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**Industry**

**Oilfield Places**

**Technology**

Numerical manifold method (NMM) has been proposed to simulate discontinuous rock mass for many years. Due to the advantages of the algorithm in processing discontinuous problems, this method has also been applied to model fracture process for both continuous and discontinuous solids. NMM still has great potential for further development, especially on high-order manifold cover functions, fluid-structure interactions, multiple crack generation and propagation, three-dimensional manifold methods, etc. This paper presents three-dimensional extension of the numerical manifold method by developing 3-D mathematical and physical covers for blocky rock mass system. Three-dimensional blocky rocks are considered as physical covers, while the mathematical covers are arbitrarily constructed by using regular brick elements as the traditional finite element method. Cutting random shape of rock mass is a key issue in the 3-D manifold method too. A few case studies show that the developed three-dimensional cutting program can simulate more approximately complicated rock mass system, while the generation of the physical and mathematical covers makes it very convenient to numerically simulate 3-D discontinuous blocky rock system. Based on advantages of the existent 2-D simplex integration formulas, a scheme for 3-D version has been put forward.

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-129

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

SPE Disciplines:

Wattimena, R.K. (Department of Mining Engineering, Institut Teknologi ) | Rai, M.A. (Department of Mining Engineering, Institut Teknologi ) | Kramadibrata, S.S. (Department of Mining Engineering, Institut Teknologi ) | Arif, I. (Department of Mining Engineering, Institut Teknologi ) | Dwinagara, B. (Department of Mining Engineering )

A method for estimating rock mass long-term strength (σLT) using the results of

Reliable estimate of rock mass strength is required for almost any form of analysis used for the design of underground excavations. Hoek and Brown [1] proposed a method for obtaining estimates of the strength of jointed rock masses, based upon an assessment of the interlocking of rock blocks and the condition of the surfaces between these blocks. This method was modified over the years in order to meet the needs of users who applied it to problems that were not considered when the original criterion was developed. A review of the development of the criterion and of the equations proposed at various stages in this development is given in [2]. Although it is very useful for estimating the rock mass strength, the Hoek-Brown criterion can not be used in estimation of rock mass longterm strength, for which there is no method currently applicable [3, 4, 5]. This work suggests an alternative method for estimating the longterm strength of the rock mass, in particular that in Pongkor underground gold mine, Indonesia. It combined laboratory test,

Among others, uniaxial and triaxial compression tests seem to be the most frequent tests conducted for design purposes. However, researches have revealed that the uniaxial compressive strength is not an intrinsic material property, as it depends on the specimen geometry (size and shape) and loading rates. Researches on the geometrical effects have concluded that there is a reduction in strength with increasing sample size. Medhurst and Brown [6] have reported that for coal from Moura mine in Australia, the ‘critical’ sample size is about one metre, above which the strength remains constant. This argument was further extended by Hoek and Brown [2] who suggested that when dealing with large scale rock masses, the strength will reach a constant value when the size of individual rock pieces is sufficiently small in relation to the overall size of the structure being considered. A number of studies also reported that the strength decreases as the sample slenderness increases.

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-061

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

Industry:

- Materials > Metals & Mining (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.92)

1. Introduction

The Sabor river, located in the NE of Portugal, is a right bank tributary of the Douro river. The Baixo Sabor Hydroelectric Development is owned by the EDP (the Portuguese Electricity Company), and will have two schemes, equipped with reversible generating units, the main one situated nearly 12.6 km from the Sabor river mouth, and the downstream one at about 3 km. The main (upstream) scheme productivity will be of 181 GWh/year [1], not considering the one obtained by pumping. The upstream reservoir (Fig. 1) has a gross capacity of about 1,090 hm3 (630 hm3 for hydroelectric purposes) that will be created by a 123 m high concrete arch dam, with a volume of about 700,000 m3. Located in the dam body, there will be a controlled spillway, with a capacity of 5,000 m3/s, discharging in a stilling basin, and a bottom outlet with a maximum discharge capacity of 220 m3/s [1]. A shaft type powerhouse, at the right bank, will be equipped with two reversible units, located in independent wells, with a diameter of 11.5 m, a height of 79 m, and topped by an unloading and erection building. The nominal peak load of each unit is 70 MW, under a 93 m head [1]. The pressure tunnels, also independent, have a 5.7 m diameter and approximately parallel layouts. Fig. 1. Upstream scheme transversal section [1]. The diversion works will consist of two cofferdams and a 400 m long tunnel, with a diameter of 7 m.

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-028

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.73)

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-036

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (1.00)

Yagiz, S. (Pamukkale University, Geological Engineering Department) | Rostami, J. (Penn State University, Energy and Mineral Engineering, University park) | Ozdemir, L. (Earth Mechanics Institute of Colorado School of Mines)

One of the most important parameters for predicting the TBM penetration rate is engineering properties of the rock mass. To predict TBM performance, several models have been developed by various researchers [1- 14].The two main group of models include empirical and semi-theoretical approaches. The interrelationship between cutter wear, machine operation, continuous mucking, and support installations requires an evaluation of many factors affecting TBM performance. All mechanical rock-cutting tools share the same principles; hence, many efforts have been made to develop performance prediction models and theories offering explanations into the forcepenetration behavior of rocks [9, 14-20]. The rock cutting process deals with the indentation of a rock surface by a cutting tool. In the case of disc cutters, which are the most common cutting tool on hard rock TBMs, the indentation is followed by a forward movement, leaving behind it a groove and fractured and crushed rock [21]. The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) of the rock are the most common rock properties in various mining and civil construction projects. These tests are often used as input parameters in TBM performance prediction models. However, the rock strength alone is not enough to predict penetration rate of the TBM, where the fractured faulted rock masses are to be encountered. Therefore, various rock tests and data evaluation techniques have been introduced to account for rock mass properties [9, 13, 21-24]. The most common models to predicting TBM penetration rate are the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) performance models [1, 3].

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-187

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (1.00)

When drilling wells through shales, the rock mechanics and physico-chemical properties of shales are critical to design the trajectory of wells, mud weight as well the mud chemical composition. In spite of their large occurrence, shales are also among the lesser known rocks. Laboratory campaign is essential in evaluation of potential borehole stability problems, been crucial to build and calibrate geomechanics models. This paper presents a laboratory investigation to characterize the mechanical and physical-chemical properties of a Norwegian North Sea Shale. The shale has been characterized and a wide range of petrographical, mechanical and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. An integrated characterization of the shale is presented. Procedures for sample handling, testing and interpretation of the laboratory campaign have been described and presented. The main purpose of this paper is to present a developed methodology and interpretation of the Norwegian North Sea results.

1. Introducion

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-052

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

Oilfield Places:

- North America > United States > Oklahoma > Light Gas Field (0.98)
- Europe > Norway > North Sea > Norwegian North Sea (0.98)

SPE Disciplines:

Zhang, Y.B. (State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology) | Tang, C.A. (Center for Rock Instability & Seismicity Research, Dalian University of Technology) | Liang, Z.Z. (Center for Rock Instability & Seismicity Research, Dalian University of Technology) | Zuo, Y.J. (Research Center for Numerical Tests on Material Failure, Dalian University) | Zhang, Y.J. (Research Center for Numerical Tests on Material Failure, Dalian University)

The RFPA3D code is based on the theory of elastic-damage mechanics and FEM (finite element method). In RFPA3D, the solid or material is assumed to be composed of many elements (8-nodal hexahedral isoparametric element at present) with the same size.

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-146

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

Industry:

- Information Technology (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

- IT > AI > Representation & Reasoning (0.69)
- IT > Communications > Networks (0.47)

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-130

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

SPE Disciplines:

The conceptual idea behind the observational method can be described as an active process where we will be able to modify and adapt our design to actual geological conditions by means of additional information coming from observation during construction. This will in many cases give a more economic design. A successful application must be based on that all parties involved in the project acknowledge the conceptual idea in which an understanding of how geological uncertainties can be reduced by observations is essential. Further formal and practical requirements must be fulfilled. The contractual prerequisites must also be established. The observational method must also have a clear role to play in the execution phase and must be integrated into the production process. In the paper the connection between the observational method and modern developments in probabilistic method

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-012

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.68)
- Materials > Construction Materials (0.46)

SPE Disciplines:

- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reserves Evaluation > Probabilistic methods (0.54)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (0.48)
- Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Geologic modeling (0.48)
- Management and Information > Strategic Planning and Management > Project management (0.34)

Technology:

- IT > AI > Representation & Reasoning > Uncertainty > Bayesian Inference (0.46)
- IT > AI > Machine Learning > Bayesian Networks (0.46)

ISRM-ARMS5-2008-148

ISRM International Symposium - 5th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium

Industry:

- Government (0.95)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.93)

SPE Disciplines: