major feedstock in our plants ever since. Today, our company and its affiliates combined produce about 2500000 tons/year of ethylene, of which approximately half comes from gas oil c
RECENT ADVANCES IN UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF OIL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Abstract Results of a four-year API programme on the fate and biological effects of oil spilled in marine environ- ments are summarised. This programme, involving a wide variety of marine species at all life stages, relies heavily on chemical analysis of the water column, Sediments and marine organism tissues for petroleum fractions. Conclusions from classical laboratory work must be tempered by considerations of volatility, solubility and persistency as affected by time. Evidence is presented that negates the widespread concern that marine organisms concentrate petroleum fractions indefinitely and pass them up the food chain. Rksumé On résume les résultats d'un programme API de quatre ans sur le sort et les effets biologiques de pétrole déversé dans le milieu marin. Ce programme qui comprenait l'étude d'une grande variété d'espèces marines à différents stades de leur évolution, était principalement basé sur l'analyse chimique des frac- tions pétrolières présentes dans l`eau, des sédiments et des tissus des organismes marins. Les conclusions des travaux classiques de laboratoire doivent tenir compte de la modification dans le temps de la volatilité, de la solubilité et de la persistance des hydrocarbures. On démontre que l'idée largement répandue selon laquelle les organismes marins concentrent indéfiniment les hydrocarbures et les introduisent dans la chaîne alimentaire est fausse. 1.
Without doubt, oil has been spilled in marine waters sporadically ever since the early days of the petroleum industry. Even before there was an industry, there were natural oil seeps. Johnson' details the locations of seeps in such places as Alaska, the California coast, the Gulf of Mexico, Newfoundland, the Atlantic coast of Central America, the shores of South America (especially the northern area), Africa, Asia Minor, and islands in the South and West Pacific. Currently, the total input of oil from all sources into the oceans is estimated at slightly more than six million metric tons per year, of which one-tenth comes from natural seeps. During World War II, substantial quantities of oil or oil products spilled from sunken tankers throughout the world. Especially numerous were tanker sinkings in the coastal waters of Louisiana and along the east by E. W. MERTENS, Chevron Research Company, Richmond, California, U.S.A., and L. P. HAXBY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. coast of Fl~rida.~ Most of these were the 16750-ton capacity T-2 tankers. When sunk, many were fully laden, and thus, their entire cargo of about 100000 barrels ultimately was imposed upon the local marine community. In contrast, less than 3000 tons were spilled by the tanker collision in San Francisco Bay in January 1971. After World War II, the quantity of peacetime tanker spills surely increased as the world became more dependent upon oce
INTEGRATED PLANNING FOR EXPLORATION7 DEVELOPMENT7 PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORTATION FOR RAPID EXPANSION OF OIL FIELD OPERATIONS Abstract This paper deals with the experience in theintegrated planning of search and exploration, oil-field develop- ment and exploitation and also trunk line transport in West Siberia, which is one of the largest oil- and gas-bearing provinces in the world. Because of its rich oil reserves and favourable geological field structure, West Siberia has become one of the main oil-producing regions in the Soviet Union. The high rate of oil-production growth with the severe natural climatic conditions in this area was the result of using new scientific and technical achieve- ments in developing the oil fields. The principal decisions of actual problems concerning well drilling techniques and technology and field exploitation are discussed in this paper. Great attention is paid to the accelerated con- struction of oil trunk lines with lengths up to 2000 km and pipes up to 50-in diameter. Résumé Cette communication traite de l'expérience acquise dans la planification intégrée de la prospection, du développement et de l'exploitation des gisements pétrolifères et du transport à grande distance par oléoduc du pétrole de la Sibérie Occidentale qui est l'une des régions du monde les plus riches en pétrole et en gaz. Ses grandes réserves et une structure géologique particulièrement favorable ont fait de la Sibérie Occidentale une des principales régions productrices de l'Union Soviétique. La rapide croissance de la production pétrolière malgré les conditions climatiques sévères de cette région est le résultat de l'emploi de conceptions scientifiques et techniques avancées pour la mise en valeur des gisements. La communication décrit les principales solutions nouvelles qui ont permis de résoudre des problèmes techniques de forage et de développement- des gisements. On a porté une attention toute particulière aux procédés de pose accélérée des grands oléoducs atteignant 2000 km de long et 50 pouces de diamètre. 1.
The thirties saw the beginning of the search for oil in Western Siberia. As a result of this work the total positive estimation of the prospects of gas and oil reserves of Western Siberia had been summed up by the year 1941. In 1953 near the settlement of Berezovo the first gas bearing layer was discovered and in 1960 in the lower Urals on the Konda River the first gusher spouted. Later on here was discovered an area bearing com- paratively moderate resources of light oil. In 1961 after the Meghionsky and Ust-Balyksky oil fields had been discovered the total volume of explora- tion work was transferred to the central part of the plain in the region of the latitudinal flow of the Ob River. Successive discoveries of Zapadno-Surgutsky, Loko- sovsky and Sovietsky oil fields in 1962 and 1963 finally proved the high efficiency of the region. In 1963 the government adopted a speci
SOUTH SWAN HILLS SOLVENT FLOOD Abstract The South Swan Hills oil reservoir is a carbonate reef with 890 million barrels of oil originally in place located in north central Alberta. Water injection was started along the southwest edge of the field in 1963. In 1973 a miscible recovery scheme was put into operation in the central portion of the reservoir. An enriched hydrocarbon gas volume equal to 10% of the pore volume is to be injected as the solvent. Equal volumes of water are being injected alternately with the solvent to improve the sweep efficiency of the flood. The miscible flood is expected to increase recovery by 100 million barrels over water flooding. Résumé Le réservoir de pétrole de South Swan Hills est un récif carbonaté, avec 123 million de tonnes de pétrole originellement en place, situé au centre Nord de l'Alberta. L'injection d'eau a commencé au bord sud-ouest du gisement en 1963. En 1973, un plan de récupération miscible a été mis en oeuvre dans la partie centrale du réservoir. Un volume de gaz enrichi, égal en hydrocarbures à 10% du volume des pores, sera injecté en tant que solvant. Des volumes égaux d'eau sont injectés alternativement avec le solvant pour augmenter l'efficacité de balayage. On attend de l'injection miscible qu'elle augmente la récupération de 14 millions de tonnes par rapport à l'injection d'eau. 1.
The South Swan Hills field, one of a group of Devonian reef structures located in north central Alberta, was discovered in 1959 and is estimated to have 890 million brl of oil originally in place. Water injection was started into wells on the south- western edge of the field in 1963 following unitisation of ownership. Engineering studies performed at that time predicted an ultimate recovery of 45% of the oil by water flooding. Due to low market demand a large portion of the field was not placed in production initially. Production increased from 14000 bd in 1963 to 50000 bd in 1972 and totalled 96 million brl by the end of 1972. It was recognised that an opportunity existed to obtain higher oil recovery in the unflooded portion of the field through application of more efficient displacement processes and engineering studies were started in 1970 to consider a miscible flood. The studies concluded that a hydrocarbon miscible flood utilising alternate solvent-water injec- tion could increase oil recovery to 65%. This plan was approved by the unit owners and started in 1973. In this paper the technical problems considered in by J. D. GRIFFITH and A. L. HORNE, Amoco Canada Petroleum Company Ltd., Canada the evaluation are discussed together with a descrip- tion of the project installation and performance to date. 2. DESCRIPTION The South Swan Hills reservoir is a limestone reef in the Beaverhill Lake formation of middle-Devonian age with conventional reef front, lagoonal, and fore- reef development. Water underlies the west edge of the field and the oi
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN PIPELINE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION Abstract Pipe material specifications and possible future requirements are discussed. Recent trends in design principle are examined, in particular, the attempts to prescribe fatigue life of pipelines in service, and the acceptance of some degree of plastic strain. A brief review is given of problems which have arisen in the design and construction of pipelines for arctic conditions and the hostile deep waters of the central and northern North Sea, and measures which are being taken to overcome them. Recent application of safety measures and environ- mental conditions is discussed. Résumé On traite des spécifications sur les materiaux de pipelines et des besoins futurs possibles. On examine les tendances récentes dans les principes de conception, en particulier les efforts que l'on a fait, pour établir la durée de vie limitée par la fatigue des pipelines en service, et l'acceptation d'un certain degré de contrainte plastique. On donne un aperçu sur les problèmes que l'on a rencontrés dans la conception et la construction de pipelines destinés à résister aux conditions arctiques et aux eaux profondes et hostiles de la Mer du Nord centrale et septentrionale, et sur les mesures que l'on prend actuellement pour les résoudre. On traite aussi de l'application récente de mesures de sécurité et des conditions de l'environnement. 1.
2. MATERIALS General None of the potential alternative materials for line pipe have made significant inroads into the almost exclusive use of steel. They appear unlikely to do so in the foreseeable future, unless there is a substantial improvement in their economic viability relative to steel for equivalent duties. In the light of past experience we must approach forecasts of the future scale of steel pipelines with some trepidation. One pipeline of 2.5 m dia. is under design in the USSR. Other factors would indicate, however, that this is exceptional and the bulk of future demand will be for pipe diameters within the capacity of most modern mills. There may well be, however, an increase in demand for thick wall pipe at large dia- meters for submarine line applications. High energy costs and the higher construction costs necessary to install satisfactorily lines of high diameter to wall thickness ratio are likely to limit the economic advan- tage which may be gained from thin walled high tensile strength pipe for land lines. It is not possible within a paper such as this to cover all the developments which have taken place in the pipeline industry over the four years which have elapsed since the last World Petroleum Congress in Moscow in 1971. Manufacturers of the wide range of equipment used within the industry will, quite rightly, claim that their products are under constant develop- ment. Pipeline Operators have their operation and maintenance procedures under constant review. The intention