McGillivary, Philip A. (US Coast Guard Pacific Area & Icebreaker Science Liaison, Alameda, CA) | Stecca, Michele (International Computer Science Institute (ICSI), Berkeley, CA) | Maresca, Massimo (Scientific Office, Consulate General of Italy, San Francisco and International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley (ICSI), CA) | Baglietto, Pierpaolo (Computer Platforms Research Center (CIPI), University of Genoa, Italy)
Cloud Computing is rapidly becoming the key technology to implementat and manage computing centers. This paper describes how Cloud Computing can be effectively used in ships to support reconfigurable and versatile computing facilities. At the moment the application of Cloud Computing in ships is still at its infancy. The paper describes a project aiming at building a ship which incorporates Cloud Computing in its data management system, from engine room control and monitoring to bridge operations, for managing ship to shore communications, and for all the other ship subsystems. The main advantages of the adoption of the Cloud Compuing paradigm in ships are described and discussed.
Towing operations present a number of challenges related to acceptable weather window, number of and power rating of tugs, towing gear design and capabilities, positioning of tugs and experience of towing master and tug crews.
The past five years have seen several major accidents related to towing operations in Arctic waters. This paper will review three cases. The first concerns the total loss of the "Kolskaya" rig during transit in the Sea of Okhotsk in 2011. It resulted in the loss of life of a significant number of sailors/rig workers. During the towing of the drilling rig "Kulluk" from Alaska in late 2012, the towline broke and the rig drifted and went aground. US Coast Guard resources saved all the crew members; the hull was penetrated and partly filled with water. In the subsequent salvage operation, the hull was temporarily sealed before the rig was refloated. After the rig was inspected and found seaworthy, she was towed to shelter. Here a further assessment of the damage took place. Later she was towed to Captain's Bay (Unalaska) and loaded on a heavy lift ship for repair at an Asian shipyard. It was later decided to scrap the rig. A third example was the tow of the Norwegian fishing vessel "Kamaro" in October 2012. The vessel lost engine power south of Bear Island. During the second day of the tow the weather deteriorated and the master of the assisting Coast Guard vessel feared that the towline would break. It was decided to evacuate the crew of the fishing vessel and an emergency response helicopter was mobilised. During the first attempt to lift off crew members from the aft deck of the fishing vessel, the lifting wire got entangled and broke sending the crew members into the sea. With one of the rescue winches out of order it was decided that crew members in survival suits should to jump overboard and swim away from the vessel until they were picked up by the SAR helicopter.
The paper provides a brief review of these cases and focuses on lessons to be learned for future emergency towing operations in Arctic waters.
The search for hydrocarbons in deep Arctic waters requires the use of drillships and floating production units (FPUs). Typically, these units require protection by using ice management, e.g. icebreakers battling large ice floes followed by icebreakers downstream that cut the ice into smaller pieces just in front of the drillship or FPU. The essence of such operations is to reduce the ice actions on the protected units by changing the ice conditions. One of the challenges facing the designers of Arctic offshore structures is to quantify the reduction of the ice loads as a function of the managed-ice conditions. Design codes and available models in the literature may provide good bases to calculate level-ice actions on floating structures where the interaction process is typically divided into several phases: breaking, rotating, sliding and clearing of ice. However, the situation is different when the floating structure interacts with ice floes in a managed-ice field, i. e., large ice floes may behave similar to level ice while smaller floes may split and the very small ones will mostly be deflected, rotated or submerged. In case of moored structures the relative velocities between the structure and ice are small and this may lead to ice accumulation upstream the floater. In 2011, the authors of this paper proposed a numerical model to simulate the interaction between managed-ice and floating structures. Over the last three years, considerable developments to the model have been carried out at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) hosting a research-based innovation centre: Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology (SAMCoT). This paper provides a short summary of these modelling efforts and highlights the major recent development performed at NTNU that enables the industry to operate more effectively and safely in Arctic waters.
Offshore fields development is a challenge because of significant risks and uncertainties and presence of several issues. Among them we should highlight first of all: poor knowledge of the reservoir geology and very low reliability of hydrocarbon reserves at the initial stage of field development; limited opportunities for technological solutions on fields development by reason of limited number of "wells cluster"- production units (platforms, subsea units); and necessity to spend 80-90
This paper is devoted to solving the problem how to reduce the risks and uncertainties and accelerate offshore fields exploration and development. The methodology to assess the possibility to start offshore fields development by condition of limited geological information is presented. It is implemented as a workflow, the result of which is the conclusion about: types of production units, number of wells and their placement boundaries, required minimum reserves density to begin field development, as well as types of exploration work on fields. The application of the methodology and workflow are demonstrated on the examples of assessment of the potential of development of some Russian Arctic offshore fields.
As an ice sheet impinges on the surface of a cone, flexural failure takes place. That ice failure mode causes substantially lower forces than the case of compressive failure, which would take place if ice is to encounter a vertical structure. Previous work by the authors employed a numerical model of ice dynamics in order to predict ice failure patterns and forces on a conical structure. In an initial paper, simulations examined the role of the slope of the cone and the case of ice failure against inverted cones. That study indicated that the slope plays a role on ice loading. Later results, published at ATC 2014, then examined in more detail the roles of structure slope, friction on ice pile-ups and loading on a conical structure and compared the results with the analytical methodology presented in the ISO 19906 Arctic Offshore Structures standard. The present analysis continues to expand the work to examine the role of structure diameter on ice loading and pile-up height. Results are further compared to ISO 19906, with the objective of presenting concrete guidance for the current revision of that standard. Ice forces on upward-breaking cones as a function of structure slope, waterline diameter, ice thickness and ice-structure friction are presented. The results of the study are relevant for structures in ice, such as offshore drilling platforms, bridge piers and offshore wind turbine foundations.
This paper will discuss the technical and operational need for regulatory "equivalency" in the emerging Arctic offshore oil and gas industry to address technological innovation, especially in the area of Same Season Relief Well (SSRW) capability. The authors will provide an overview of both the technical and legal framework around which emerging technologies can be evaluated and accommodated in the regulatory approval process. With the rapid pace of technology development continuing unabated, regulatory flexibility is required to ensure that regulations keeps pace with innovation.
Yakymchuk, N.A. (Institute of Applied Problems of Ecology, Geophysics and Geochemistry) | Levashov, S.P. (Institute of Geophysics of Ukraine National Academy of Science) | Korchagin, I.N. (Institute of Geophysics of Ukraine National Academy of Science) | Bozhezha, D.N. (Management and Marketing Center of Institute of Geological Science NAS Ukraine)
The results of application the technology of frequency-resonance processing and interpretation of remote sensing (RS) data for the hydrocarbons (HC) accumulation searching and prospecting in different region of Barents Sea are analyzed in the paper. This mobile method works within the framework of the "substantial" paradigm of geological and geophysical studies, the essence of which is "direct" searching for a particular substance such as oil, gas, gold, silver, platinum, zinc, iron, water, etc. Technology allow to detect and map operatively the anomalous zones of the "oil accumulation" and (or) "gas accumulation" type. The bedding depths of the anomalous polarized layers (APL) of gas, oil and gas-condensate type may be determined by vertical scanning of RS data within detected anomalous areas. Mobile technology allows to get a new (additional) and, more importantly, independent information about petroleum potential of the surveyed areas. This information in integration with available geological and geophysical materials can be used to select the objects for detailed studying and primary drilling. Mapped large anomalous zone of the "gas reservoir" and "gas-condensate reservoir" type on the unique Shtokman field allows to conclude, that giant and unique HC deposits in the Arctic region can be detected and mapped by used mobile method. The absence of anomalous zone over Central structure on the Fedynsky High and the relatively small anomalous zone over Pakhtusovskaya structure indicate that the probability of finding giant fields within these structures is very low. Consequently, the detailed geological-geophysical studies and drilling within these structures at this stage of prospecting are impractical due to the fact that at such a distance from the coast now is economically feasible to develop only the giant and unique HC deposits. Seven anomalous zones of the "gas+condensate" type were mapped also within area of the large Varnekskoye uplift. Seven anomalies of "oil and gas deposits" type have been discovered and mapped on the Norwegian shelf in the area of Skrugard and Havis fields' location with mobile method using. In the Norwegian part of the former "gray" zone of the Barents Sea the remote sensing data were processed within four search sites covering 39742 km2. Area of 3D seismic work within them is 13956 km2. Two anomalous zones of the "gas deposit" type and 13 anomalous zones of "gas+condensate reservoir" type with total area of 1613 km2 were detected and mapped within investigated areas.
The received results show the principal possibility of remote sensing, seismic and geoelectric methods integrated application for hydrocarbon accumulations prospecting and exploration within offshore. The mobile technology of frequency-resonance processing of RS data provides a unique opportunity to operatively investigate in reconnaissance character within the Arctic region the most promising areas for the detection of giant and unique HC fields. This may significantly speed up the development of the oil and gas potential of Arctic region.
Modem ULS instruments provide year-long continuous measurements of sea ice drafts with an unprecedented time resolution of 1-2 seconds and a horizontal resolution of approximately 1 m. In this paper we analyze multi-year moored ULS measurements of sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and off Northeast Greenland. Recently, the massive ice feature (MIF) parameter has been developed to provide a robust, geometrical characterization of all potentially hazardous marine ice features within a ULS ice draft data set. An MIF episode is the set of consecutive ice draft values which exceed a specific minimum ice draft (e.g. 1.2 or 2.0 m) having total cross-sectional area above a specified value (e.g. 250 m2). A database of all MIF episodes is prepared including area, distance and ice drafts (mean and maximum).
Previous research has shown the MIF database from year-long mooring measurements to be a complete and robust characterization of potentially hazardous features. In this paper, we apply algorithms that detect different types of sea ice features: large singular ice keels, hummocky ice, thick brash ice, old or multi-year ice and marine glacial ice (icebergs and ice islands). These ice types are associated with individual MIF episodes so that each episode can be associated with one or more ice type. There are large variations in the numbers of MIF episodes among regions, with NE Greenland having the most frequent occurrences of MIFs. For NE Greenland approximately 40% of MIF episodes can be identified as large keels and less than 15% as hummocky ice episodes; however, the hummocky ice episodes typically have considerably larger crosssectional areas than large keels. There are fewer occurrences of multi-year ice and very rare occurrences of marine glacial ice. The MIF analysis results provide improved quantitative values for pressure loading of sea ice on offshore platforms and ships, as well as understandings about the nature of sea ice deformation and age characteristics.
The introduction of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology in the Oil and Gas arena has and continues to demonstrate significant advantages in offshore underwater operations.
In the arctic regions, it is difficult to conduct "Life of Field" inspection operations from a support vessel. This is mainly due to restricted freedom of operation caused by polar lows or winter storms and/or the formation and movement of sea ice. AUV systems by their nature have the potential to significantly reduce this operational difficulty, seabed hosted vehicles have the potential to eliminate it completely.
The hovering Autonomous Inspection Vehicle (AIV), developed by Subsea 7, enables complete autonomous inspection of the subsea assets. The system is deployed using a launch and recovery basket, which can be configured to remain on the seabed for significant periods of time. In the latter configuration, the AIV is operated and serviced from the seabed hosted basket, to carry out missions that meet the ‘Life of Field’ operational requirements.
This paper will describe the advanced features of the AIV technology and discuss how it can be effective in the Arctic regions, under ice operations.
Dobrynin, Mikhail (Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg) | Fock, Björn Hendrik (Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg) | Gierisch, Andrea M. U. (Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg) | Pohlmann, Thomas (Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg) | Kaleschke, Lars (Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg) | Schlünzen, Heinke (Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg)
Results are presented from a sea ice forecasting experiment combined with a field campaign undertaken in the Barents Sea in March 2014. The simulations were performed with the regional coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean model HAMMER, recently developed within the project IRO-2 dealing with ice forecast and route optimization. The model HAMMER is driven by the high-resolution forecasts provided by the ECMWF and by results of the Arctic wide ice ocean data assimilation system ICEDAS, ran by project partners. For initial conditions of sea ice thickness and concentration remote sensing information from SMOS and AMSR2 are used. Project partners used the model output to run a ship route optimization system. The experiment took place during a two-week period in March 2014 onboard RV Lance, to test the sea ice prediction system under operational conditions. The model results are compared to ice observations as well as to hydrographic measurements conducted during this cruise. By this means, it was possible to analyze the skill of the model system, and hence, its potential for a customized ship routing under ice conditions.