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to

GoThis paper describes the validity of the Multiple Yield Model to the earthquake response analysis of the discontinuous rock by two examples of the actual collapsed rock slope caused during the Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004 (M 6.8) and the large scale and/or very important facility like as a nuclear power station on rock. Results show that geometrical and mechanical conditions of joints have strong influence on the seismic response.

The earthquake response analysis of rock mass is generally performed as elastic body. However, rock masses are essentially discontinuous, which have a lot of joint, fissure and others. The mechanical behavior of rock mass is strongly controlled by the mechanical property and geometrical conditions of discontinuities such as orientation, dip angle, spacing, number of set. The dynamic response analysis of the equivalent continuous rock with discontinuities which are depended on confining stress and have strong nonlinearity, have not been practicable due to use the direct integration. But we could be thought that the constitutive equations of joint are improved from the results of dynamic cyclic direct shear test and the technique of calculation ability has been developed rapidly, therefore dynamic analysis becomes now a practicable stage. We describe the results of two cases of earthquake response analytical results by the Multiple Yield Model (hereafter, it is abbreviated as MYM) (Sasaki et al. 1994).

3.1 The collapsed slope analysis in Mid Niigata prefecture Earthquake (M 6.8), Japan, in 2004

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-122

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

acceleration, analysis, deformation, discontinuous rock, displacement, Earthquake, earthquake response analysis, Horizontal, mass, model, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, Sasaki, seismic processing and interpretation, seismic response, shear, slope, stiffness, stress, structural geology, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wellbore Design, wellbore integrity, yoshinaka

SPE Disciplines:

In many engineering projects which are carried out in rock should deal with weathering mechanisms that weaken the rock mass as a consequence of the changes in rock material. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are known to have sound and stiff structure. This situation is valid in unweathered and slightly weathered stages. By the increase of weathering these rocks show sharp decrease in physico-mechanical properties. This situation is observed in Bursa (Turkey) on diorites as a mafic rock and on dunites and pyroxenites which are the two major ultramafic rocks. Dunites and pyroxenite also tend to serpentinize in every stage of weathering. The change of the engineering properties of these rocks in varying weathering grades were determined by field and laboratory studies. Scan-line studies as proposed by ISRM (2007) and Schmidt hammer tests are carried out during field surveys. Mineralogical evaluations, chemical indices, physical properties, uniaxial compressive strengths and slake durability tests were performed during the laboratory studies. According to the field and laboratory studies the weathering profiles of these rocks were determined. It was concluded that serpentinization controlled the engineering properties of dunites and pyroxenites by increasing weathering grades. On the other hand the increase of fractures and reduction of grain sizes are the main factors influencing the engineering properties of diorites due to weathering.

Rocks under weathering effects have varying properties which mostly weaken rock material and consequently the rock mass. Due to the disadvantages of field studies on ultramafic rocks from the view of weathering properties and the difficulties of sample preparation for laboratory studies there exist a lack on the properties of weathering of ultramafic rocks in the literature. In this study, ultramafic and mafic rocks exposed in Bursa- Orhaneli region were investigated from the view of weathering.

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-023

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

change, construction materials, diorite, dunite, Engineering, engineering property, field, grade, laboratory, LABORATORY study, mineral, physico-mechanical property, property, pyroxenite, relationship, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, specific gravity, strength, study, uniaxial compressive, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wellbore Design, wellbore integrity

Industry:

- Materials > Construction Materials (0.64)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.48)

SPE Disciplines:

The rock mass deformation modulus is an important input parameter in deformation analysis of rock mass. The quantity of this parameter is affected by intact rock strength and rock mass environment that is considered in this paper by sensitivity analysis of rock mass classification related empirical equations. Results show that the influence of rock mass environment on rock mass modulus is more than intact rock strength especially in RMR and GSI classification systems. Whereas, difference of intact rock strength and rock mass environment effect is low in Q and RMi systems.

The rock mass deformation modulus is an important input parameter in any analysis of rock structures and structures in or on rock. Although field tests are better methods to determine this parameter, but they are so time consuming and imply notable costs and operational difficulties. The rock mass modulus is affected by intact rock strength (

2 SENSITIVE ANALYSIS OF EPIRICAL EQUATIONS

In this paper the influence of

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-039

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

classification, deformation modulus, empirical equation, equation, input, intact rock strength, management and information, mass, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, rock mass, rock mass deformation modulus, rock mass environment, rock mass modulus, sensitivity analysis, Upstream Oil & Gas, variation

SPE Disciplines:

Mirzaei, H. (Shahrood University of Technology) | Kakaie, R. (Shahrood University of Technology) | Jalali, S. M.E. (Shahrood University of Technology) | Shariati, M. (Shahrood University of Technology) | Hassani, B. (Shahrood University of Technology)

Rock masses commonly contain discontinuities in the form of cracks and joints. Under various loads, new cracks initiate from the tips of pre-existing cracks (flaws). Propagation of new cracks ultimately leads to crack coalescence and flnal failure of the medium. In this paper, crack propagation and coalescence mechanism in rock-like materials (gypsum specimens) containing two parallel and open flaws under uniaxial compressive loads are experimentally investigated. In cubic specimens with two inclined flaws, the length of connection line between two flaws (bridge distance) and connection line inclination angle (bridge angle) are varied under fixed flaw angle and flaw length and the crack propagation and coalescence mechanism are studied. Two types of cracks initiate from the tips of the flaws: wing cracks and secondary cracks. Wing cracks, secondary cracks or combination of them produce the coalescence of the flaws. For bridge angle of 90◦, the bridge distance of two flaws has no effect on the crack propagation and coalescence pattern but the bridge angle has important role and controls the propagation and coalescence pattern. For different bridge angles (45◦ −120◦), four coalescence mode including shear, shear – tension, tension – shear and tension modes are observed.

Various experimental research are carried out on different kind of materials, including Plaster of Paris (Lajtai 1980), sandstones (Petit & Barquins 1988), marble (Huang et al. 1990, Wong & Einstein 2006), gypsum (Reyes & Einstein 1991, Shen 1993, Bobet & Einstein 1998, Sagong & Bobet 2002) and artificial sandstone (Wong & Chau 1998, 2001). In different studies, crack propagation and coalescence are investigated on specimens with two open/closed flaws (Shen 1993, Bobet 1997), three and 16 open flaws (Sagong & Bobet 2002) and three closed flaws (Wong et al. 2001, Park & Bobet 2007).

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-054

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

Bridge, bridge angle, Coalescence, construction materials, crack, crack propagation, experimental investigation, flaw, fracture, inclination, mechanics, mechanism, propagation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, Rock mechanics, secondary crack, specimen, uniaxial compression, Upstream Oil & Gas, wing crack

Industry:

- Materials > Construction Materials (0.77)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.51)

Mechanical rock properties affect borehole pressure and permeability during production. The objective of this paper is to estimate and predict potential borehole failures and form a geomechanical model detailing the most likely areas to fail under drilling, completion or borehole collapse stress. A model of the fracture patterns of the area will be made and compared with the structural geology of the zone. This project uses data found in petrophysical logs for the study of geomechanical properties, later assisting in geomechanical correlations throughout the reservoir. The elastic and mechanical constants ofYoung modulus (E), Poisson ratio (

This paper focuses on a carbonate reservoir of the Middle East. As the work is being done on a limestone reservoir it is predicted to encounter mostly brittle and fractured rocks that are classified as strong zones (SZ); while more ductile rocks are in zones called weak zones (WZ). Therefore knowing the zone properties, as well as the stresses required to cause failure can allow more secure drilling operations in the future.

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-172

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

calculation, carmichael, classification, deformation, direction, equation, geomechanical study, middle-eastern reservoir, MPa, net deformation, overburden, petrophysical property, prediction, production, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, rock, shear, stress, tertiary stress, Upstream Oil & Gas, well

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (1.00)

Estimation of the deformation modulus of rock mass is one of the most important design parameters in a rock engineering project. This paper presents the results of series of laboratory experiments and in-situ measurements of deformation modulus of intact rock and rock mass in Karun dam in Iran. The study aimed at obtaining a correlation between the field and lab deformation modulus in the studied region. Total number of 51 samples were collected and tested in the technical and soil mechanics laboratory according to ASTM and ISRM standard methods in order to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock. Also, in-situ deformation modulus of rock mass was measured using dilatometer tests. Correlation was developed between the field and lab deformation modulus which allows estimation of this parameter to be made in nearby regions. The detailed lab procedure and the results are presented in this paper.

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-187

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Reservoir geomechanics (0.94)

Failure in brittle rocks is generally related to initiation, propagation and coalescence of cracks. Crack initiation, propagation and stress redistribution induce rock damage around the excavated space eventually leading to breakout, notch formation and abrupt failure. Based on the analytical solution for sliding crack model, crack initiation threshold and comparison between the stress intensity factor at the tip of the preexisting cracks and the fracture toughness, a method is introduced for predicting the unstable zones with potential for crack initiation around underground spaces. The method needs the crack initiation threshold, principal stresses around the space and fracture toughness as main input parameters. This method is then used for predicting the unstable zone around a circular space and rock characteristics are chosen to be equal to the rock mass around a tunnel in URL, Canada. Additionally, the effect of different parameters on the shape and extent of the unstable zone predicted by this method is discussed.

Rocks failure is generally assumed to be the consequence of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. Crack initiation and coalescence stages are associated with stress levels of crack initiation and crack damage threshold. Due to the stress redistribution induced by excavation of an underground space, the mechanical properties of the rock surrounding the opening are changed. Knowledge of the extent of the excavation damaged zone is important for design and construction of underground excavations. So it is important to have a suitable criterion to predict the onset of this kind of damage. Due to the extensive studies on stability analysis in underground spaces, which are excavated in brittle rocks, the role of crack initiation threshold and crack growth theories are widely considered in recent researches. The relation between crack growth threshold and fracture mechanic theories also studied in literature.

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-074

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

crack, crack growth, crack growth theory, crack initiation, crack initiation threshold, effect, equation, fracture, fracture toughness, hydraulic fracturing, initiation, Martin, mechanics, method, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, stress, theory, underground space, Upstream Oil & Gas, variation, well completion

SPE Disciplines:

The strength properties of two granitic rocks, Laurentian and Stanstead (with average grain size of 0.62mm and 1.13mm respectively) have been studied as a function of sample diameter and loading rate. The static and dynamic tensile strength tests were conducted over a diameter range of 19mm to 75 mm. The static Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) tests were conducted over the same range of the diameters whereas the dynamic UCS tests were conducted using 19mm and 25mm diameters. The compressive strengths under static load were found to be insensitive over these diameters, but for tensile tests under both static and dynamic loading, 25mm diameter would be considered the lower limit for both rocks. Both rocks exhibited significant rate sensitivity showing an approximately linear increase with stress rate within the range of load rate of 106–107 MPa/s employed. The dynamic amplification factor (DF) for the coarser grained Stanstead was higher than that of Laurentian under compression. The amplification factor with increasing load rate for tensile strength was five to eight times that of the static value; the same for the dynamic compressive strength was less than a factor of two even over a much higher load rate.

Rocks are characterized by discontinuities ranging from macro- to micro-scale. These discontinuities play a major role in controlling their response under different loading conditions at all scales. Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus is the most commonly used method for the measurement of dynamic tensile and compressive strength. Many significant improvements have been made to the test since its inception, and an increase in the dynamic strength with varying loading rates have been reported by many researchers (Grady & Kipp, 1987, Frew et al. 2001, 2002 & Wang et al. 2006, 2009).

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-057

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

compressive strength test, diameter, dynamic compressive strength, dynamic tensile, dynamic tensile strength, dynamic tensile strength test, granite, granitic rock, hydraulic fracturing, Laurentian, loading, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock, seismic processing and interpretation, specimen, specimen diameter, Stanstead, Stanstead granite, strength, tensile strength, test, Upstream Oil & Gas, well completion

SPE Disciplines:

Deformation rebound in a blast-damaged cutback rock mass slope atOkTedi Mine was monitored over three years. Geology and structure is complex. A bull-nose shaped, up to 150m horizontally wide, slice of slope was cutback over a crest length and height of 500m and 200 m, respectively. Monitored rebound was proportional to horizontal cutback distance. Purpose, strategy and accuracy of monitoring and the interpretation approach to distinguish global pit slope displacements from the local component solely attributable to rebound of slope cutback area are discussed. Simple elastic numerical modelling did not adequately account for the observed displacements. Observed response is likely better explained in terms of non-elastic dilation and shear sliding along geological structures in the rock mass than just simple elastic slope rebound. Effective rock mass modulus required to match monitored rebound is presented. Backanalysis using more sophisticated numerical tools such as UDEC would provide better insight to factors impacting the monitored rebound.

1.1 Mine Background

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-139

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

blast-damaged cutback rock slope, centre, computerized survey, crest, cutback, cutback slope, December, Deformation Rebound, displacement, face, inclinometer, installation, LIFT, metals & mining, rebound, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir geomechanics, slope, structural geology, Upstream Oil & Gas

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.71)
- Materials > Metals & Mining (0.49)

SPE Disciplines:

Modeling the behavior of rock masses consisting of a large number of layers is often necessary in mining applications (e.g. coal mining). Such a modeling can be carried out in a discontinuum manner by explicit introduction of joints using either the finite element or distinct element approach. When the number of layers to be modeled is excessively large it is advantageous to devise a continuum-based method. A continuum description of a layered medium can be formulated as long as consistency and statistical homogeneity in joint properties and spacing can be established. However, when joint slips are large and rock layers do bend as they slip against each other continuum-based models based on standard conventional continuum theories (e.g. ubiquitous joint model) may considerably overestimate the deformation since the bending rigidity of the rock layers are not incorporated in such model formulations.

ISRM-EUROCK-2010-033

ISRM International Symposium - EUROCK 2010

component, Cosserat, Cosserat model, deformation, direction, failure, layer, layered rock, perpendicular, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rock layer, shear, shear strength, shear stress component, stiffness, strength, stress, ubiquitous joint model, Upstream Oil & Gas

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