Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas production facilities in California has always been and will continue to be a controversial and hotly debated topic.This Decommissioning has been occurring since the early part of the 20th Century and most recently involved four offshore platforms, a pier, and an island in State waters.It also involved the abandonment of over 23 sub sea wells and associated debris off the Santa Barbara, California Coast.Much was learned from these many decommissioning projects, and organizations were formed to coordinate future decommissioning projects and discuss alternatives. This presentation will summarize the lessons learned from past decommissioning projects, future projects and options available for future projects.There will be a discussion on the positions of the public, environmental communities and government on the approval process, facility removal process and final disposition of the facility.Focus of the presentation will be on the process that could be used to develop viable decommissioning options.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been identified as a promising way of sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2).When CO2 that would otherwise be vented to the atmosphere is used in the process, the CO2 remaining in the ground represents a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
The accurate quantification of the amount of CO2 sequestered is important as companies look to market the emission reductions associated with EOR operations.Purchasers of emission reductions need assurance that the reductions they are purchasing are real. Often, however, losses of CO2 and methane (CH4) during the operation of EOR projects are not fully considered in accounting for the emission reductions.While minor fugitive losses of CO2 may be accounted for, much larger losses that may occur as a result of the way equipment is configured or how facilities are operated are often ignored.
This paper presents a methodology for quantifying the net greenhouse GHG emission reductions resulting from enhanced oil recovery operations based on the observation of a range of operating facilities.It demonstrates the need to consider the operational aspects of the production facilities in quantifying the amount of GHG emission reductions.It concludes that losses of CO2 and CH4 in EOR operations may be large enough that unless they are fully considered, the magnitude of any claimed emission reductions may be subject to question.
Since 1998, the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP) has been collecting and collating information on environmental performance from its member companies. The initiative has two principal purposes; first, it addresses the need for greater transparency of upstream industry activities and second, it can provide a means for contributing companies to compare their environmental performance, thereby leading to improved overall industry performance.
Member companies are asked to provide information on 6 categories: atmospheric emissions, produced water, muds and cuttings from offshore operations, oil spills, chemical spills and energy efficiency. Companies also provide information on production levels associated with the data for normalisation. Data are compiled by region (Africa, Asia/Australasia, Europe, FSU, Middle East, North America and South America).
Thirty OGP member companies representing over 40% of the world's oil production now participate in the reporting cycle. Other member companies have begun the internal processes that will enable their participation in future years.
Data coverage is quite uneven; for example almost all production in Europe is reported whilst in other areas performance is reported for a relatively low fraction of the known production.
The reporting exercises have identified and taken steps to solve a range of problems associated with data recording and processing. Information can now be reported to the system via an electronic interface, thereby minimising data transcription errors; the system also allows (by a series of ‘flags') for early detection of possibly spurious year-on-year variations in company reporting.
As the reporting mechanism has developed, the level of confidence within the participating companies has grown steadily and OGP released a summary of information on 2002 activities in 2003. This year, participating companies have agreed to publish data aggregated at a regional as well as a global level.
An integral component of an Environmental Impact Assessment is the Socio-economic Assessment. The purpose of these assessments is to identify and evaluate potential impacts of proposed projects on the socio-economic environment of fenceline communities that would most likely be directly impacted by the project.
With the enactment of the Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC) Rules in Trinidad in 2001, Exploration and Production (E&P) companies must now apply to the Environmental Management Authority for an environmental permit for any activity designated under these rules. As a result, oil and gas operators in Trinidad have collected a significant amount of socioeconomic data as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA?s) and Environmental Baseline Surveys for CEC applications.
The state owned oil company, Petrotrin, set the standard for conducting socio-economic assessments for energy development projects in Trinidad and did so on a voluntary basis before the CEC Rules were enacted using guidelines developed by the Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARPEL).
In conducting socio-economic assessments, surveys were conducted for households, community leaders, business proprietors and focus groups. Generally 25% of the population are interviewed in the process to determine their views and aspirations on potential impacts of oil and gas E&P projects based on their historical experience. If effectively conducted, socio-economic assessments are a valuable tool for determining community needs and ensuring win- win partnerships between oil and gas companies and the communities in which they operate.
This paper describes the process by which Petrotrin has conducted socio-economic assessments for EIA's and Environmental Baseline Surveys for fenceline communities where E&P development activities are planned. It also seeks to give an historical overview of how E&P operations have impacted fence line communities in southern Trinidad over the 20th century.
The paper describes the development, implementation and application of a program of environmental performance measurement in a global service company working the in exploration & production industry.
A set of environmental performance indicators has been defined in order to provide data on internal compliance, environmental incidents, resource consumption, and waste generation (and management). Information is captured in an on-line database from over 500 sites in approximately 100 countries, on a monthly basis, and is immediately available for analysis and management review. The paper discusses the selection of the indicators that are used, and the intended value of each indicator, or group of indicators.
Having described the basis for the EPI program, examples from the data capture and management review process are presented. These examples are used to illustrate the evolution of the EPI process over the past three years. There is particular emphasis on discussion of the challenges that are presented by a highly devolved and decentralized data capture process.
The third section of the paper concerns the trends and themes that are evident from the database, and their application and value to the management process. There is a discussion of indicators that have been removed from, or added to the program and the reasons for those changes.
The paper concludes with a discussion of the possible areas for future development of the program.
This paper presents results of modeling long-term CO2 storage in a shallow saline aquifer with a commercial black-oil reservoir simulator. Realistic CO2/water phase behavior (pVT properties) covering all pressure, temperature and compositional conditions accounted for during the simulations have been used. The pressure and temperature in the aquifer is above the CO2 supercritical conditions giving rise to the existence of a two-phase fluid system of CO2 as a supercritical fluid ("gas") and CO2 dissolved in the aqueous phase. The objective was to model scenarios of CO2 storage in aquifer with emphasis on the sensitivity of CO2 distribution in the deposit with respect to critical CO2 saturations during the injection period and to residual CO2 saturation for water reentering CO2 filled volumes (hysteresis in fluid saturations). The re-distribution of water occurs after stop of CO2 injection due to gravity segregation of dense CO2 saturated water and CO2-free water. The impact of various reservoir parameters has been studied, including average permeability, vertical to horizontal permeability ratio (kv/kh), relative permeability, and capillary pressure. For the saturation functions the main focus has been on end points and hysteresis effects. It is observed that storage of CO2 as residual gas is most important for low kv/kh ratios.
Innovative particulate emission measurements were performed on three different natural gas-fired spark-ignited reciprocating internal combustion engines at a natural gas production facility:
A 4-stroke rich burn (4SRB) engine equipped with non-selective catalytic reduction for emissions control.
A 4-stroke lean burn (4SLB) engine with no emission controls.
A 2-stroke lean burn (2SLB) engine equipped with precombustion chambers for emissions control.
Emission measurements were made in the exhaust duct downstream of the engine and emissions controls systems using an innovative dilution sampling protocol and using traditional stationary source test methods with hot filters/iced impingers.A compact dilution sampler design, intended to be practical for routine stationary source stack emissions sampling, embodies the concept of dilution followed by aging developed by others, but with faster mixing, shorter residence time and lower sample flow rate.A broad suite of speciation measurements was applied to determine chemical and physical characteristics of primary PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 precursor emissions.PM2.5 mass, ions, elements, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), particulate carbon and precursor species and ultrafine particle size distribution were determined.PM2.5 mass concentration measured by dilution sampling is approximately half that measured by traditional hot filter/iced impinger methods, although the difference is not significant at the 95 percent confidence level due to the variability of the results.The results suggest potential for positive bias in the organic condensable particulate measurement by iced impinger methods.Particulate speciation results from the dilution sampler show 80 to 90 percent of PM2.5 emissions are accounted for by OC, with smaller amounts of iron (Fe), silica (Si) and other inorganic compounds, for the 4-stroke engines.OC accounted for 98 percent of PM2.5 for the 2-stroke engine.Only a small portion of the OC was accounted for by identified organic species, which is not surprising (e.g., Zheng et al., 2002; Schauer et al., 1996).Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) measurements indicate more than 99 percent of the organic carbon is most likely due to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) other than PAH.Preliminary measurements of ultrafine particle size distribution show peak particle number concentrations in the diluted exhaust at 40 to 50 nanometers, and particles between 10 and 400 nanometers account for 7 to 49 percent of total PM2.5 mass.
Baycroft, Perry D. (Baker Oil Tools) | McElfresh, Paul M. (Baker Oil Tools) | Crews, James B. (Baker Oil Tools) | Spies, Blain (Baker Oil Tools) | Wilson, Bradley Scott (Apache Corp.) | Conrad, Mark Alan (Anadarko Petroleum Corp.) | Blackman, Michael (Anadarko Petroleum Corp.)
Offshore operators and service companies are increasing concerned about the environmental aspects of their offshore operations. Many offshore completions utilize "frac packing" as a preferred method to complete the soft formations found in the Gulf of Mexico. The frac pack operation manufactures and pumps large volumes of stimulation fluids from the fracturing stimulation vessel into the well. Most operations require at least two work string volumes of fracturing fluid to be reversed out and disposed of. This paper presents the development of a hydraulic fracturing fluid that not only met the oil and grease criteria established for well treatment fluids, completion and workover fluids; but how it was developed to meet the tighter standard established for the discharge of water based drilling fluids to comply not only with the letter of the regulations but with the spirit of the regulations.
The service company specifications for the development of the low environmental impact fracturing fluid required not only it meet the oil and grease standard but also the toxicity standard for water based drilling mud and a biodegradability standard. The fluid development required it to meet the more stringent environmental standard, maintain its performance as a fracturing fluid and remain price competitive. The research process, the sourcing of new suppliers and the development of unique chemistry, with new patents, to accomplish the fluid development objectives are presented.
The environmental performance of the fluid saves disposal costs, minimizes well site logistics and reduces risks associated of an accidental spill to both the operator and Service Company. A case history of the use of the fluid in an environmentally sensitive area is discussed and how the low environmental impact fracturing fluid system enabled the operator to discharge the fluid saving on disposal costs.
This paper discusses the complexities that E&P service companies face in the U.S. as they manage their air compliance program for their base facilities, wellsite operations, and transportation fleets while tackling the enormous amount of federal, state, county, and local air regulations. Examples of point sources (e.g., chemical blending facilities), pollution-control devices (e.g., dust collectors), and fugitive emissions (e.g., cutting sacks of dry chemicals) found within the oilfield services sector are presented, and discussions of air permit or permit exemption requirements are included for each example.
This paper is intended to share best practices for establishing and maintaining an air compliance program, including the tools (e.g., compliance matrix) and systematic techniques for managing air compliance. These practices have application across state boundaries, regardless of the site location. The compliance program includes: 1) determining if a site(s) is currently in compliance with applicable air regulations, permits or permit exemptions, including aspects related to preplanning and scope, whom to involve, audit privilege, and disclosure; 2) bringing a site into compliance once nonconformances have been identified, 3) maintaining compliance even if operational changes such as human factors, equipment, chemicals, or new construction occur, and 4) implementing operational controls to ensure compliance with continual regulatory changes.
This paper was submitted for a student paper session at the conference.It was included in the proceedings as STUDENT25.
Some of drilling fluids are a mixture of many components including organic as well as inorganic polymers. In order to assure stable parameters and the required technological parameters of drilling fluids, all components must be resistant to downhole conditions. At the same time it would be beneficial if the drilling fluids were biodegradable after the drilling process. As such they would have less of an environmental impact and would be easier to utilize. Organic polymer-based drilling fluids are efficient and environmentally-acceptable, but sensitive to biodegradation so they are treated with biocides. The treatment adds toxicity and makes the waste fluid difficult to dispose off . The challenge in polymer fluid fomulation is to reduce biodegradation of active (while drilling) fluid and increase biodegradation of the waste fliud. Presented in this paper is a study of drilling properties and environmental performance of fluid based on newly synthesized ampholyte polymer.
Drilling performance of the new fluid was evaluated with regard to rheology, filtration, salt and temperature resistance. Samples of the fluid were tested using API Standard Methods.
Environmental study addressed the fluid biodegradation. Biodegradability was investigated using Merck method. The Merck method uses testers with agar surfaces. The bacterial count/ml of the sample is determined by comparing the density of the colonies appearing on the slide with densities shown on the model chart.
The results were compared to results for fluids with starchagents.
The results show that polyampholytic-starch fluid is biodegradable by bacteria but still has good and stable rheological parameters and filtration.
The findings show the advantages of polyampholytes and drilling fluid with polyampholyte components and provide some perspectives for industrial implementation.