Khedr, Sherine (BP Exploration Operating Co) | El-dabi, Fady (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Nashaat, Mohamed (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Mohiuldin, Ghulam (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Galal, Alaa (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Slim, Teddy (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Hughes, Andrea (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Morris, Lyndsay (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Ramsay, David (BP Exploration Operating Co) | El-wakeel, Wael (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Mubarak, Hussein (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Smith, Jeffrey (BP Exploration Operating Co) | Munger, Robert (BP Exploration Operating Co)
Giza Fayoum Completions was the second campaign of the West Nile Delta project. The campaign consisted of eight cased-hole gravel pack subsea wells. The Giza Fayoum campaign was sanctioned in August 2017 with an execution start date five months later. In this time, the well designs were finalized, downhole completion equipment manufactured, and the execution plan approved. A high rate water pack sand control technique was designed to deliver an estimated production rate of 120 MMscf/d / well. It was planned to deliver eight wells over a period of 5 months from Q1 2018 giving an average of two and a half weeks per well. Seven of the eight wells were cleaned up through a large bore completion landing string system. Each well was flowed to high rate temporary well test equipment installed on the DP semi-submersible rig to a gas rate of 65 MMscf/d, with PLT logs conducted.
This successful, fast-paced campaign is the result of applying lessons learned from the former campaign; Taurus Libra and identifying additional efficiencies that would improve performance. The design similarities between the two campaigns permitted the team to extend the learning curve and deliver superb performance on Giza Fayoum.
As for safety performance, the campaign was delivered without any lost time incident. A rigorous approach to continuous improvement resulted in reducing the completion time to 12 days per well (not including rig move, de-suspension and suspension activities). The optimized bean up procedures supported by PLT data made it possible to reduce greenhouse emissions by 20%. The sand control technique resulted in a significant reduction of total skins. Moreover, the team succeeded in delivering the wells safely, ahead of plan and under budget while adhering to BP's overarching strategy of delivering safe, compliant and reliable wells.
The efficiencies, safety culture and technology used during this campaign are now being set as the standard for future campaigns in Egypt and beyond.
Quintero, Harvey (ChemTerra Innovation) | Abedini, Ali (Interface Fluidics Limited) | Mattucci, Mike (ChemTerra Innovation) | O’Neil, Bill (ChemTerra Innovation) | Wust, Raphael (AGAT Laboratories) | Hawkes, Robert (Trican Well Service LTD) | De Hass, Thomas (Interface Fluidics Limited) | Toor, Am (Interface Fluidics Limited)
For optimizing and enhancing hydrocarbon recovery from unconventional plays, the technological race is currently focused on development and production of state-of-the-art surfactants that reduce interfacial tension to mitigate obstructive capillary forces and thus increase the relative permeability to hydrocarbon (
A heterogeneous dual-porosity dual-permeability microfluidic chip was designed and developed with pore geometries representing shale formations. This micro-chip simulated Wolfcamp shale with two distinct regions: (i) a high-permeability fracture zone (20 µm pore size) interconnected to (ii) a low-permeability nano-network zone (100 nm size). The fluorescent microscopy technique was applied to visualize and quantify the performance of different flowback enhancers during injection and flowback processes.
This study highlights results from the nanofluidic analysis performed on Wolfcamp Formation rock specimens using a microreservoir-on-a-chip, which showed the benefits of the multi-functionalized surfactant (MFS) in terms of enhancing oil/condensate production. Test results obtained at a simulated reservoir temperature of 113°F (45°C) and a testing pressure of 2,176 psi (15 MPa) showed a significant improvement in relative permeability to hydrocarbon (
Measurements using a high-resolution spinning drop tensiometer showed a 40-fold reduction in interfacial tension when the stimulation fluid containing MFS was tested against Wolfcamp crude at 113°F (45°C). Also, MFS outperformed other premium surfactants in Amott spontaneous imbibition analysis when tested with Wolfcamp core samples.
This work used a nanofluidic model that appropriately reflected the inherent nanoconfinement of shale/tight formation to resolve the flowback process in hydraulic fracturing, and it is the first of its kind to visualize the mechanism behind this process at nanoscale. This platform also demonstrated a cost-effective alternative to coreflood testing for evaluating the effect of chemical additives on the flowback process. Conventional lab and field data were correlated with the nanofluidic analysis.
Mansir, Hassan (COREteQ Systems Limited) | Rimmer, Michael (COREteQ Systems Limited) | Waldner, Leon (CNOOC International) | Graham, John (Suncor Energy) | Hong, Claire (Cenovus Energy) | Wycislik, Kerry (Cenovus Energy) | Duong, Bruce (Alberta Innovates)
The development of a High-Temperature Permanent Magnet Motor (PMM) was initiated with the main objective to bring forth a technical solution to significantly increase temperature capability and run life of ESPs in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) beyond current technology. This is in response to operators needs for improved safety margins and increased production rates. Existing ESP motor technologies are limited to approximately 300 C internal motor winding temperatures, driven by the available motor electrical insulation systems. The use of PMMs in SAGD was also prohibited by the availability of magnet materials capable of operating in such temperatures, without partial or full demagnetization. The project's aim is to break this barrier and extend internal temperatures to 350 C and beyond, allowing well ambient temperatures to be pushed beyond the 260 C downhole environment. In addition, for assurance of motor reliability, rigorous and methodical design validation and qualification testing of basic materials, components, sub-assemblies were undertaken.
Operators face the continuing challenge to improve drilling efficiency for cost containment, especially in deepwater drilling environments where drilling costs are significantly higher. Innovative drilling technologies have been developed and implemented continuously to support the initiative. In many areas of the world, including the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), hydrocarbon reservoirs exist below thick non-porous and impermeable sequences of salt that are considered a perfect cap rock. However, salt poses varied levels of drilling challenges due to its unique mechanical properties.
At ambient conditions, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of salt varies between 3,000 to 5,000 psi; however, the strain at failure for salt can be an order of magnitude higher when compared to other rocks. Consequently, during drilling salt's viscoelastic behavior requires that its must be broken with an inter-crystalline or trans-crystalline grain boundary breakage. When compared to other rock types, the unique isotropic nature of salt results in a level of strain that is much higher for the given elastic moduli. This strain level makes salt failure mechanics different from other rock types that are prevalent in the GOM.
Hybrid bits combine roller-cone and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutting elements to perform a simultaneous on-bottom crushing / gouging and shearing action. Two divergent cutting mechanics pre-stresses the rock and apply high strain for deformation and displacement, resulting in highly efficient cutting mechanics. To meet the drilling objectives, different hybrid designs have been implemented to combine stability and aggressiveness for improved drilling efficiency. An operator, while drilling salt sections at record penetration rates, has successfully used this innovative process of rock failure utilizing the dual-cutting mechanics of hybrid bits. This has resulted in significant value additions for the operator.
This paper analyzes field-drilling data from successful GOM wells and attempts to correlate salt failure mechanics and provide insight into dual-cutting mechanics and its correlation with salt failure. The paper also reviews the drilling mechanics of hybrid bits in salt and highlights importance of dual-cutting mechanics for achieving higher penetration rates in salt through improved drilling efficiency.
Several aged oil wells in offshore oil field are drilled in a conventional method. These wells are subjected to Casing-Casing Annulus (CCA) problems that might appear during the production operation and/or the shutdown phases. A continuous monitoring is performed to avoid issues related to well integrity and safety. The expected source of Casing-Casing Annulus (CCA) problem is mainly due to poor primarily cementing placement into the outer-casing strings especially across shallow aquifers formations. Due to long shutdown period on subject wells, these wells are encountered with high rate of CCA phenomena among other wells. An immediate mitigation action is required to resolve the issues by applying rig workover operation which is considered highly cost approach with low success rate. The rig workover operation results might lead to suspension or abandonment of these wells. The impact will affect the production target and the oil recovery around the area.
A new methodology approach was selected using chemical sealant recipes as a rigless operation to repair CCA problem with cost-effective and safe manner for first time in offshore filed. Based on the wellhead and annuli survey, the bleed down and build up tests were conducted and followed by close monitoring on suspected wells, which revealed sustained casing pressures and fluid return at the surface. Several fluid samples were collected and analyzed in the lab. Based on the findings, the procedures and the proper design were conducted to inject the chemical sealant into connected cement channels behind casing strings. Curing time and injection rate with required volumes of chemicals were considered based on the pressure responses and chemical performance.
The results from the rigless operation job utilizing the new approach showed wide-ranging success rates based on well by well cases and conditions such as 1) Age of the well, 2) Sustained pressure observed at the surface, 3) Injectivity rates, 4) Chemical additives volume and 5) Downhole conditions (pressure / temperature).
The new technique added a great value on restoring the well integrity and saving the rig operation cost. In addition, the approach contributed to achieve maximum sustainable production target through ensuring the well operability and reducing the production down time. Challenges, methodology, work schedule, risk assessment, lessons learned and findings have been covered in this paper.
Using a single universal spacer surfactant to clean a wide variety of oil-based mud (OBM) is considered the "Holy Grail" of spacer fluid system. Specialty chemical and service companies have devoted intense research and vast resources to develop the ideal spacer surfactant, but their efforts have not led to a singlesurfactant solution due to uniquely different drilling mud properties. It is no surprise to experts in the field that surfactant selection is extremely mud specific. For instance, one surfactant may effectively clean certain types of OBM, but fail in another mud from a different location that has the same density and base fluid. As a result, service companies have numerous surfactants in their portfolios, further complicating logistics and operations. This paper presents the discovery of a high-performance universal biomicromaterial, which can significantly improve the cleaning performance of any surfactants/spacer fluids to remove most, if not, all types of drilling mud. The innovative bio-micromaterial is an eco-friendly byproduct from another industry.
Successful cleaning of the drilling mud was demonstrated by standard rotor testing with different OBM samples from across North America, and the percentage of mud removal was determined. Furthermore, the ability of the innovative micromaterial to efficiently clean the mud was verified by measuring the strength of bonding between the set cement and the metal casing that had been cleaned by the spacer fluid after drilling mud contamination. Basically, this new procedure simulates downhole fluid displacement by the intermediate spacer fluid, which is ahead of the cement slurry, displacing the mud. Stability and mixability were also studied to determine the effect of the bio-micromaterial addition to the spacer fluid. Finally, a fundamental scientific study using thermogravimetric analysis and imaging techniques was done to characterize the material and determine its thermal stability.
For the first time, newly discovered, high-performance, universal cleaning micromaterial is presented to enhance the OBM removal of any spacer fluid design. This groundbreaking research has successfully demonstrated the unconventional advanced material to be a universal cleaning, single-additive spacer admixture for a wide variety of drilling mud from various regions across North America. To our knowledge, based on extensive literature search, this is the first report about the application of this natural waste product in wellbore cleaning fluids like the spacer.
Today, almost half of Western Canada's natural-gas production comes from the Triassic-aged Montney formation, a sixfold increase over the last 10 years while gas production from most other plays has declined. In the last few years, demand for condensate as diluent for shipping bitumen has driven development of liquids-rich Montney natural gas leading to a surge in gas production and gas-on-gas competition in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), which has driven local natural gas prices down. This has had a material effect on the operations and finances of companies active in the Western Canada and is reshaping the Canadian gas industry. A significant portion of this growth has taken place in NE British Columbia and with the planned electrification of the industry in British Columbia, including the nascent LNG operations, will influence tomorrow's power industry in this region. NE British Columbia is a geographically large area with sparse population and the power supply into this region has lagged behind development of oil and natural gas resources. The area was originally served from geographically closer NW Alberta. More recently, supply was established from the BC Hydro power grid with the most significant developments being Dawson Creek-Chetwynd Area Transmission (DCAT) completed in 2016 and the additional 230 kV transmission projects scheduled for completion in 2021.
Singh, Ajay (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation) | Sankaran, Sathish (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation) | Ambre, Sachin (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation) | Srikonda, Rohit (Kongsberg Digital Inc.) | Houston, Zach (Kongsberg Digital Inc.)
Deepwater oil and gas facilities typically encounter on an average up to 5% annual production losses due to unplanned downtime, conservatively estimated at billions of dollars impact for the industry. The existing toolkit and systems in place are not always adequate to identify and predict abnormal events that could lead towards unplanned facility shutdown. The interaction amongst process sub-systems and disturbances that propagate across these sub-systems with changing operating conditions are hard to predict without a fit-for-purpose model (or a digital twin). The focus of current work is on deepwater facility having several oil export pipeline pumps in parallel and several gas compressors in series. The alarm database showed records of several unplanned shutdown events around these critical equipements that resulted in undesirable outcomes such as production deferment, complete facility shutdown, loss of sales volumes and increased operational costs. In this work, an intelligent prognostic solution is proposed using machine learning (ML) framework for automatic prediction of impending facility downtime, and identification of key causative process variables. A systematic workflow was developed to identify, cleanse and process real time data for both model training and prediction. Several ML methods were evaluated; anomaly detection based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Autoencoder (AE) algorithms were found performing better for the type of data available for the deepwater facility. The ML framework also supported analysis of underlying downtime causes to propose suitable mitigation steps. Knowledge based on physical understanding of the process was used to select each sub-system boundary and sensor list on which ML model was trained. These models were then cross-validated to test the accuracy of trained models. Finally, the alarm database was used to confirm the accuracy of the machine leaning models and identify root-causes for unplanned shutdowns. If the operating condition changes over time, the anomaly detection based ML models were setup to adapt to changing conditions by automatic model updates, resulting in significant reduction in false alarms. The adaptive ML models, when applied to one of the sub-system (with 30 different sensor data), predicted 24 unplanned events in 6 months of period, while when applied to another sub-system (with 40 sensor data), predicted only 6 unplanned downtime events. Several predictions were found as early as 30 mins to 2 hours, providing adequate early warning to take proactive actions. Case studies shown in the paper present diagnostic charts and identified early indicators were found in agreement with pre-alarms generated by existing alarm system, thus validating the ML solution. Current toolkit available to identify anomalous process behavior is limited to exception based surveillance with fixed min-max limits on each sensor data. Therefore, proposed adaptive ML solution has shown potential to revolutionize the topside process surveillance. This paper also describes how the ML framework can be scaled for a sustainable solution that provides prediction every minute, keeps the model evergreen utilizing cloud-based model deployment platform to train, predict and trigger automatic model updates and also span multiple process systems and facilities. Finally, we present directions for future work, where the current model can keep predicting various events and over time when sufficient events are collected, more advanced machine learning methods based on supervised ML can be developed and deployed.
Is your energy business ready to go global?
In today's market there are few companies that are able to strictly focus on domestic opportunities. Increased competition in saturated home markets offer stagnant returns and in order to achieve growth, a company must either innovate, explore opportunities in foreign markets or both. By internationalizing, a company can capture new market share and may achieve continuous business growth. To accomplish this however, a thorough examination of the barriers and key considerations is vital for companies who are considering taking their business to the international stage.
To begin, a company should find a market for their goods and services and then plan, test and evaluate their internationalization strategy. By reviewing different models, theories and tools meant to assist a company when entering into the global economy, these findings and concepts are then applied to a case study of an oil and gas mid-sized service company which internationalized into the South East Asian market.
The intent of the paper is to identify key external considerations that a small to mid-sized oilfield service company should be cognizant of prior to entering into a host market. For many businesses, the rewards far outweigh the risks when a company decides to internationalize. Ensuring they have a proper strategy will set the company up for success. Key global expansion considerations were validated during the initial phases of the internationalization process and after creating a roadmap for the case study oilfield service company as it expanded into South East Asia. Further, several recommendations were put forth. These included host regulatory environment risks, political stability and culture. The goal of this paper outlines how companies can follow their own path, rather than following a herd mentality to go global successfully.
Shale brittleness is one of the most important parameters to assess how the shale behaves upon subjecting to applied stress and evaluate the hydraulic fracturing treatment. Presence of lamination is a common feature in organic-rich shales which significantly create anisotropy in elastic properties and rock brittleness due to the platy minerals such as clays that have the tendency to be aligned in parallel orientation during burial and the digenesis process. Characterization of anisotropy and the understanding the controlling factors on the reservoir rock elastic properties, rock strength and rock brittleness are crucial for successful production and development of shales. The objective of this paper is to extend the previous discussion by (Ibrahim et al 2019), in which an integrated approach has been developed for evaluating the shale fracability, to explain the influences of shale lamination and emphasize on the effects of anisotropic in elastic properties on brittleness of organic-rich shales to better demonstrate the process of screening hydraulic fracturing candidate intervals and improve the hydraulic fracturing design which can eventually improve the production forecast. In this paper, we propose the vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) modeling to investigate the effect of shale lamination and anisotropy on rock elastic properties, tensile failure and wave velocity normal to bedding plane, which differ than they are when parallel to bedding plane. Throughout this study, it is observed that there is a remarkable effect of anisotropy parameters on rock elastic properties and tensile failure. This method help obtain more accurte brittleness index and give precise guide to optimize perforation depths choice and hydraulic fracturing design that can result in optimized hydrocarbon productivity.