Saleh, Ibrahim Abdul-Salam (University of Technology / Petroleum Technology Department) | Mahdi, Bashar Saadoon (University of Technology / Computer Sciences Department) | Al-Jawad, Mohammed Saleh (University of Technology / Petroleum Technology Department)
Basrah oil fields contain many unresolved drilling problems, some of which are treated with difficulty, inefficiency, and sometimes leading to a more complex problem. These inefficient problems handling procedures lead to a longer Non-Productive Time (NPT). This lack in efficiency often comes from inadequate preparation, or the slow decision making in the detection of the drilling problems. The main objective of this study is to provide the optimum solutions for the drilling problems in Basrah oil fields on smartphones to achieve credible and quick treatments anywhere on the field.
Tracing of the problems, the gathering process of the field data, and the analysis of the field procedures to treat a problem, all of which were difficulties and challenges faced. Field data deficiency was confronted in many stages.
Throughout this paper, strategies of treatment procedures for the problems that could be encountered while drilling in Basra oil fields are discussed such as Dammam formation's losses, Tanuma's shale instability, Mishrif's special treatments so as not to damage the reservoir, and many others. Discussion of every formation that is drilled from the surface to Mishrif formation will be carried out with the explanation of the problems that was faced in offset wells, in addition to the problems that have a possibility to happen in each formation. The treatments for each problem were based on past field experience and standardized procedures. All of the formations, the problems, and the treatments are constructed in an application called Problems Detector 1.0 (PD) that functions on smartphones that obtains a familiar user interface and can be used anywhere on the field. Two advanced programming techniques are used to construct PD using an Object Oriented Programming language (OOP) that is java, they are the classify algorithm and a well secured database used to enhance the application's capabilities to detect problems and secure the wellbeing of the data that are mounted in PD, respectively.
As a result, a full database of the drilling problems in Basrah oil fields has been constructed. All the problems that could be tackled while drilling with the possibility of their occurrence, the causes of these problems, the indications of the problems on the rig, and the treatment of each problem were all parts of the database set in PD.
Smart phones showed very high efficiency and speed in determining the problems and presenting the solution which can be used on field by the drilling engineer and/or the driller, therefore; the presentation of smartphones to the petroleum industry has proven its importance and value.
Elfeky, Mohamed Helmy (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Al-Neaimi, Ahmed (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Yousef, Omar (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Al-Hosani, Ibrahim (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Iwama, Hiroki (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Farhan, Salman (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Seoud, Abouel (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Channa, Zohaib (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Khemissa, Hocine (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Khan, Muhammad Navaid (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.)
Facing a well control issue while drilling multi reservoirs with different reservoir pressure is very common in oil field worldwide, each and every engineer who is involved in the operations is dealing with this issue on daily basis. However, if the unexpected high pressure is observed while drilling a matured reservoir with known pressure, it is always a challenge to identify the source of the problem and to define the efficient remedial action plan, without compromising the well deliverables.
The case study presented in this paper is related to a workover of a well in a giant offshore field in Abu Dhabi, where abnormally high pressure encountered while drilling the reservoir section with little amount of flow into the wellbore. Identifying the source of discrepancy and to establish the mitigate plan without impacting Well's Workover/Drilling duration was a serious challenge. What made the situation more complicated was the high risk of water in the heel section of 6" horizontal drain, which was prone to shorten the well life significantly.
This paper will introduce an efficient novel solution to use 4 ½" casing liner in a certain configuration, consisting of the mechanical and the Swellable packers to cure the cross communicating reservoirs (source of abnormal high pressure); and isolate the risky heel section of the well, to extend well life without impacting the planned well duration.
This work will also describe the process of identifying the source of pressure, selecting the most suitable well completion strategy to meet the well objectives successfully. Moreover, it will also shed some light on the need of using reservoir simulation technique to assess different well completion options. Finally, the paper will be concluded with methodology on how to save time and cost whilst changing plans to cope with the unforeseen issues.
The selection of the objective target in unconventional shale formations is a determinant factor on the productivity of wells. In thick unconventional formations, as is Vaca Muerta, the operators are looking for new ways of quantifying the production of each stage of hydraulic fracturing executed in the well.
It is of vital importance for the operators to be certain that every section of the well that has been stimulated is effectively contributing to the well production, and that the clean-out of all stages has been correctly carried out.
Other challenges, such as optimal spacing between clusters, stages and wells, which in turn allow to optimize drilling & completion costs, maximizing ultimate recovery (EUR), appear amongst the main preoccupations.
One of the techniques that the industry has developed to answer those questions has been the use of chemical tracers during the stimulation process. Since 2013, the use of chemical tracer technologies to simultaneously tag water, oil and gas has gained great acceptance in unconventional players in USA, with more than 30,000 stages tagged using this technology. In Argentina, Shale operators are quickly gaining experience too.
This paper describes the technique used on site to apply chemical tracers in a multi-stage horizontal well with 15 stages, in Vaca Muerta formation, Argentina. The paper also comments on the data interpretation and necessary steps to obtain the oil and flowback water production profile during the first 60 days following well startup.
Chemical tracer results showed evidence of zones with higher oil production, and higher stimulation water flowback, as well as confirming the complete cleaning of the well.
A production monitoring tool with long term reach, as are chemical tracers, offers the operator the possibility to correlate operational changes (e.g. choke changes) with the individual response of every stage. It is possible to identify which stages are contributing to the incremental oil production, after each operative change.
Finally, it was observed that the information generated with chemical tracers, geological interpretation, and microseismic results collected during the stimulation along the horizontal section of the well, showed a high level of correlation. This helped the Reservoir Engineering team to explain the differences in productivity of each of the fractured stages of the horizontal interval of the well.
Reservoir conformance control (RCC) might be fundamental designing profitable production technology in oilfields. Appropriate application of RCC methods can significantly result in improved IOR/EOR through reduced water production and profile correction. In the past decades, numerous techniques were extensively applied with these goals; however, the operators did not appreciate the silicates until mid-1970s despite the fact that emblematic professionals proposed the silicate gels as efficient alternatives to organic gel technologies. Recently, the attitude towards the extensive use of silicates in oilfields has changed. The silicate-based water shutoff treatments and profile control methods have been already used more than hundred times in Hungary, Serbia, Norway, USA, Oman, and other countries. In the past several years, the fundamental and applied research focused on elimination of inherent negative properties of pure silicate gels, and development of efficient and flexible technologies using polymers and nanosilica in the treating solutions. As a result, the diverse silicate RCC methods arouse high interest in oilfield applications. Today, the
The presentation summarizes the results of both the fundamentals and a pilot tests accomplished in the Algyő field, and critically analyzes the lessons to learn. Base on the publications disseminated until now it can be concluded that these field jobs demonstrate outstanding responds both in water cut and increased oil rate. It was also proved that the nanoparticle-induced (nucleated) formation of silicate gels could potentially be used in all types of porous and fractured reservoirs. In addition, the in-situ formed gels have outstanding thermal stability up to 150°C, the chemicals are mass-produced and available at low price, the job needs simple surface facilities, and customary human force to operate the RCC method. Consequently, the
The current electricity peak demand in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is about 55 Gigawatt (GW) out of which 72% is used for Heat Ventilation and Air conditioning system (HVAC). The peak demand is projected to reach 120 GW by the year 2032. The Saudi Government initiated a massive program to improve HVAC energy consumption efficiency in 2007. Furthermore, the new initiative under King Salman for renewable energy has been adopted in this study as part of the vision 2030 in which more details are still yet to be announced. For this purpose, the following suggested model were tested on each house to facilitate a multiple sizable savonius vertical wind turbines with an integrated PV (BIPV) system, which will be designed to fully cover the annual household energy needs. The turbines can be installed in and around any public area such as parks, roads, public facilities, or business offices. Aeroleaf Wind Turbines were designed to produce power up to 300 watts for each turbine. Low wind speed start-up, working with any wind direction, and the less noise were some advantage of VAWT- Savonius model. The results showed that the power output, with speed of minimum speed of 12-15 m/s generate 40-80 watts with an efficiency of 31~35%. In addition to the BIPV system, the model incorporated the use of PCM materials and solar hybrid air conditioning. The results gained from previous analysis showed a 20% reduction of cooling load when utilizing PCMs materials in comparison to standard construction materials. Moreover, the use of solar hybrid conditioning results showed that EER 5.41% and 12.24 % COP, while the consumption of power reach to 5.35%.
Crespo, Emanuel A. (Aveiro Institute of Materials, Universidade de Aveiro) | Amaral, Mónique (NUESC- Instituto de Tecnologia de Pesquisa, Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju SE) | Dariva, Claudio (NUESC- Instituto de Tecnologia de Pesquisa, Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju SE) | Carvalho, Pedro J. (Coutinho, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Universidade de Aveiro) | Coutinho, João A. P. (Coutinho, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Universidade de Aveiro) | Llovell, Fèlix (Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universidad Ramon Llull) | Pereira, Luis M. C. (Gas Research Center and Chemical Engineering Department - Khalifa University of Science and Technology -The Petroleum Institute) | Vega, Lourdes F. (Gas Research Center and Chemical Engineering Department - Khalifa University of Science and Technology -The Petroleum Institute)
The design, simulation and/or optimization of new processes rely on the availability of robust and accurate models or equations of state (EoS). However, traditional cubic equations of state (EoS’s), traditionally used in many process simulators, fail on describing complex polar and associating behavior of some molecules, leading to unreliable results and hence, poor design and optimization. This problem can be overcome with the use of robust, reliable equations of state. This work belongs to a long term project assessing the performance and usefulness of an advanced EoS (soft-SAFT), as a valuable tool for the description of highly non-ideal systems and thus, for the reliable simulation/design of new technologies.
We focus here on assessing the validity of soft-SAFT, a molecular-based EoS, for the development of novel technologies for CO2 capture using polyether blends as solvent. Within soft-SAFT polyether molecules are modeled as chains with end-groups having an association site, explicitly mimicking the hydroxyl end-groups. The study comprises polyethers, including glymes, and their mixtures with CO2 at different conditions. It is shown that soft-SAFT is able to successfully describe the thermodynamic behavior (e.g. vapor pressures and liquid densities) of these solvents in wide temperature and pressure ranges. Moreover, by explicitly considering the quadrupolar moment of CO2, and using one, temperature and pressure independent binary interaction parameter, an accurate description of the gas solubilities in several polyethers was achieved. For glymes, which among polyethers exhibit the highest CO2 solubilities, such parameter was found to correlate with the molecular weight of the solvent. Finally the equation was used to predict the thermal and pressure cycle capacities of the different solvents. Results presented here reinforce the use of soft-SAFT as a reliable tool for solvent screening, offering reliable predictions of phase equilibria and solubility behavior in a wider number of systems.
Chandran, Dileep (National Drilling Company) | Alila, Morched (National Drilling Company) | Al Owaid, Hatim (National Drilling Company) | Hantoosh, Abdulla (National Drilling Company) | Alawi, Sami (National Drilling Company) | Sajjad, Yasir (Pat Kruger Systems) | Singh, Kuljinder (Pat Kruger Systems)
To record the operational data through the crane Safe Load Indicators to Identify the risk in the Behavior of crane operators, to improve Safety standards and the need for (individual) basic training in offshore crane operation.
The Data Logger system link with the Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, which enable the Datalogger to record operation parameters in relation with the crane operator. The data is downloaded to an internal SD card or can be transferred to a Laptop computer for analysis using special software. The data is presented in the form of graphical charts based on the operator's ID.
The collected data shows the actual lifting performance and highlight the violation for each alarm under Operator ID. It will help in identifying the
weak crane operator’s weaknesses and the points required training to improve his behavior. The system will assist supervisor’s in controlling risk takers behaivior.
Chen, Hsieh (Aramco Services Company: Aramco Research Center-Boston) | Kmetz, Anthony A. (Aramco Services Company: Aramco Research Center-Boston) | Cox, Jason R. (Aramco Services Company: Aramco Research Center-Boston) | Poitzsch, Martin E. (Aramco Services Company: Aramco Research Center-Boston)
Full field inter well tracer programs have become more and more ubiquitous for effective reservoir surveillance. Novel tracer materials with much higher detectability and lower costs have been actively screened. One of the biggest challenges in deploying novel material types, however, is their elevated irreversible retention to reservoir rocks. Herein we benchmarked traditional inter well tracer chemicals and then the sensitivity of ever-increasing irreversible retention that might be associated with unconventional materials.
Using field-scale reservoir simulations with a Langmuir-type tracer irreversible retention model, we rigorously test the limits for tracer irreversible retention in order to have successful inter well tracer test (IWTT). Specifically, we studied the tracer breakthrough peak concentrations as a function of tracer irreversible retention as well as inter well spacing in synthetic waterflood patterns. Custom reservoir simulator functionalities were built to perform the simulations. Additionally, coreflood experiments on common oil field tracers were conducted to acquire independent irreversible retention values and compared to the modeling results.
For the reservoir simulations, we first tested the ideal tracer case with no irreversible retention and found perfect agreement with the standard Brigham-Smith model. We then tested for tracer breakthroughs with increasing irreversible retention values and found that the tracer breakthrough peak concentration drops off dramatically. With the consideration that the limit of detection (LOD) of contemporary analytical instruments are at the part per trillion (ppt) level, the simulation results suggested that the tracer irreversible retention should be less than 10 μg/g-rock (mass of adsorbed tracer / mass of rock) in order to have meaningful IWTT with a well spacing of 2000 ft and an injection tracer mass up to 100 kg. Finally, two field tests using fluorobenzoic acid (FBA) based tracers deployed in the highly saline and retentive carbonate reservoirs in Saudi Arabia were compared. The irreversible retention number of the FBA based tracers was estimated to be less than 5 μg/g-rock from the model. Corresponding coreflood experiments for FBA tracers in high temperature and salinity carbonate cores show 0 +/− 10 μg/g-rock irreversible retention number within error ranges, verifying the prediction of our simulation results.
This paper broadens the scope of the extensively used Brigham-Smith tracer behavior model by incorporating tracer irreversible retention effects. More accurate design and interpretation of inter well tracer tests may be achieved through the new insights presented. Better waterflood management can then be established because of the reduced uncertainties from the more precise tracer data. In addition, this study set an unambiguous standard for the tolerable irreversible retention limits for any new materials targeting inter well tracing applications.
Bailey, J. R. (ExxonMobil Development Co.) | Payette, G. S. (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Prim, M. T. (Zakum Development Co.) | Molster, J. (Zakum Development Co.) | Al Mheiri, A. W. (Zakum Development Co.) | McCormack, P. G. (Halliburton Energy Services) | LeRoy, K. (Pason Systems Co.)
A real-time drilling data analysis and recommendation system that leverages surface drilling data was deployed in the lateral section of a well from an artificial island in Abu Dhabi. A key objective of this technology is to provide the driller with an easy-to-use display of a novel drilling performance map. This paper presents data from this demonstration run, illustrates the features of this technology, and provides general observations on optimization of drilling parameters in this hole section.
The prototype advisory system demonstrated value by recommending rotary speed and ROP (Rate of Penetration) values to continuously optimize the tradeoff between stick-slip vibrations and MSE (Mechanical Specific Energy), depending on depth and formation being drilled. The system relieves the driller of tedious drilling test calculations and seeks to continuously optimize drilling performance. The optimization objective function (OBJ) includes MSE, ROP, and TSE (Torsional Severity Estimate) and provides a surface map that is stoplight color-coded to display the optimal drilling parameter values. TSE is calculated from a drillstring model and observations of the cycle-by-cycle swing in the surface torque.
The typical drilling optimization paradigm holds that higher rotary speed can mitigate stick-slip vibrations at the expense of increased whirl vibrations, and higher WOB (Weight on Bit) tends to increase stick-slip and mitigate whirl. The operational challenge is that these tendencies can vary from run to run, and even within an individual section as pipe length, formation, bit condition, etc. all play a role in the balance between these dysfunctions.
In this application, the system demonstrated that increased rotary speed could mitigate stick-slip for about the first 2,500 ft of the lateral section. From this point on, the drillstring was in full stick slip for all available drilling parameters. However, whirl was sensitive to the effective WOB, determined by the ROP control setpoint in this application. To stay within torque limits and provide sufficient WOB to control whirl, the advisory system actually recommended lower RPM.
This application provided an opportunity to compare the calculated stick-slip levels with bit speed measured at a downhole sensor. Excellent agreement was found between measured stick-slip and the TSE determined from the drillstring model and surface torque throughout the 10 kft lateral. This field demonstration was a first application of the system in ROP control mode, providing new insights into drilling parameter tradeoffs. The system prioritizes objectives with high variability over those with lower variability to improve drilling performance. The data was initially unexpected and led to lower rotary speeds and increased WOB in spite of stick-slip, revealing that it was possible to control whirl without making stick-slip significantly worse.
This paper discusses the first worldwide use of a novel coiled tubing (CT) real-time downhole flow measurement tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a matrix stimulation intervention performed in a salt water disposal (SWD) well by comparing the acquired data with the injection profile obtained via a conventional production logging tool prior to the treatment.
When SWD wells show a decrease in injectivity, the operator’s preference is to conduct stimulation treatments or reperforate target intervals before deciding on a costly workover operation. The decision to intervene is often made based on injection profiling performed using production logging tools along with injectivity index calculations. This evaluation represents an additional expense that typically requires significant time and logistical coordination. Alternatively, a CT real-time downhole flow measurement tool can be used to conduct, in a single run, i) injection profiling, enabling optimization of ii) treatment execution, before iii) conducting post-stimulation injection profiling to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
With the recent introduction of the CT real-time downhole flow measurement tool to facilitate the optimization and evaluation of matrix stimulation treatments, new concerns arose as to whether an actual correlation existed between said tool and existing injection profiles obtained through conventional production logging tools. Until now, there have been no field data to compare both approaches. During a recent matrix stimulation treatment on a SWD well, it was decided to perform a correlation between the data acquired by both tools before the execution of the acid stimulation. The correlation between the injection profiling obtained via the CT real-time downhole flow measurement tool and the injection profile obtained via production logging tool was remarkably similar. Additionally, it was confirmed during the treatment that the data acquired by the CT real-time downhole flow measurement tool can be further used to optimize the stimulation treatment, before performing another injection profile after the stimulation. Surface and downhole parameters acquired during the treatment were also used to model the well performance via nodal analysis.
The paper shows the world’s first example of the correlation of the injection profile obtained by the CT real-time downhole flow tool to the injection profile obtained via a production logging tool. This paper sheds light on the benefits of monitoring downhole parameters during CT acid stimulations. It also highlights the added value brought by the CT real-time downhole flow measurement tool and how its output correlates to production logging tool data.