The rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration and production into the Arctic Region will require advanced interdisciplinary technical and management approaches toachieve international standards. This paper explores the current status of Arcticexploration activities with a focus on northern Russia, and expands on lessons learned from other Arctic and sub-Arctic projects such as Sakhalin, Shtokman, andBeaufort Sea US and Canada. Coordination of multinational oil and gas organizationsfor environmental, health, safety, and security performance to international standardsrequires considerable careful multifaceted planning. Fundamental to success areboth cultural and regulatory alignment processes, and a recognition of the needfor interdisciplinary technological and management considerations to cover thechallenges in physical, chemical, biological, and social components. This paper identifies specific emerging Arctic considerations which highlight the need forinterdisciplinary approaches such as sea ice dynamics, navigation, undersea completiontechnologies, logistics, meteorology, satellite communications in Polar regions,permafrost, marine ecology and biodiversity (fisheries, birds, mammals, plankton),native people's, and application of international laws, treaties,, and standards. Meeting the challenges of the Arctic will require substantial increases in investment, coordination, cooperation, and interdisciplinary scientific knowledge.
From the point-of-view of a solutions provider the wastewater treatment should be straight forward: once given the composition of the feed and the required composition of the effluent, today's technology allows formulating a set of solutions which best meets the operator's and the regulatory criteria.
The problem with wastewater in the unconventional gas exploration and production operations is that there are large volumes to be handled and treated. To add complexity, composition varies for the same well in time and varies even more from area to area of development. Also, the requirements for the cleaned fluid vary from operator to operator and by region. Moreover, management of the water based fluids is under the pressure and scrutiny of various regulating agencies: public, privately, or governmentally run. All these constraints make the vetting of treatment methods and technologies to be a very dynamic and intensive process.
Our findings during the process of formulating a set of solutions shows that a deep understanding of the problems, combined with close collaboration with the operators and regulators along with solid basic engineering practices are the key to success.
Our experience would benefit the new developments in other unconventional exploration and production area in Asia by showing the steps that were undertaken to insure solutions are up to the highest standards.
The process of finding and testing various waste water treatment technologies to formulate a flexible comprehensive set of methods will be described. Laboratory results of various samples of water will be presented as well as the challenges that were overcome for obtaining consistent, reliable analytical data. The oilfield tough requirement presented to new technologies translates as: rugged, flexible, mobile, and low cost.
Water is a precious commodity that is needed in all human activity and for life in general. The Oil & Gas industry uses and generates large quantities of this commodity (Produced Water Volume Report). On average, for every barrel of oil produced there are eight barrels of associated wastewater. Increasing the efficiency of water usage and improving its management is both a high priority among E&P companies and a subject of intense scrutiny for the communities in which they operate.
Water Necessity in Developing Areas
The availability of suitable water for hydraulic fracturing and the means for environmentally responsible water recycling and disposal are critical for sustainable unconventional development. Produced water that comes to the surface during oil and gas recovery presents a challenge for Marcellus drillers because of the scarcity of injection wells in the Appalachian region. Other areas, like West Texas (Permian Basin or Eagle Ford Shale) do not lack for disposal options but do suffer due to the arid climate and depletion of ground water resources.
The Santos Health & Well Being program has been running since 2006. Integrated with a range of proactive human resource initiatives implemented over a number of years and guided by Santos values, significant improvements in health related indicators as well as improvements in human resource outcomes have been achieved. These results are built on a foundation of leadership development, employee engagement, targeted interventions and a range of Santos policies that support and focus on people development and encouraging healthy environments across the business.
Overview of Santos
Santos is an Australian energy pioneer that has operated since 1954 and is one of the country's leading gas producers, supplying Australian and Asian customers. The company today is the largest producer of natural gas to the Australian domestic market, supplying 16% of the nation's gas needs from remote outback operations in South Australia and Queensland and offshore operations in Western Australia and Victoria. Santos has also developed major oil and liquids businesses in Australia and operates in all mainland Australian states and the Northern Territory. In addition to it's Australian businesses, Santos has significant operations in Indonesia and Bangladesh, is developing it's business in Vietnam and is conducting exploration activities in Central Asia.
From this base, Santos is pursuing a transformational liquefied natural gas (LNG) strategy with interests in four exciting LNG projects. This strategy is led by the cornerstone GLNG project in Queensland - a leading project in converting coal seam gas into LNG. Also in Santos' LNG portfolio are the PNG LNG project, which was formally approved in December 2009, Bonaparte LNG, a proposed floating LNG project in the Timor Sea, and Darwin LNG, Santos' first LNG venture, which began production in 2006.
In 2011, Santos' total production was 47.2 million barrels of oil equivalent. We have the largest Australian exploration and production portfolio by area of any company circa 152,000 square kilometres. Santos has about 2,700 employees working across its operations in Australia and Asia and is one of Australia's Top 30 listed companies.
An Integrated Approach
The Santos health programme is aligned with the company's values and the broader HR strategy. Such an integrated approach has enabled Santos to develop its organisational culture and achieve broader people related outcomes which support and sustain the business achieve its long term goals.
Subban, Packirisamy (Kuwait Oil Company) | Duggirala, Vidya Sagar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ayyavoo, ManiMaran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-salali, Yousef Zaid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-ibrahim, Abdullah Reda (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ibrahim, Anwar Mohamed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Nabhan, Abdul Razzaq (Kuwait Oil Company)
Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is fully committed to protect the health and safety of its people and the environment. Strict adherence to the KOC HSE policies and procedures helped safe execution of critical well testing and completion operations of sour High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) exploratory wells.
This paper describes safety challenges, H2S related risks, and methodology adopted to achieve safe and successful well-testing operations with deep drilling rigs in extreme sour HPHT environmental conditions. Critical operational equipment and safety precautions to be followed prior to and during well testing will also be discussed in detail.
Deep HPHT wells with sour environment continue to challenge the execution of well testing and completion operations, especially when wells are of exploratory nature. Wells drilled in deep Jurassic section (14,000'-17,500') having bottom hole pressure more than 10,000 psi, bottom hole temperature higher than 280ºF and high sour content(up to 30% H2S) are considered for this case study. Almost 30 exploratory wells under similar environmental conditions have been drilled and tested with deep drilling rigs in different fields in the state of Kuwait. Drill Stem Testing (DST) technique is being used to test the targeted formations.
Well related production testing operations like Perforation, Coiled Tubing, and acid stimulation warrant high HSE standards and technical precautions. Every HPHT well is unique and demands special attention when it comes to the selection of critical safety equipment and other safety requirements such as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), H2S monitors, wellhead equipment, sealing material, flow control equipment and surface safety valves (SSV) with emergency shutdown switches.
Even in such hostile environment, with meticulous planning and testing strategies, KOC could overcome all the challenges and all HPHT sour wells were safely tested without any incident. Commitment to HSE was given the highest priority during testing of sour HPHT wells with great emphasis on personnel safety.
Underwater noise is increasingly being considered a water quality indicator by governments around the world and plays an increasing role in environmental mipact assessments of marine industrial developments. To-date, however, there are no
standards for the measurement of underwater noise from petroleum operations, nor for data analysis, nor for reporting. As a result, the quality of many environmental impact assessments is poor, the results are not reliable, data are not comparable,
errors (which are hardly ever assessed or reported) are huge, outcomes (e.g. impact zones, imposed mitigation requirements) are arbitrary and costs are as unpredictable as the lottery.
The Centre for Marine Science & Technology at Curtin University is currently developing guidelines for underwater noise assessments with support from Chevron Australia. As a first step, we have reviewed international regulation of underwater
noise from petroleum operations finding large disagreement in methodology and approaches, criteria and threshold levels, acoustic quantities assessed, and imposed mitigation paradigms. Commonalities include requirements for baseline sound
measurements, anthropogenic noise source characterization and monitoring of marine life.
1. The Potential Effects of Noise on Underwater Life
As ocean water conducts light very poorly but sound very well, many marine animals rely primarily on their acoustic sense for communication, social interaction, navigation and foraging. In addition, odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins) have
an active echolocation system aiding navigation and foraging. All marine mammals emit sound, as do many fish and crustacean species. While reptiles and amphibians can be highly vocal in air, there are no reports on underwater sound
production in these animals.
The effects of noise on marine animals and the ranges over which they happen depend on the acoustic characteristics of the noise (level, spectrum, duration, rise time, duty cycle etc.), the sound propagation environment, and the animal under consideration. Figure 1 sketches the relative extents of some of the possible zones of influence: audibility, behavioural response, masking, temporary threshold shift (TTS) and physical injury—all of which have been demonstrated in species of
marine mammal and fish.
Noise levels decrease with range due to propagation losses. Audibility is limited by the noise dropping either below the animal audiogram (hearing curve) or below ambient noise levels. The zone of behavioural response is mostly going to be smaller than the zone of audibility, as an animal is not likely to respond to a sound that is barely detectable. Indicators of "disturbance?? include changes in swim direction and speed, dive duration, surfacing duration and interval, respiration (e.g., whales' blow rate), movement towards or away from the noise, and changes in contextual and acoustic behaviour etc. Whether an animal reacts to a sound it hears depends on a number of factors including ambient noise, prior exposure (habituation vs. sensitisation), current behavioural state, age, gender and health.
Occupational health and safety is a critical multidisciplinary and multifaceted component of the oil and gas industry. Evaluation of job-specific occupational health and assessment of the risks associated with each job profile are conducted across the globe. Nevertheless, healthcare providers have adopted a highly synchronized system for the classification of occupational health hazards with reference to the Oil and Gas UK's (OGUK) Medical Aspects of Fitness for Offshore Work: Guidance for Examining Physicians which aids international consensus in occupational health identification and risk assessment modules. Human wellness is commonly perceived as an optimal state of well-being wherein the physical, mental, social, and
emotional dimensions of the human persona are in harmony. Health performance indicators are used to determine an employee's health and wellness quotient. Such indicators are productivity tools in conveniently designed systems offering a broad spectrum of services; using modern technology, equipment, and expertise in the field of industrial medicine; and helping provide preventive health care. Certain lifestyle-disorder symptoms can be dealt with in an evidence-based scientific program by using physical activity, intervention, and lifestyle modification.
A scheme for monitoring the status and trend of the flatback turtle population nesting on Barrow Island (Western Australia) has been adopted using a statistical control chart based approach. The scheme involves the annual monitoring of an ensemble of 12 key demographic parameters that were identified using a conceptual model of flatback population dynamics. Many of these parameters are derived from a comprehensive multistate capture-mark-recapture sampling program of ca. 4000 nesting turtles at the Barrow Island rookery.
Assessing the annual status and trends of threatened species is an important responsibility to major projects that operate in sensitive areas.
The flatback turtle is endemic to northern Australian waters and is considered "vulnerable?? due to coastal development and human exploitation. A large population nests on Barrow Island (Western Australia) where the Gorgon Gas Development, a major liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing facility, is under construction. Long-term monitoring of marine turtles has been mandated by the Federal and State governments to assess potential impacts on this turtle population during the construction and operation phases. Here, we present an innovative impact-monitoring scheme using time-series control charts to aid with the interpretation of the potential impact of major construction projects on the long-term viability of an internationally significant flatback turtle (Natator depressus) population.
This is the first example of a comprehensive control-chart-based monitoring and management scheme used for an endangered marine species that is exposed to a major potential anthropogenic hazard.
Control charts for impact assessment and management: Concept
Chevron Australia is using time-series control charts as a decision-aiding tool to diagnose anomalous variations in key demographic parameters for the flatback population that nests on Barrow Island, and to address the cause of any variation. These control charts are appropriate to visualise if or when a particular management action is or is not having a predicted effect on a trend.
Use of a Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NADF) on the Chuandongbei (CDB) gas project wells will increase the rate of penetration (ROP) and decrease non productive time (NPT) and thus the overall development costs. The use of non aqueous fluids instead of water based drilling fluids (WBM) will however, require significant changes and improvements to the waste management practices previously used in the region which are not suitable for use with non aqueous drilling fluids. A non-aqueous drilling fluid based on a proprietary synthetic paraffin base fluid and a potassium acetate internal phase will be used to maximize the bioremediation potential of the drilling fluid and allow the use of an enhanced bioremediation process that combines the use of fertilizer, top soil and organic amendments to speed up the rate of degradation to produce a useful soil that is able to support plant growth that can be used for reclamation and landscaping of the drill site.
This paper provides a concise overview of the proof of concept studies that were carried out at the University of Tulsa (Phase I and II) and the subsequent refinements using locally sourced soils and organic amendments at the South Western Petroleum University in China (Phase III). The data show that the synthetic based drilling fluid can be successfully biodegraded in soil bio-piles composed of soil and organic amendments from the CDB operating area. The resultant product was successfully used as a plant growth medium.
The Chuandongbei (CDB) High Sour Gas Field Project is being jointly developed by China National Petroleum Corporation (South West Oil & Gas division of CNPC) and Unocal East China Sea, Ltd. (Chevron). The Luojiazhai and Gunziping Gas Fields, which are to be developed during the first phase of the project, are located on the border between Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province and Kaixian County, Chongqing Municipality. These gas fields are oolitic shoal high sulfur gas reservoirs within the Feixianguan Formation and are a potential main source of gas for transmission to eastern China from Sichuan and Chongqing. The use of a Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NADF) on the CDB gas project wells will increase the rate of penetration (ROP) and decrease non productive time (NPT) and thus the overall development costs.
The advantages of non aqueous drilling fluids include:
1. Stable drilling performance, excellent borehole stability and good seals between casing and cement due to the production of a gauge borehole. Non aqueous drilling fluids are ideal for drilling through shale formations, and will reduce the risk of downhole incidents, problems with casing, blow-outs and lost circulation.
2. Non aqueous drilling fluids offer improved lubricity, resulting in lower abrasive wear. This in turn results in reduced friction wear to drill bits and improves drilling safety. Non aqueous drilling fluids are particularly useful for drilling extended reach and horizontal wells which are a particular feature of the drilling program.
3. Non aqueous drilling fluids perform better than water based drilling fluids in deep highly deviated, gas wells and reservoirs such as those found in the Luojiazhai and Gunziping Gas Fields.
Hydrogen sulfide gas readily dissolves in non aqueous fluids. Monitoring the alkalinity of the non aqueous drilling fluid provides a quick and convenient method for the early detection of any intrusion of H2S. Non aqueous fluids also help to protect the tubular components of the wells from sulfide stress corrosion cracking by coating them with a layer of paraffin and by reducing the reaction of H2S with the steel. Thus, the safety and integrity of the wells are enhanced during drilling.
As the world moves towards cleaner forms of energy worldwide, gas will have an increasingly important role to play in the future energy mix. From this perspective, there has been growing interest in the relative greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities of a range of fossil fuels, and how various forms of LNG compare to not only coal, but also to renewables and nuclear across their life cycles. These issues are important for energy and GHG policy, especially with developments in carbon pricing. However, until recently there has been little information on the life cycle GHG emissions from Australian fossil fuel exports. This paper helps to complete the picture.
Using a wide range of available data from government submissions by industry and the authors' own project experience, life cycle GHG emissions estimates were developed for LNG derived from conventional natural gas sourced from Western Australia's North West Shelf and Queensland coal seam gas (CSG). A comprehensive assessment of GHG emissions was made for upstream operations, LNG production, transport, regasification, and end-user combustion for electricity generation (assumed to be in China). These life cycle emission estimates were compared to life cycle emissions for Australian black coal exported to China and used to generate electricity. Comparisons were also made with renewables and nuclear. The results show that the life cycle GHG intensity (tCO2-e/MWh) of electricity sent out is highly sensitive to the thermal efficiency of the end-use combustion technology. For most comparison scenarios, natural gas-fired power generation is less GHG intensive than black coal-fired power generation. The differences range from 17% to 56% less intensive for a variety of plant efficiencies. In some cases, coal was marginally less GHG intensive when comparing open-cycle gas technology with ultra-supercritical coal combustion. LNG derived from CSG was also found to be more GHG intensive than conventional gas. Modelling of upstream methane fugitive emission scenarios from CSG (using 100-year and 20-year methane Global Warming Potentials) had little impact on the life cycle GHG intensity rankings, such is the dominance of end-use combustion. When exported to China for electricity production, LNG was found to be 22-36 more GHG intensive than wind and concentrated solar thermal (CST) power and 13-21 times more GHG intensive than nuclear power.
Chevron has recently developed and improved tools to promote consistency in environmental designs across the company. The objectives of the tools are to leverage institutional knowledge and best practices in environmental engineering design; to select the most appropriate treatment/control equipment; and to provide design recommendations that can be incorporated into engineering specifications. The tools are: 1) the Environmental Basis of Design (BoD) Template; and 2) the Environmental Design Manual.
The purpose of an Environmental BoD is to identify key design requirements related to environmental performance that must be addressed in pre-Front End Engineering and Design (pre-FEED), FEED and included in the final detailed design. The Environmental BoD Template includes company internal standards, and references to international conventions, codes, standards, project-specific compliance requirements and best practice design considerations.
The Environmental Design Manual promotes consistent design of environmental technologies and complements the BoD Template as a bridge between the Health, Environment and Safety (HES) and Facility Engineering (FE) functions by helping HES staff set appropriate design targets and helping facilty engineers design equipment to meet those targets. The Environmental Design Manual is incorporated into the Company's Engineering Standards and is comprised of individual guidelines on specific environmental effluents, emissions or management technologies. The guidelines summarize environmental requirements and provide suggestions on the best engineering designs to meet those requirements. The Environmental Design Manual builds engineering excellence by sharing company experience, lessons learned, and key design recommendations. The Environmental Design Manual now includes guidelines for sanitary wastewater, incinerators, drilled cuttings, and stationary point source control technologies. Guidelines for produced water, onsite waste storage, and flaring are in development. Existing guidelines will also be refreshed periodically to remain current on best-available technologies and company expectations.