McGillivary, Philip A. (US Coast Guard Pacific Area & Icebreaker Science Liaison, Alameda, CA) | Stecca, Michele (International Computer Science Institute (ICSI), Berkeley, CA) | Maresca, Massimo (Scientific Office, Consulate General of Italy, San Francisco and International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley (ICSI), CA) | Baglietto, Pierpaolo (Computer Platforms Research Center (CIPI), University of Genoa, Italy)
Cloud Computing is rapidly becoming the key technology to implementat and manage computing centers. This paper describes how Cloud Computing can be effectively used in ships to support reconfigurable and versatile computing facilities. At the moment the application of Cloud Computing in ships is still at its infancy. The paper describes a project aiming at building a ship which incorporates Cloud Computing in its data management system, from engine room control and monitoring to bridge operations, for managing ship to shore communications, and for all the other ship subsystems. The main advantages of the adoption of the Cloud Compuing paradigm in ships are described and discussed.
The Chukchi Sea Environmental Studies Program (CSESP) offers a multidisciplinary, multiyear approach to understanding the Arctic ecosystems of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. A joint effort between ConocoPhillips and Shell, including Statoil from 2010 to 2013, CSESP has been in operation since 2008, beginning directly after Lease Sale 193 and completing its final data collection in summer 2014.
Because of the expansiveness of CSESP and the importance of having reliable, defensible data to support permitting, CSESP has instituted a comprehensive data management program. The program covers all aspects of data collection, quality control and data distribution, which ensure data integrity and standardization throughout all phases of CSESP.
This paper discusses the role that technology plays in CSESP's challenging offshore data collection design including a custom computerized data input system and web-based tools for quality control and data submission. Technology helps CSESP scientists collect data more accurately, automate daily and weekly reports, ensure that data are standardized from year to year, and transport data securely from vessel to final report.
Emphasis will be placed on the reasons for and benefits of standardizing data tables, and the need for quality control tools to enforce those standards.
This paper presents the design considerations for conical steel Gravity Based Structures (GBS). Concrete GBS have been used to support hydrocarbon production facilities and offshore wind turbines in the North Sea, Sub-Arctic and Arctic regions for many years. This paper outlines the design drivers that govern the dimensions and weight of the conical steel GBS. The conical steel GBS concept has advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional concrete construction that ultimately impact the design criteria. The different design considerations to focus on include fabrication, topside installation, marine transportation, installation and the expected performance. The GBS geometry considered is a hexadecagon (16) which allows maximum topside capacity and the ability to withstand extreme weather conditions. Also, there is a challenge that has to be resolved which is to have a foundation designed for different soil properties. An ideal concept is to have a skirt design which allows the ice wall to be designed to resist the local and global ice loads. This allows optimal performance of the conical steel GBS concept.
This paper describes a simple mathematical model of hopper dumped dredge spoil dispersion that is based upon a modified version of Stokes’ law to estimate vertical particle velocities, and empirical metocean data to estimate horizontal particle velocities. The horizontal and vertical components are combined to simulate particle paths for computational packets of different grain size fractions under metocean conditions representative of those during the discharge period. Stokes’ law is modified using published relationships to account for large and non-spherical particles. Horizontal particle transport distance is controlled by water depth, particle size, current speed, and current direction variability based upon empirical metocean current speed and direction time series. The resultant dredge spoil depositional pattern is an irregular bull's eye in which particle size and deposit thickness decrease radially from the deposit center. Transport distances for each grain size fraction generally follow a lognormal-like distribution, with distances being inversely proportional to grain size. If there is a predominant current direction during disposal, the resulting deposit will be elongated in that direction. Application of the method, variations of which have been used to support dredge spoil discharge permit applications on several unnamed projects, is illustrated for a hypothetical site.
Towing operations present a number of challenges related to acceptable weather window, number of and power rating of tugs, towing gear design and capabilities, positioning of tugs and experience of towing master and tug crews.
The past five years have seen several major accidents related to towing operations in Arctic waters. This paper will review three cases. The first concerns the total loss of the "Kolskaya" rig during transit in the Sea of Okhotsk in 2011. It resulted in the loss of life of a significant number of sailors/rig workers. During the towing of the drilling rig "Kulluk" from Alaska in late 2012, the towline broke and the rig drifted and went aground. US Coast Guard resources saved all the crew members; the hull was penetrated and partly filled with water. In the subsequent salvage operation, the hull was temporarily sealed before the rig was refloated. After the rig was inspected and found seaworthy, she was towed to shelter. Here a further assessment of the damage took place. Later she was towed to Captain's Bay (Unalaska) and loaded on a heavy lift ship for repair at an Asian shipyard. It was later decided to scrap the rig. A third example was the tow of the Norwegian fishing vessel "Kamaro" in October 2012. The vessel lost engine power south of Bear Island. During the second day of the tow the weather deteriorated and the master of the assisting Coast Guard vessel feared that the towline would break. It was decided to evacuate the crew of the fishing vessel and an emergency response helicopter was mobilised. During the first attempt to lift off crew members from the aft deck of the fishing vessel, the lifting wire got entangled and broke sending the crew members into the sea. With one of the rescue winches out of order it was decided that crew members in survival suits should to jump overboard and swim away from the vessel until they were picked up by the SAR helicopter.
The paper provides a brief review of these cases and focuses on lessons to be learned for future emergency towing operations in Arctic waters.
Arctic circulation drives multi-year sea ice against the Canadian Arctic Archepelago, making this margin one of the toughest regions in the Arctic Ocean to survey. Yet Canada had a need to map the seafloor in this region as part of its Extended Continental Shelf Program. One of the solutions to this challenge that Canada adopted was to develop an Autonomous Underwater vehicle that is mobile, could operate under the ice to 5000 m water depth, acquire bathymetric data and return to a location that is unknown prior to mission programming. A partnership program between Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Hydrographic Services, Defense Research Development Canada and International Submarine Engineering Inc.was launched to develop a vehicle that could be operated from an ice camp, work under ice, return to the drifting ice camp, and dump data and recharge while still in the water. The AUV was outfitted with a Knudsen 118 kHz single beam echosounder and a Kongsberg-Simrad EM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam sonar system. In 2010, the first trial of the under-ice AUV was undertaken. The system was launched near Borden Island of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 400 km under the ice to be recovered at a drifting ice camp. It maintained a height of approximately 100 m above the seafloor and acquired single beam bathymetric data during its voyage. It was recharged at a remote camp and sent back to its base camp acquiring data on its return voyage. In 2011, the system was launched and recovered from an ice-breaker. It traveled 110 km under ice and acquired multibeam data along its track, travelling over difficult terrain during it's transect of a feature known as Sever Spur. The surface ship had drifted about 10 km from its deployment position during the mission, but the AUV was able to return within metres of the vessel.
Accurate and reliable surveillance and forecasting of environmental conditions are necessary for safe and efficient oil and gas activities both onshore and offshore. In the Arctic, environmental challenges include seasonal sea ice and low temperature extremes. In the absence of pooled forecasting services and operational-grade forecasting capacity by public weather services, Shell has developed and operates an in-house, Anchorage based forecasting program designed specifically for the demands and requirements of Shell's Alaska operations.
The Shell Ice and Weather Advisory Center (SIWAC), now in its eighth year of operation, has evolved to be the most comprehensive and focused ice and weather forecast operation covering the offshore and coastal areas from the Gulf of Alaska to the Canadian Beaufort Sea. SIWAC consists of a team of fulltime Arctic-experienced forecasters working in a 24/7 rotation schedule and are fully integrated into the operations process, directly engaging with field personnel and decision makers.
Development of differentiating forecast products and services depends not only on an expert team, but also a robust observation program consisting of contracted and public satellite imagery, a network of Metocean buoys, satellite-tracked ice movement beacons, and steady stream of field observations from specially trained personnel aboard marine and aviation assets.
In 2011, Shell entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration that described a framework for collaboration, communication, and information sharing between the Agency and Industry.
This agreement leverages the strengths of each party and opens Shell's Arctic ice and Metocean data for use within NOAA forecasting offices, numerical model ingestion, climate research, and general public consumers.
Poedjono, Benny (Schlumberger) | Pai, Sudhir (Liquid Robotics Oil & Gas) | Maus, Stefan (Magnetic Variation Services) | Manoj, Chandrashekaran (Magnetic Variation Services) | Paynter, Ryan (Magnetic Variation Services)
This paper describes a study using an autonomous marine vehicle with satellite communications, to accurately collect and deliver in real-time magnetic measurements, to calculate Total Magnetic Intensity in marine environments in the absence of Earth magnetic observatories.
New capabilities in the monitoring of auroral electrojet disturbances allow improved well placement for increased oil and gas recovery in the Arctic, and provide operators accurate geomagnetic reference values, enabling tighter quality control of MWD equipment, enhancing safety and reducing nonproductive time.
In the Arctic, Measurement while drilling (MWD) processing must include corrections for rapid changes in the geomagnetic field caused by auroral electrojet currents. The auroral zone is a region where the electric field of the magnetosphere precipitates along magnetic field lines into the ionosphere. Converting the magnetic azimuth to a true azimuth requires accurate knowledge of the geomagnetic field at the point of measurement downhole at the drill bit. Equipped with this information lateral uncertainties can be reduced by 50%.
At higher latitudes, the strength of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field shrinks, which exacerbates any error sources that accumulate while surveying. This has an enormously negative effect on surveying accuracy at high latitudes. Data from Earth magnetic observatories and variometer stations can be analyzed to characterize the auroral electrojets and compensate for the disturbance. Knowledge of the spatial structure of the electrojets’ magnetic signature is essential for deploying a ground network of monitoring stations in the Arctic. This network provides the real-time geomagnetic infrastructure essential to support MWD operations, making it the most cost-effective technology available to achieve accurate wellbore placement in horizontal, relief well, and extended reach drilling. However the number of Earth magnetic observatories is limited in the Arctic.
Autonomous marine vehicles can now be deployed for geomagnetic surveying. In recent testing, two autonomous marine vehicles were equipped with towed magnetometers. To investigate the accuracy of the measurements, the two vehicles surveyed exact-repeat profiles. The measurements of the two vehicles agreed to within 2nT, exceeding even the stringent 5nT standard for geomagnetic observatories. This test demonstrates the utility of autonomous marine vehicles to carry out crustal magnetic surveys and monitor disturbance fields in support of offshore directional drilling operations.
Nooraiepour, Mohammad (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas) | Aali, Masoud (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas) | Kovalenko, Kazimir V. (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas)
Traditional absolute pore space concept considers the whole pore volume within the reservoir rock. Total porosity accounts for the entire pore space, so the maximum fluid saturation in rock related to this value. The structural complexity of pores in rocks especially in carbonates frequently results in isolated pores creation. These stagnant pores contribute to the absolute porosity of the rock, but are not involved in the flow of fluids through the rock. The intercommunicating pore spaces that maintain the flow of fluids make up the effective porosity. As fluid transport in porous media is controlled by the available amount of pores for flow, so this is the effective pore space not absolute one, in which real reservoir flow process occurs. In this study, play based hydrocarbon exploration procedure for an area followed. This region is surrounded by the gas discoveries in different reservoir horizons on the adjacent blocks. Complexity of geological structures and sequence of terrigenous-carbonates facies' change had led to drilling of seventeen dry wildcats. Aiming to reinvestigate the hydrocarbon potential, integrated petrophysical and seismic interpretation designed to identify hydrocarbon accumulation on the basis of regional studies. By analysis of core and well log data, static petrophysical properties calculated, reservoir horizons characterized and afterward the effective porosity was estimated using adaptive well log interpretation. The effective porosity estimations imported as an input for genetic inversion procedure to determine its distribution over the targeted formation. The effective porosity cube presented anomalies in areas where seismic attenuation attribute confirms possibility of gas accumulation. Successful implementation of shared-earth model using close interpretation of seismic and well data led to identifying a stratigraphic prospect with an acceptable probability of success.
The search for hydrocarbons in deep Arctic waters requires the use of drillships and floating production units (FPUs). Typically, these units require protection by using ice management, e.g. icebreakers battling large ice floes followed by icebreakers downstream that cut the ice into smaller pieces just in front of the drillship or FPU. The essence of such operations is to reduce the ice actions on the protected units by changing the ice conditions. One of the challenges facing the designers of Arctic offshore structures is to quantify the reduction of the ice loads as a function of the managed-ice conditions. Design codes and available models in the literature may provide good bases to calculate level-ice actions on floating structures where the interaction process is typically divided into several phases: breaking, rotating, sliding and clearing of ice. However, the situation is different when the floating structure interacts with ice floes in a managed-ice field, i. e., large ice floes may behave similar to level ice while smaller floes may split and the very small ones will mostly be deflected, rotated or submerged. In case of moored structures the relative velocities between the structure and ice are small and this may lead to ice accumulation upstream the floater. In 2011, the authors of this paper proposed a numerical model to simulate the interaction between managed-ice and floating structures. Over the last three years, considerable developments to the model have been carried out at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) hosting a research-based innovation centre: Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology (SAMCoT). This paper provides a short summary of these modelling efforts and highlights the major recent development performed at NTNU that enables the industry to operate more effectively and safely in Arctic waters.