March 2015 Keynote Presentation
Innovators -Technology Enthusiasts
•Learn about emerging technologies
•Strong aptitude for technical information
•Like to beta test new products
•Willing to ignore the missing elements
•Love to demonstrate their own expertise
•Expect unrestricted access to top technical people
•Have little to no budget to spend
Early Adopters -The Visionaries
•Gain dramatic competitive advantage via revolutionary breakthrough
•Great imaginations for strategic applications
•Attracted by high-risk, high-reward propositions
•Will commit to supply the missing elements
•Perceive order-of-magnitude gains —so not price-sensitive
•Want rapid time-to-market
•Demand high degree of customization and support
Early Majority -Pragmatists
•Secure productivity improvements via evolutionary change
•Reliable managers of mission-critical applications
•Astute about real-world issues and tradeoffs
•Strong preference for proven applications
•Prefer to go with the market leader
•Insist on good references from trusted colleagues
•Want to see the solution in production at the reference site
Late Majority -Conservatives
•Avoid falling too far behind market norms
•Not comfortable with new technology
•Highly reliant on a single, trusted advisor
•Need simplified standardized pre-assembled solutions
•Need value-added services but do not want to pay for them
•Maintain the status quo.
•Good at debunking marketing hype
•Disbelieve productivity-improvement arguments
•Believe in the law of unintended consequences
•Seek to block purchases of new technology
•Not a customer
•Can be formidable opposition to early adoption
Crossing the Chasm - Two Key Principles
•Target a “beachhead” segment
•Highly focused approach to “rekindling the flame”
•Niche market with an intractable problem, not solvable by conventional means
•Process owner is under pressure to find a solution
•Pragmatists are willing to consider disruptive approach
•Commit to provide the “whole product”
•Bring all the ingredients with you
•Complete solution to the intractable problem
•Typically involves products and services from partners and allies
•Lead vendor takes responsibility for ensuring customer success
Cambridge Energy Research Associates came out with their ‘Digital Oil Field of the Future’ study in 2002. A lot has happened over the last ten plus years, some of it very impressive, some of it not. This seems like a good time to assess where the industry is at and where is it headed with their Digital Oil Field/Integrated Operations (DOF/IO) investments. The assessment of progress for DOF/IO programs are given in the backdrop of Gartner's familiar Emerging Technology Hype Curve.
The challenge is to figure out how to get more value from your Digital Oil Field investment. In each petroleum engineering and earth science discipline there are a number of significant opportunities including: drilling (monitoring of real-time drilling status, geo-steering and the prediction and mitigation of unplanned events, especially well control); completions (analysis of hydraulic fracturing operations, including microseismic and multi-stage fracturing); operations and maintenance (equipment health, well integrity, reliability analytics, and tank monitoring); production engineering (surveillance of oil, gas and water production, and virtual metering) and reservoir engineering (real-time reservoir management).
But barriers to adoption of DOF/IO solutions do exist. They include: 1) the “Integration challenge”, 2) the “Innovation challenge”, 3) the “Complexity challenge”, 4) the “Data Foundation challenge”, and 5) the “Knowledge Exchange challenge”. Here are a few observations: 1) the trend of field automation, real-time systems and earth & reservoir modeling suggests that the Digital Oil Field has become a reality, 2) new engineers and earth scientists are entering the workforce with high digital literacy from lifelong experiences with consumer IT and with some training in programming from graduate school, 3) more ‘intellectual property’ from petroleum engineering and earth science comes in the form of software, but 4) significant gaps continue to surface (lack of reuse, fragile integration, poor data foundation, lack of end-to-end system design, unclear support). The ultimate goal of the Digital Oil Field is to make better, faster decisions but to that end, the focus is on analytics, and in order to support analytics, you need to have a strong data foundation.
Looking back on nearly a dozen years of activities by operators, service and technology companies can provide insight for future investments. The Digital Oil Field has been one of those initiatives that many in the industry have, at one time or another, considered or actually worked on the development and implementation of specific solutions. Some companies can take a look at the vision of the Digital Oil Field and conclude that they are not too far away, and they would be right. Other companies will view that same vision with skepticism and conclude it is too expensive, too risky, too much change to their current operations, and they would also be right. Has the industry reached a plateau, a trough, or at just at the beginning of an exciting new future?
This paper introduces a program successfully designed and implemented within ScottishPower, a major UK Utility. The program focuses on the development of an integrated Process Safety Management system. The program has since been developed, tailored and implemented in 3 European based Offshore E&P operations.
The program is based upon adopting UK HSE guidance on developing process safety indicators (HSG 254) and supported by numerous other international standards including ISO55000:2014 (Asset Management) and API Recommended Practice (RP) 754, Process Safety Performance Indicators; the program has driven positive change through awareness and understanding of Process Safety and asset Integrity risk at every level of staff and contractor in the organization.
Central to the program is the development of quantitative Key Performance Indicators from a Bow Tie Hazard identification and analysis process. This paper explains the methodology of how Bowtie theory can be used to develop leading KPIs covering an entire asset base; illustrated with a walk through of relevant Hazards, Bow Ties and KPIs.
The paper will also articulate how ScottishPower utilized the KPI data within a near time KPI dashboard system, to enable staff at all levels to understand the current status of the risk control barriers across all assets regardless of age, type and level of automation. This innovative approach to KPI development and management enables ScottishPower to identify Safety, Human and asset risks in real time and to implement proactive solutions at facility and boardroom level before critical barriers fail.
This paper will be of particular value to those who are commencing implementation of a process safety management system or those who have a well-established system but feel that their current approach to KPI development is not portraying an accurate, timely risk profile of risks associated with human factors, safety culture, contractor management, ageing equipment, drilling and completions
Al-Jasmi, A. K. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Zaabi, H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Goel, H. K. (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Hamer, M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Vellanki, R. (Halliburton) | Singh, S. (Halliburton) | Villamizar, M. (Halliburton) | Moricca, G. (Halliburton)
Each year, oil companies experience declining production rates and face challenges in terms of sustaining production targets, diagnosing well problems, and designing solutions to address such production decline. Identifying problems and opportunities at the correct moment, without losing time, is critical to the success of a digital oil field's (DOFs) intelligent solutions.
Traditional industry solutions involve using historical data for surveillance. In DOFs, tools are available to assist engineers with diagnosing fields made up of thousands of wells using instantaneous real-time data. With multiple reservoirs and thousands of wells in a field, it can be extremely challenging to diagnose, identify the opportunity and make right decisions collaboratively to optimize the well without losing time. This paper describes a multidimensional surveillance (MDS) approach using real-time and historical data, which can handle thousands of wells more effectively for problem identification and optimization. This solution is coupled with an action tracking system to assist the Engineers in monitoring the Field implementation and assess the opportunity collaboratively.
This paper presents the results of the application of intelligent agents to traditional work procedures to help increase production performance and final oil recovery in the Sabriyah KwIDF (SA KwIDF). SA KwIDF is part of a strategy undertaken by the operator to enhance asset performance using ground-breaking redefined DOF concepts. These concepts involve tightly integrated well instrumentation to provide enhanced data availability, power, and communication infrastructure to help improve field control, a new concept of collaborative centers to enhance asset team cross disciplinary integration across physically separated locations, and, finally, platform and production optimization workflows to increase effectiveness through automating work processes, helping shorten observation-to-action cycle time. The approach can make more effective problem identification and optimization possible. MDS acts as string facilitator when troubleshooting well performance and optimization. MDS allows engineers to track the implementation of suggested actions in the field. MDS approaches also allow engineers to compare wells side by side, to better understand the reservoir behavior, enhance the optimization process, asset awareness, team efficiency, and ultimately provide improvement to short-term production rates.
The MDS approach used in the Kuwait integrated DOF SA KwIDF involved 133 wells and the operator has projected to expand the system to an additional 500 wells in 2015. The primary objective of this initiative project was to maximize and sustain oil rates while controlling well decline and honouring safe well operating envelope constraints.
This paper describes the use of data mining agents to help enhance the optimization process, asset awareness, team efficiency, and, ultimately, provide improved short-term production rates.
Drilling operations involve substantial planning and execution to achieve safe and cost effective well delivery. To improve drilling efficiency by minimizing costly non-productive time, active surveillance programs leverage large volumes of data generated at various stages of the drilling process. With increased reliance being placed on real-time quantitative measurements at the drill site, there has been recognition of the limited use of the large amount of valuable unstructured data generated throughout lifecycle of the workflow. Generated data in the form of communication messages and daily reports include substantial information and recordings of activities. However, such worthy sources of insight are largely untapped by conventional, established tools for monitoring and alert.
We present a proof of concept for mining daily drilling reports for three wells drilled between 2008 and 2010. There were occurrences of drilling impacts and NPT events ranging from slight operational delay to other events that introduced delays to the critical path. Employing concept extraction and pattern frequency techniques, we were able to track and monitor reported symptoms of the observed behavior to help identify root cause and compound factors leading to such an event.
In an effort to bring a fundamental understanding of the unstructured data relevant to the process, whilst simultaneously reducing the time required collating and processing this data, we applied unsupervised learning methods Results reveal associations between extracted patterns of some key issues and relative progress over a period of time which were not apparent to drilling engineers at first glance. In addition, the technology provides enhanced capability around the interpretation and visual representation of largely untapped collection of documents. The process can be automated to integrate pattern extraction and visualization with existing systems to empower engineering staff and technical specialists involved in the monitoring and analysis of well construction.
Change management is a common theme within digital energy discussions. Although it is often suggested as a significant challenge, there are very few objective metrics for judging whether change is actually occurring. This means that judging the success of an initiative has been largely subjective.
One source of objective information is application usage. The implementation of digital energy principles brings changes to both the way applications are used and to the types of applications that are called. One component of a successful digital energy project is shifting work from manual tasks to automated work processes. In automated processes, workflows call applications to make necessary calculations instead of users checking out applications from a limited number of authorized licenses. An increase in workflow software usage can be tracked and used as one objective indicator of change. Other objective indicators are reduced application use by individuals and increased use of new and/or different applications and calculations such as analytics and statistical process control methods.
Therefore, once an organization establishes a baseline level of application and/or function usage for key workflow components then subsequent usage trends that resulted from a digital energy initiative can be monitored. For example, an individual working on an engineering design workflow may check out a license for an application for 30 minutes, acquire data, build a scenario and produce 30 calculation results in a scenario analysis. In an automated work process for the same design problem, the workflow itself calls the same application and utilizes it for 3 minutes while running 600 calculation results. By monitoring application usage, an assessment of the progress in switching to the new way of working can be monitored. In this example, the process time has decreased by a factor of 10 while the engineering rigor has increased by a factor of 20. If the statistics continue to show automated workflows in use as opposed to individual usage, it can be inferred that a change in work habits has taken place.
Although no qualitative information on decision quality is produced by application tracking, quantitatively, more wells can be analyzed and the chances of arriving at a better decision are greatly increased. Application usage data may not be a definitive indicator of change. However, when objective data is combined with qualitative feedback and other subjective data points, a more complete picture of the progress towards a new way of working can be obtained.
Sawaryn, S.J. (BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd) | Crawford, S. (BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd) | Whiteley, N. (BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd) | Donohoe, L. (BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd) | Reed, D. (BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd) | Waraky, R. El (BP America)
A drilling and completions applications portfolio and its associated support services requires constant attention if the portfolio is to remain up to date in both engineering and IT terms and continue to serve the needs of the drilling and completions engineering community. Over time, this management effort has become more involved and complex as the number of available applications has increased and the technologies have changed. The trend towards tighter integration and data sharing between drilling and completions applications and with other disciplines applications such as subsurface, places data management at the heart of the response. For large organisations in particular, keeping up with the new releases and patches can be a challenge and the need for backwards compatibility is paramount. Data issues and the poor connectivity associated with physical remoteness and some non-rig based units can also impede the change out to other systems. Special attention is required for applications that are designated safety critical or safety related.
The paper describes the way in which a major operator has defined and managed its drilling and completion portfolio over the last 20 years, to address the internal and industry changes and trends. The portfolio now serves the needs of over 2000 drilling and completions engineers worldwide. A wide range of examples, including the operator's WellAdvisor system, engineering toolkit and wells / subsurface integration project are presented, together with an evaluation of the portfolio management challenges and successes that have been achieved.
It is concluded that integration requires the consistent application of strong data management principles and a commitment to an underlying architecture to support simplification, reducing the number and complexity of the interfaces that must be managed. However, some flexibility is needed to promote the development of and access to new applications and the concept of niche applications has been introduced to address technical specialist's needs. Some applications which are either company specific, or are needed only in special circumstances do not lend themselves to being commercial products and these tools are provided by custom built, web-based applications. The recent focus on real time data, quality of service and digital security are merely the latest changes that have had to be accommodated.
Despite the apparent rate with which technical and commercial changes are occurring, the paper content illustrates the need to consider the portfolio management issues over long cycle times. The paper will be of interest to both business and IT managers and engineers tasked with managing drilling, completions and subsurface applications portfolios.
Oil and gas operations involve multiple equipment suppliers, service companies, contractors, and operating partners, which makes the need for standardization in the digital oilfield clear. Successful deployment of any digital oilfield solution involves transfer of information among these different players, in addition to standardized equipment. The oil and gas standards community has been working to enable end-to-end, real-time data transfer from the sensor to simulation or the accounting system or a regulator, in addition to the traditional exchange of larger static information. The industry has seen a great deal of progress on the uptake of data standards for data in motion and fundamental improvements in the standards themselves. The data in motion are real-time data in the drilling and production arenas, and on-demand movement of data between applications or among partners and regulators. The static data is the traditional contextual information about wells and their histories along with information on their historical performance and the activities used to create and operate them.
This paper provides an introduction to standards in general, an update on the current state of the art for the dominant real-time and static data standards, the revised architecture currently being deployed for those standards, and the relationships among the various standards-setting bodies in the industry.
An important contribution to improvements in asset integrity and performance is made by providing high quality real-time information to all asset staff in the office and in the field that is utilized for comprehensive surveillance in numerous beneficial ways. This information in conjunction with Collaborative Work Environments (CWEs), now operational in most major assets in Shell, enables high quality communication, information sharing and rapid high quality decision making. Integrated Operations link offshore and onshore activities, providing support to the operational teams including remote engineering and maintenance support. Exception Based Surveillance (EBS), with automated alerts from real-time data, highlights wells, process facilities, rotating equipment and artificial lift systems that need either immediate or near-term attention.
Substantial business benefits have been achieved in producing assets by the application of exception based surveillance, collaborative working and integrated operations at onshore and offshore locations. They include increased production, reduced deferment, increased equipment reliability and facility availability, reduced Opex costs, increased staff work efficiency and reduced HSSE exposure. Keys to sustained success include supporting leadership, determination for continuous improvement, a focus on the people aspects to embed the solutions, setting up high quality support and a commitment to data management.
In the following sections, we will first focus on the global deployment of the Collaborative Work Environments, then home in on an example from the Gulf of Mexico operations in New Orleans. In the example, Integrated Operations and Exception Based Surveillance will be discussed in detail.