The amount of information generated when each well is drilled has increased in volume over the years. Integrating these different forms of information so they may be compared and used when planning new wells has become a challenge. Additionally there are different companies that capture the same data type but present it in different formats, adding to the communication complexity. There is the aded challenge of how to utilise old data that is not in the new formats, this data may be in the form or spreadsheet databases, word processor documents or sometimes in hard copy that cannot be searched electronically unless it is in good enough condition that it may be scanned and then Optical Character Recognition (OCR) may be used.
These challenges increase when companies take over assets from other companies that have used different software to capture their data. The company that has taken on the new asset must now take on new software if it wishes to analyse the well information that it has received. This requires the generation of new workflows or attempting to export information across different software systems, which can be very challenging.
Two approaches are available, either ensures that all companies work to a common format for the information, of use bridging software that can read all of the different types of data and then present it in a simple format that is makes the data usable.
This paper looks at the use of an overarching Data Management system that can accommodate many different forms of data and then present that in a format that allows the faster and more accurate quality control and decision making.
Kyi, Ko Ko (PETRONAS) | Latiff, Nazri Abdul (PETRONAS) | Yen, Kok Kwi (PETRONAS) | Saadon, Danial (PETRONAS) | Rahim, M Ikhlas (PETRONAS) | Jaafar, Juhaidi (PETRONAS) | Afandi, Tomi (PETRONAS) | Fei, Ng Kiang (PETRONAS)
Tango Field, located offshore Sabah in East Malaysia, is a mature field which has been producing oil and gas for more than forty years. This field has many fault blocks, thus creating barriers to fluid and pressure communication between different fault blocks. Furthermore, the reservoir sands are turbidite sands which are difficult to correlate across the whole field. Being fan lobes, it is not easy to target these sands in drilling development wells. As part of the campaign to improve recovery and sustain production, two infill wells were drilled during 2014, by sidetracking two existing wells from the Tango-B Platform, which is located in the western part of the field. The target reservoirs are M1 and M2 sands, which still carry some upside potential based on the latest review of the field performance. To properly target and penetrate these sands in the planned wells, the Reservoir Mapping While Drilling LWD (DDEM) tool, in combination with standard triple combo LWD (Logging While Drilling) tools, was deployed. This is to ensure that the well trajectory stays within the targeted sands and the bed boundaries are detected long before the drill bit exits the sand body. Unlike previous deep reading LWD resistivity tools, the DDEM tool is a Deep Directional Electromagnetic Propagation tool which has the capability to see about 30 meters laterally beyond the wellbore. While drilling the first well, the target sands were penetrated as planned. However, there was a pleasant surprise where a new hydrocarbon sand was detected by the DDEM tool about 10 meters below the wellbore. The DDEM reservoir mapping software was used to image the newly found sand body. Based on this new finding, the drilling Bottom Hole Assembly was pulled back and the hole was side-tracked to target this new sand, which was successfully penetrated and completed. This new sand, which would not have been discovered with standard LWD tools has increased the well production by a factor of two or more. Being a turbidite sand, it was not picked up on the surface seismic section. The reservoir mapping software technology, together with the deep sensing resistivity imaging LWD tool, was instrumental in finding the new hydrocarbon sand which has substantially increased the production of Tango Field.
Upscaling of a reservoir model is normally conducted when a high resolution model has been generated and it is practically impossible to run the simulation using a high resolution model. Reservoir model upscaling is done in order to have a reasonably coarse model for reservoir history matching and forecasting purposes without losing some of heterogeneity in the reservoir model. A high resolution static coal reservoir model (around 0.1 metre thickness) is generated based on the detailed single coal ply correlation in order to capture complexity and heterogeneity of the coal sediment. A case study is presented in this paper.
Several upscaling methods for reservoir properties such as permeability and gas content were tested and analyzed. The upgridding process on the geocellular model mainly focused on vertical direction in order to identify which ply could be merged into the sub layer level. The next step identifies whether the ply can be merged with neighboring ply individually. The results of the upscaling and upgridding are analyzed using the combination of recovery ratio, simulation running time ratio and cell count ratio plot. Histogram and area map analysis is also used to evaluate the result of the upscaling work.
The expected results of the upscaled model are lower running time, lower cell count and very close recovery value to the high resolution model, while still capturing the heterogeneity. The results of the upscaling exercise for this case are reduction of running time by 72%, reduction of the cell count by 64% and recovery difference of 3%. Some of the plies in one of the layers cannot be merged into a sub layer level which indicates a high degree of heterogeneity. This upscaling technique for the coal reservoir model provides more information about the reservoir characterization methodology for unconventional reservoirs, and coal bed methane reservoirs specifically.
Suling, Wang (Northeast Petroleum University) | Chunlei, Xing (Northeast Petroleum University) | Deshi, Zhang (Daqing oilfield co., LTD) | Chongquan, Shao (China petroleum technology development company) | jian, Jiao (Daqing oilfield co., LTD) | Kangxing, Dong (Northeast Petroleum University)
Rock stratification develops widely in unconventional reservoirs, and it increases the non-uniform of the reservoir on vertical. The interfacial slip deformation can alter the fracture shape when it encounters the weak stratification or the natural fractures, so the rock stratification play an important role in the fracture propagation.
In this paper, the crack extension experiment about the interface is established through the three-point bending. The digital speckle measurement technology was used in order to observe the change of the strain field, near the interface layer, in the process of cracks through the interface. At the same time, based on the maximum circumferential stress criterion, an interfacial slip model has been developed, and the extended finite element method which can reveal the distribution of stress and strain on the interface has been used in the numerical realization of the model. The numerical results of the strain field agree well with those of experiments.
The experiment and numerical simulation results show that when a crack propagates the interface, the crack will break through the interface, or crack kink in the interface, or crack extend along the interface. The reason of the crack deflection, when a crack goes through the interface, is that the crack tip occurs blunt, and the crack length does not increase while the width increases. The tip blunt causes the interfacial shear strain which can turn the direction of the maximum circumferential stress. The crack deflection angle is affected extremely by the interface strength. The weaker the interface is, the greater of crack tip blunt is and the bigger the shear strain of the interface is, which cause the crack deflection angle increase. Based on the above analysis, it indicates that the blunt of crack tip in the interface is the mechanical cause of the crack to change direction extension. The weak bedding is the important factor causing the complexity of unconventional reservoir fracture morphology.
This can be used as one of the standards to evaluate the fracturing effect of unconventional reservoir.
The oil market is in a state of rapid change due to the decreasing oil price, with an urgent need for radical cost reduction of existing development solutions. For the subsea boosting market this comes on top of a historically slow market adoption of subsea processing technology in general. Now, with the new market situation, the incentives for solutions that can increase recovery are strengthened and should become more important to Operators for both Greenfield and Brownfield. The opportunity for subsea process solutions and in particular subsea boosting solutions to become a standard in the industry is right now. To realize this opportunity there is a significant need for change in the knowledge and cost of subsea boosting solutions, to strengthen the business case and thereby grow the market for subsea boosting
Many factors will contribute to this change, but this paper will focus particularly on innovative technical solutions that will simplify existing systems, prepare for true standardization and by this significantly reduce size, weight and cost compared to existing designs. Furthermore, introducing innovative technologies supports simplified installation and intervention as well as deepwater and long step-out developments. All of this is possible without introducing big technology leaps or compromising the reliability of the overall solution.
The paper will provide case studies demonstrating cost savings including size / weight comparisons of conventional and new solutions, as well as dives into certain technology elements with proven results.
Cementing across highly depleted zones and weaker formations requires low density cement systems capable of reducing the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column during cement placement. If wellbores encounter weak or depleted zones, standard cement cannot be used because the bottom-hole pressure will exceed the pressure gradient and cement will be lost to the formation. Service companies offer cement solutions made light enough to circulate in such situations while retaining the ability to withstand down-hole conditions and maintaining adequate compressive strength to meet regulatory guidelines. Lightweight cements can be achieved using water extension, foamed cement or lightweight microspheres. This paper focuses on the use of lightweight microspheres as density reducing agents. Preliminary experimental data comparing different grades of hollow microspheres is discussed. Cement slurries containing hollow glass spheres and other lightweight hollow microspheres were evaluated while still liquid and after cured. While still liquid the cement slurries were characterized in terms of effective density as a function of pressure. After being cured at room conditions, the resulting cement specimens were characterized in terms of compressive strength. Experimental data suggests that cement compressive strength is mostly independent of the lightweight microsphere strength and strongly dependent on the cement load. Guidelines on the selection of the appropriate microsphere grade are also presented.
Santoso, R. K. (Institut Teknologi Bandung) | Rachmat, S. (Institut Teknologi Bandung) | Putra, W. D. K. (Institut Teknologi Bandung) | Resha, A. H. (Institut Teknologi Bandung) | Hartowo, H. (Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Electromagnetic heating has been recently introduced as an effective technology to enhance production of heavy and extra-heavy oil reservoir. Several investigations using metal oxide nanoparticles have successfully proven to increase the effectiveness of heating process. Nanoparticles act as thermal-conducting agent during the heating process. Thus, heat distribution along the reservoir strongly depends on the nanoparticles distribution (concentration profile along the reservoir). In this study, we develop a mathematical model to characterize the concentration distribution of nanoparticles along the reservoir during injection phase. The model is developed using material balance and fluid flow in porous media. Several empirical correlations are also adopted to describe the adsorption phenomenon during the nanoparticles flow in the reservoir. Using coreflood experiment data of iron oxide nanoparticles, the model is simulated and fitted to look for several constants and confirm the minimum error. From the simulation results, the model matched with tracer data and had small squared error with nanoparticles data.
This paper presents the Offshore Pipeline Engineering Competency Project. The project was initiated by the Australian Pipeline Gas Association (APGA) in 2013, in response to the resource shortage of skilled offshore pipeline engineers. This project has resulted in a national framework and standard for competency in the field of offshore pipeline engineering.
The paper describes the Offshore Pipeline Engineering Competency Project from its inception through implementation with Engineers Australia for establishing a Special Area of Practice in Offshore Pipeline Engineering. The paper will describe the process used for competency development, the challenges and lessons learnt during the three year project; and the challenges that still lie ahead. The paper will detail the list of competency requirements and provide detail on the process of qualification through Engineers Australia. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how individuals and organisations can apply the competency framework for professional development.
This project demonstrates leadership and innovation within the Australian oil and gas industry. The positive response within Australia and internationally, indicates the importance of and demand for, this work. Success is attributed to the high level of collaboration within the industry. The first industry benchmark in offshore pipeline engineering has been set. This has many positive outcomes including guiding professional development, guiding educational institutions and ensuring the future of the industry is secure by developing the skills of the engineering workforce.
Establishing an Offshore Pipeline Engineering Competency framework is unique and the Australian industry is the first in the world to do this. There are ongoing discussions with international peak engineering bodies and standards organisations, to use this benchmark as the basis for a global framework. This will secure the future of the industry by ensuring that skilled resources are readily transferable between global regions.
In gas processing facilities, the minimum metal temperatures (MMT) in process equipment and piping are usually observed during highly transient depressurization operations ("blowdown"). The MMT usually sets the material of construction and can have a huge impact on project costs and ultimately project viability.
To explore this issue we use a recent case study that considers the design from Pre-FEED through to Final Investment Decision of a gas processing facility. During pre-FEED, the most widespread methodology for designing the depressurization system, based on idealized equilibrium volumes, was applied. This showed that extremely low metal temperatures could be expected in nearly all parts of the processing facility. To avoid material embrittlement, large vessels and piping would have required expensive stainless steel construction for ~80% of the facility.
As a result, a more detailed methodology for accurate assessment of MMT during depressurization was applied. This methodology involves a detailed representation of the processing facility using accurate dynamic models and requires a greater level of analysis and more effort. It does, however, account for different system pipe and vessel dimensions and wall thickness; as well as system elevations, points where condensate liquid may accumulate, drainage and the location of blowdown valves. The results predicted much more accurate MMT at each location throughout the processing facility.
Having identified specific locations of concern, the design team developed targeted solutions addressing all predicted issues whilst minimizing capital expense. Savings were achieved by optimizing material selection and other critical design specifications. By utilizing the detailed blowdown methodology throughout the design cycle only 30% of the facility is being constructed from stainless steel.
We conclude by reviewing the different methods for depressurization system design, their relative merits and discuss how designer engineers can identify systems that require more thorough attention.
The paper presents a new drilling technology. With the Electric Impulse Technology it is possible to drill boreholes with less energy demand, more drilling speed and less drill bit changes. Drilling results, calculations und further steps will be presented.
The new technology uses high voltage impulses to destroy rock with almost no wearing of the drill bit. Engineering a drill bit with this technology will advance the drilling activity for oil and gas as well as geothermal drilling and mining. The objective is to develop a whole drilling system suitable for a conventional drilling rig. Within the first step an impulse voltage generator including a drill electrode was engineered, tested and evaluated. Drill performance under pressure with OBM was investigated. Next steps will include the developing of the energy supply for the system and field tests.
The impulse voltage generator designed as a downhole tool was developed to drill bore holes with a diameter of 12 ¼ inch in hard rock with a drill speed of 1 to 2 m/h which is comparable to conventional drilling bits. Furthermore it withstands temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures of 1000 bar. The components of the generator have a lifetime about 350 h, so a bit could be used almost seven times longer than a conventional drilling bit. In laboratory tests a block of granite was drilled on a length of 50 cm with a diameter of 12 ¼ inch. Additionally further materials like limestone, sandstone, marble and iron ore were successfully destroyed. Pressure tests up to 500 bar with WBM and OBM were performed and analyzed. The whole design process of the generator and the electrodes was accompanied by network analysis and FEM calculation.
The paper presents the new results of the development of a drill bit based on the Electric Impulse Technology. After the engineering of the impulse voltage generator and promising results the development of the power supply get into focus. The pressure tests show that the Electric Impulse Technology will work under borehole conditions. In addition to early processing the drill bit will be configured for drilling with WBM concerning environmental and financial issues.