Compartmentalization (vertical and lateral) is often a major uncertainty at the field appraisal stage, impacting important investment decisions. Unfortunately the most definitive compartmentalization data (dynamic production data or high resolution 4D seismic) are not usually available so early in field life. Usually geometrically equal sectors are defined to start with to be used as a guide to monitor and manage the reservoir. In mature reservoirs, these data are available. The understanding of the different zones and compartments boundaries is crucial for better re-sectorization and better effective management strategies especially in case of the giant field with gas and water injection schemes.
This paper illustrates how indications of compartmentalization and limits of sectors can be achieved by analyzing the sporadic pressure static data dispersed in time and space. The first step of this work is to integrate seismic re-interpretation of the faults with Bottom-Hole Static Pressure (BHSP) analysis to identify acting faulting and barriers. This is achieved by overlapping all isobar maps and then by taking the derivatives of the pressure versus x and y directions. The pressure contrast in space can be highlighted based on a given threshold. If this pressure contrast is overlapped by a seismically identified fault, it can be considered as a barriers or semi-barrier or just absent based on the degree of pressure contrast. The second step is to use the identified boundaries as guidance to limit and confine the different zones and fault blocks that are suspected to act more or less as isolated units. After identifying the boundaries more or less sealing a classification of the static pressure measurements using k-mean value will help to identify the dynamic regions that behave in the same way.
A re-sectorization of the field will be based on those units. A forward calculation of voidage replacement ratio and injection production versus pressure can be used as a criterion for identifying the best sectoring scenario.
Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, 9-12 November 2015. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.
Asphaltenes are the most polar component of crude oils and lead to problems such as well-bore and pipeline clogging during extraction and transportation of crude oil. Previous works have successfully used ionic and nonionic surfactants to delay and prevent asphaltene precipitation. It has also been shown that water in pipelines, delays deposition. In this work, the effect of combining water and brine with ionic and nonionic surfactants are investigated in two Middle Eastern crude oils. Results indicate that water and brine do not change the amount of asphaltenes precipitated. The dispersing action of a nonionic surfactant BA, which acts on a colloidal scale to lower aggregate size and truncate asphaltene growth, is not altered by water / brine. The addition of an ionic surfactant, dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid, which molecularly solubilizes the asphaltenes via electrostatic interactions, acts antagonistically when water / brine is present, and destabilizes the crude oil. The above effects are attributed to changes in the electrostatic interactions between the surfactant and the asphaltenes, in the presence of water / brine.
Callegaro, Chiara (eni SpA) | Bartosek, Martin (eni SpA) | Nobili, Marianna (eni SpA) | Masserano, Franco (eni SpA) | Pollero, Marco (eni SpA) | Baz, Doaa Mousa M. (Belayim Petroleum Company) | Kortam, Mostafa Mahmoud (Belayim Petroleum Company)
The whole industry seeks to extend the economic life of existing brown fields, due to the difficulty of discovering new giant assets. The efficiency of mature waterfloods may be drastically improved by means of new technologies in order to recover a significant amount of unswept oil. IOR and EOR processes were investigated to increase oil production in a giant brown field in North Africa, developed by means of peripheral sea water injection. Current water injection scheme shows not optimal sweep efficiency and moderate recovery factor due to geological heterogeneity and unfavorable mobility ratio. This work describes the efforts to maximize water injection efficiency by means of the combination of different IOR and EOR techniques with focus on low salinity water.
A dedicated plan to enhance water injection was implemented considering the following pilots: a) water conformance by Thermally Activated Particles (TAP) tested in 2009 and extension planned 2015; b) polymer flooding started in the second half of 2015; c) Low Salinity (LS) water flood planned for 2016. In addition, the combination of the above technologies is under study and will be further evaluated based on the results of pilots.
LS water benefits were investigated within a comprehensive EOR study. First, tertiary corefloods on porous media were performed, showing an evident EOR effect compared with sea water, in increasing the oil recovery up to 7%. Modeling and uncertainty quantification studies showed that LS water may have a significant potential and can be synergically combined with polymer injection to maximize production. A sequence of Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests (SWCTTs) was performed in the second half of 2014 to quickly evaluate LS performance at the well scale resolution. Cycles of injection, shut-in and production periods were performed on a selected well to measure the residual oil saturation (Sor) after sea water and LS water. Promising results were achieved for LS, showing a considerable reduction in residual oil, of about 5-11 saturation units (s.u.) compared to sea water. The SWCTTs were used as a powerful tool to achieve a quick EOR response and confirmed low salinity potential.
The next phase foresees an interwell pilot to test the technology at a larger scale, whose design is currently ongoing. Moreover, the opportunity to optimize the existing polymer injection in a Low Salinity Polymer (LSP) treatment is under study to increase production and reduce project costs.
Klinkenbijl, Jeanine (Shell Global Solutions International B.V) | Brok, Theo (Shell Global Solutions International B.V) | Critchfield, Jim (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc) | Valenzuela, Diego (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc) | Lee, Danmi (Shell Global Solutions International)
The development of more complex energy sources is increasing to meet the growing demand for more energy. Such gas resources may be more contaminated, more complex, more costly, and contain more CO2 and H2S. At the same time, tighter environmental and product specifications necessitate smarter gas processing. This needs to be achieved by stretching current processes and developing reliable new technologies to effectively address the challenges of managing complex gases.
One area of gas processing that is well established is Acid Aided Regeneration (AAR) technology: the use of acids to reduce the regeneration steam of amine treating units has been applied since the 1960s, and is nowadays often referred to as a Formulated amine. Or, achieve a lower specification in the treated gas, due to a lower leanness in the solvent when the regeneration heat is kept constant, and thereby reduce environmental (CO2 and/or SO2) emissions.
Shell has carried out an extensive study on the use and misuse of AAR, focusing on the actual effects in operation and comparing unit performance with results of process simulation in the presence of acids in an amine solvent.
The operational effects observed are explained and general guidelines for application discussed. Although the focus of the application is on low pressure selective design (Tail Gas Treating Units), the main effects for high pressure application are also addressed in the study. In the paper the basis for the Shells AAR technology is described: Detailed analysis of process performance (both analytical solvent analysis and actual plant performance data) in aqueous amine treating units in a wide variety of applications. This gives good and consistent insight in the qualitative and quantitative results of acid addition to amine solvents and measured contaminant removal. A theoretical discussion on the acid effects in an amine solution, focusing on the energy for regeneration of the amine, as well as the option to meet a lower contaminant specification with a constant regeneration energy requirement by the addition of an acid to the amine solution.
Detailed analysis of process performance (both analytical solvent analysis and actual plant performance data) in aqueous amine treating units in a wide variety of applications. This gives good and consistent insight in the qualitative and quantitative results of acid addition to amine solvents and measured contaminant removal.
A theoretical discussion on the acid effects in an amine solution, focusing on the energy for regeneration of the amine, as well as the option to meet a lower contaminant specification with a constant regeneration energy requirement by the addition of an acid to the amine solution.
Objectives: The objective of this paper is to highlight the development & role of young Emiratis during commissioning of new refinery with integrated process units. This opportunity provides them the right platform to play a vital role & to create futuristic national manpower with strong national integrity, competence & leadership to adopt modern technology, a culture of participation and ultimately to contribute as proud Emiratis.
Al Suwaidi, Muna (ADCO Cecilia Malagon) | Al-Mohammad, Mohammad (ADCO Cecilia Malagon) | Al Shamsi, Juma (ADCO Cecilia Malagon) | Al-Reyami, Mazin (ADCO Cecilia Malagon) | Amanov, Batyr (ADCO Cecilia Malagon) | Hariri, Nour (Schlumberger) | Sharma, Prateek (Schlumberger) | Husien, Mohammad (Schlumberger)
Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO), one of the major Oil and Gas producers in the United Arab Emirates embarked in a new challenge to drill and exploration well in a new field that had only one offset well drilled in the 1980's. ADCO planned to have a step change in how to manage risk, engineering and operations in order to enhance drilling performance and reduce nonproductive time while maintaining the highest HSE standards. A detail risk management plan and engineering process was developed and the main drilling services were bundle for the most critical well sections 12.25 and 8.5 in order to guarantee seamless operations. The results of the implementation of this methology as well as the new initiative based on an active participation and cooperation between ADCO and the Drilling Service Company in all the phases of the well were outstanding and exceeded management expectations with regards to enhancement in drilling performance by optimizing ROP; reduction on NPT by reducing wellbore stability problems; ensuring high quality data acquisition; minimizing well cost. The excellent results achieved in this exploration well included safely drilling and in an efficient manner, considering that very limited historical data was available, the power of drilling services integration proven to be the foundation of success.
Quest is the world's first commercial-scale CCS project in the oil sands. Quest is an important proof-point for Shell, demonstrating integrated CCS operations as model for advancing and deploying CCS technology and supporting our commitment on action on climate change.
CO2 management is becoming increasingly more important in a carbon constrained world and implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) adds cost to already cost constrained operations. However, cost reduction through deployment is expected and the First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) projects provide the perfect opportunity to optimize the integration of CCS into oil and gas projects and overcome some of the initial challenges all new processes face. This paper will discuss the approach to CCS projects taken by Shell and share some of the key findings from forthcoming start-up of the FOAK Quest project.
Shell has developed a global portfolio of CCS demonstration projects driven by the recognition that carbon capture and storage is currently the only technology available to mitigate emissions from large scale fossil fuel use. Shell's projects cover a wide range of technologies and consist of targeted applications that are of relevance to the wider oil and gas industry. The Shell commercial and project portfolio includes Peterhead, Quest, Technology Centre Mongstad and Gorgon commercial scale projects. Shell Cansolv technology is also already in use at SaskPower's Boundary Dam CCS project. These projects have demonstrated that the approach required when implementing a CCS project is similar to that of any major oil and gas project. However, the focus on capturing, and sharing, the learnings is critical to ensuring that follow on projects can benefit from the current portfolio of demonstration projects.
The Quest project is the first carbon capture and storage project of a commercial scale in the heavy oil industry. CO2 will be captured from three hydrogen manufacturing units (HMU) of the Shell Scotford Upgrader, a facility that uses hydrogen to upgrade the bitumen from the mines to synthetic crude. The CO2 will be compressed, dehydrated and transported ~64 km for injection into a saline aquifer for storage.
The CO2 capture technology, ADIP-X, is a common process within gas processing and LNG. However, the successful integration of the capture plant into the HMU operation is a critical component and a key focus of the knowledge management/sharing initiative implemented for the Quest project.
In addition, it is expected that the start-up and operation of the facilities - including the integrally geared CO2 compressor, the CO2 dehydration plant, CO2 pipeline and wells first injection - will provide key learnings that can be implemented in future projects for risk and cost reduction and also unit optimization.
In conclusion, First-of-a-Kind projects offer significant opportunities to capture key learnings for future project cost reduction and design optimization. Hence, Shell has implemented a dedicated knowledge capturing and dissemination process for the Quest CCS project, of which some results will be presented here.
Natural gas will play the role, in the years to come, of the main fossil fuel, even the energetic scenario is moving to the renewable sources as an alternative for the far future; natural gas will act as a "bridge" to guarantee the transition to the "green energy" from the actual one [
As a matter of fact the era of easy gas is "terminated", now there is the need of large investments to connect big gas reservoirs located in far and sometimes stranded locations. To have access to these reservoirs, from the logistic and economical point of view of the exploitation, the cost for gathering natural gas has to be reduced dramatically. The cost cut has to affect not only the construction but also the operational duties. So any new solution has to be properly checked, before to be put in place, to assure it must be as reliable as the actual currently used. From the mid of the 90' it has been shown as the adoption of very high pressure for the transportation of large amount of natural gas it's the easiest solution to be used; the main reason of that it's because it's based on the enhancement of current technologies used for the manufacturing of the material, for the construction and maintenance of the gas pipeline; it doesn't need any break through leap that may create a divide with the actual way or working.
The material proposed is C steel with higher strength in term of yield and tensile stress. Material as carbon steel above API 5L X80 and X90 and in some cases also X100 have been considered for this application. The paper is aimed to highlight the topic need to better understand the use of API 5L X80 C steel for pipeline (UOE & Spiral welded) to be used for mild/harsh scenarios in onshore pipeline laying.
Eni committed its interest on pipeline high strength steels by combining experimental researches and theoretic studies on structural integrity & reliability [
The scope is to address the design phase towards quantitative safety targets for which the reliability level specified by designer and desired by operator is pursued. X80 pipeline steel had so far not been used mainly because the lower steels grade were suitable for any of the previous applications, and also because of the predominant attitude in O&G sector to adopt new solutions is conservative; furthermore the lack of experience on "in field application", it's another reason to "freeze" the evolution process.
This project was aimed to fill these gaps through an integrated "full scale and realistic long term tests" approach. The innovation embedded in this R&D project is to have an overall cycle approach, involving the analysis of aspect related to the engineering phase, enhancement in the construction methods, and last but not the least also the maintenance and daily operational duties.
This paper outlines the Petrofac approach to developing local/regional talent through its Petrofac Academy, which provides development for all employees. This includes the Graduate Development Programme, which supports the business strategy to deliver projects utilizing local capability. This diverse cadre of young talent is nurtured to spearhead future business growth in the current and potential business footprint of the company. Validation of the future potential/ongoing development of this group is a key business objective.
Through the Graduate Development Programme, over the last four years, over a 100 (per year), multidiscipline graduate engineers have been recruited from over 18 different countries. The selection, initial training and ongoing development over three years aims to build a strong group of future leaders with a robust technical skillset needed in the petroleum industry. The methods used includes the use of psychometric tools, the organisations competency framework and talent validation of potential. The analysis involves ongoing review, where trainers and facilitators observe and assess the graduate pool across a range of criteria using the tools outlined above.
The validation of potential for the company's junior talent pool is based on the career progression and outcome of employees having gone through the Graduate Development Programme. Collated data from a set of graduate engineers from diverse nationalities, primarily from emerging/frontier economies, has been analysed to understand if the tools used are consistent in their assessment of potential future success in Petrofac and ensuring both technical and managerial expertise. The data covers development from structured and blended learning, site exposure and on the job training. The analysis has highlighted that adaptation of the tools is necessary and appropriate to accommodate the range of cultures, nationalities, educational backgrounds and expectations. The potential of an individual matures at different rates especially in the early stages of an employee's career. The range of development assignments and experiences highlights that a contextual appreciation is needed when projecting an employee's potential. This is also evident typically when undertaking a career planning process and discussion. The key development objective, to accelerate the graduate into key/critical engineering, construction and project roles faster than the industry norm, requires careful calibration and constant "checks and balances" to ensure the optimum result for both the graduate and the company.
The petroleum industry has an ongoing need to build capability to push the business and technical boundaries in frontier geographical environments and associated emerging economies. This paper outlines how junior talent can be groomed and potential realized in a robust way to meet the need for the next generation of petro industry savvy professionals who can then easily integrate into and work in these emerging economies/environments.