Miscible/Immiscible carbon dioxide injection is considered as one of the most effective technology to improve oil recovery from complicated formations. Main factor restraining wide application of this technology is its dependence on natural CO2 sources, transportation of CO2, breakthrough of CO2 to production wells, corrosion of well and field equipment, safety and environmental problems etc. However, in-situ carbon dioxide generation technology is eliminating CO2 negative impact and strong control of the process.
The EOR mechanism of proposal technology is described as follows: acid and exothermic chemical reaction function relieve deep reservoir damage, micronucleus systems formed possess abnormal reological properties allowing to improve water flooding efficiency, CO2 as a super-critical fluid decreases oil viscosity and gas form CO2 reaches such place in the formation where not many solvents can enter to, foamed gas-liquid system creates additional resistance for water injected after gas-liquid system, surfactant formed decreases interfacial tension in oil-water contact, and CO2 solved in oil increases oil volume what affects on displacement of residual oil.
Lab research shows that proposed technology can decrease injection pressure of damaged core by 11.7MPa, gas generation amount and oil volume increasing rate increases with temperature and system concentration increasing, oil volume increasing rate and oil viscosity reducing rate increasing with oil viscosity increasing. Under the conditions of 60 degrees Celsius, 10MPa, 2010mPa.s, it can increase oil volume by 25%, reduce oil viscosity by 52.7%, improve recovery efficiency by 7.6%~14.2%.
Field pilot tests were conducted in seven injection wells in China Bohai offshore oilfield in 2009~2010. All the wells present significant effect of decreasing injection pressure and increasing injection rate, average decreasing pressure by 3.2MPa, average increasing injection rate of single well by 22118m3, cumulative increasing injection rate by 154827m3, cumulative increasing oil of around production wells by 29000m3. Field pilot tests shows that proposed technology can be applied in a wide range of geological conditions, and be the key to recovering huge amount of oil from highly watered, depleted, heterogeneous and other type of so called hard-to-recover oil reserves.
Liu, Xincang (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield) | Zhang, Dong (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield) | Ding, Jian (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield) | Ran, Fajiang (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield) | Zhao, Mingchuan (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield) | Li, Shiyong (No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield)
It's very important to evaluate layered producing performances at different stages in the course of oilfield development, but due to limitations of monitoring well conditions and logging expenses, it is difficult to comprehensively and systematicly monitor all the producers, and this will bring troubles to adjustments and evaluations during oil field development. To solve this problem, the Chromatographic Fingerprint technique is introduced to monitor layered producing performances in test area F which has four target zones in Daqing Oilfied. After response of alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding, screw pumps are adopted to some producers to minimize scaling in F area where producing profile surveys for annulus wells aren't adaptable to mornitor the layed producing status. Pre-test in lab shows that the Chromatographic Fingerprint technique is feasible for the four individual test zones for there are distinct chromatographic fingerprint differences, and ASP injected solution has less influences on fingerprints. A fuzzy interpretation template has been successfully set up for commingled 4-6 layers production numerical simulation by using EPB neural network model, and relative errors can be controlled below 10%. The technique has been applied to the producers for 180 times. In-situ test results are stable and correspond to the static information of lays. It indicates that the Chromatographic Fingerprint technique is suitable for monitoring individual zone producing performances of ASP flooding. The results from the fuzzy interpretation template have provided powerful data to re-recognize the connectivity of heterogeneous reservoir between injectors and producers. It can be applied to producers whose producing intervals belong to the fuzzy interpretation template. The oil production proportion of per lay's can be easily achieved after the sample from the well fluid is analysed with chromatography and calculated with the fuzzy interpretation template. The technique has proved to be economical and it is not astricted by well conditions, so it can play an important role to guide development programs' adjustments and evaluations in oilfields.
In May 2006, the Warner Mannville B ASP flood was the first field wide ASP flood implemented in Canada. The objective was to successfully implement a commercially viable ASP flood. In this project produced water is treated and reinjected into the reservoir. As of December 2012, an incremental 420 103m3 (2.65 million bbl) of oil has been recovered with an expected total incremental recovery of 777 103m3 (4.89 million bbl), which represents 11.1% of the OOIP. In October 2008, after 0.35 pore volume of ASP injection, the project moved into the Polymer only injection phase. Polymer injection will continue as long as is economically feasible.
A comprehensive monitoring and testing program was implemented to evaluate flood response and performance. This allowed for the optimization of the flood through continuous adjustment to flow rates and led to successful infill drilling locations.
Many challenges have been encountered during this project, including: silicate scale production, treating issues related to the water quality of the recycled injection water, and loss of injectivity in many injection wells.
The challenges were overcome and it has been an economic success with a cumulative positive cashflow within 5 years. The results of this flood have led to the implementation of an additional four floods. The lessons learned from this project have improved numerous aspects of how future floods are designed and implemented.
EOR technology has been applied on many projects globally with variable success. It shows great potential for offshore heavy oil with oil recovery low in life span of platform (general less than 30% by water flooding). About 60-70% oil is remained in the formation after water flooding, and for offshore heavy oil reservoir, more oil (about 80%) is remained by the end of the platform life.  It becomes more important to achive high recovery before abandoning the platform and the oilfields with lots of oil left in reservoir. With recovery increasment of 5-10% by EOR methods, the reserve will increase greatly, which means an order of magnitude of hundreds of million-tons oilfield is discovered without increase any exploration investment.
Surfactant-polymer (SP) flooding was a potential enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology that was more powerful than the polymer flooding. And it was test or applied successfully in some high or extra-high WCT onshore oilfields of Shengli oilfields (SINOPEC), Daqing oilfields (CNPC) in china. The paper presents a filed EOR test case of offshore heavy oilfield oilfield by SP.
Advancement in drilling and production technologies, such as horizontal drilling with multi-stage fracturing, has enabled commercial production from more challenging reservoirs, namely, tight oil formations. However, high capital costs and relatively low recovery narrow the profit from such reservoirs. CO2 EOR has provided not only an excellent opportunity to unlock more oil production, but also a chance to sequestrate more CO2 to reduce environmental footprint. However, profitability of CO2 EOR processes could rely heavily on market conditions.
While CO2 EOR reserves and CO2 storage can be quantified through compositional simulation, thorough economic analyses need to be conducted to evaluate the viability of a CO2 EOR project. The complexity of this study can be reduced significantly through experimental design. Randomized economic uncertainties, such as commodity prices, royalty scheme and incentives, CO2 sequestration credits, capital and operating cost structure, CO2 price, etc. can also be investigated with Monte Carlo simulation. This coupled approach allows us stochastically to sensitize the probability of each parameter and quantify their financial impacts on CO2 EOR projects. This methodology is extremely valuable in the assessment of risks in business, especially when uncertainties are high or the problem is rather complex, such as CO2 EOR/sequestration in tight oil reservoirs.
The remaining oil in tight oil formation, after primary and water flood, is still significant. Hence, CO2 EOR has attracted attentions from industrial partners and government regulatory bodies. This paper provides a rigorous workflow for the industry on how to appraise such projects, as well as a perspective for the governing bodies of how to transform their policies and incentives when market conditions change.
This paper illustrates an innovative field-scale application of injecting condensate gas and recycling gas in Jake field, Sudan. This field has two production series, namely AG condensate gas pools and Bentiu oil pool from bottom to up, with the former 3520 ft. below the Bentiu reservoir and 1695 psi of initial reservoir pressure difference. Bentiu pool of Jake field is a medium crude oil (29 API) pool with strong aquifer support. Well productivity was 500 BOPD. Operator intended to inject high-pressure condensate gas into Bentiu pool to increase field output, whereas was confronted with following challenges: 1) injection of condensate gas in an easy-to-operate wellbore configuration; 2) optimization of injection parameters to achieve highest output; 3) suppress aquifer water breakthrough.
Field scale application had been optimized and implemented since 2010:1) High-pressure condensate gas had been injected into two updip crest Bentiu wells in the same well bore, following a huff-and-puff process, well output amounted 4,000 to 13,800 BOPD under natural flow; 2) 1/4 recycling gas volume from compressors was re-injected into 12 downdip wells at controllable pressure to avoid early water breakthrough; 3) The remaining recycling gas was utilized to gas-lift other five updip wells.
Oil producers were reduced from 19 to 7 comparing to original field development plan, while oil rate ascended from 22,000 to 30,000 BOPD, with watercut dropping to 7% from 15%, achieving a high offtake rate of 6%. Reservoir simulation indicated ultimate recovery factor is expected to be over 50% with such full-field gas injection.
Conclusions drawn from field scale injection of condensate gas and recycling gas were as follows:1) condensate gas injection in the same well bore was technically innovative and operationally robust; 2) recycled gas injection into downdip wells helped detain water breakthrough; 3) field scale application had evidenced outstanding success with high output and high offtake rate.
Among the different Enhanced Oil Recovery methods being implemented in the matured fields of Malaysia, Immiscible Water Alternating Gas (iWAG) appears to be the most viable option. However, reduction in well injectivity and productivity would be very harmful to this process and render it ineffective. Therefore, extensive laboratory testing, interpretation and integration have been performed to reach the conclusions and recommendations presented in this paper.
The target reservoirs in the Bokor are made up of unconsolidated and very heterogeneous rock with high permeability streaks. The mineralogy of the target reservoirs shows over 10% of clay, with abundance of kaolinites and illites which tend to cause fines migration and mixed layer illites/smectite which can swell. Therefore special handling of core samples is necessary for the laboratory testing; this includes flow through cleaning and critical point drying.
The aim of the study is to establish the potential mechanisms of formation damage during the iWAG progress and determine preventive, mitigative measures and provide guidelines for treatment if damage occurs. The main focus is on formation damage by fines migration, dirty injection fluids (Mechanically induced damage) and clay swelling and de-flocculation (Chemical induced damage - fluid rock interaction) effect to Bokor field. The laboratory tests performed includes capillary suction time, filtration level test, critical velocity and fines stabilizer test, constant rate injectivity test and formation damage by iWAG injection test.
Key areas of interesting findings include (1) Potential formation damage mechanism during the iWAG process (2) Strategies to prevent damage and improved injectivity, (3) Recommended treatment frequency based on injection half-life established in this study and (4) Field monitoring strategies.
Trigos, Becerra Erika Margarita (Ecopetrol) | Rueda, Neira Silvis Fernanda (Natfrac) | Rodriguez, Paredes Edwin (Ecopetrol SA) | Rivera de la Ossa, Juan Eduardo (Ecopetrol SA) | Naranjo Suarez, Carlos Eduardo (Ecopetrol SA)
A number of publications (Valbuena, 2009; Haroun, 2008; Schoofs, 2010; Meshal, 2009) have shown the application and also the relevance of heat management in steamflooding projects. This concept is based on the understanding of the process phases and the identification of energy requirements at each phase, which leads to avoid the loss of energy. Based on field experience at Duri (Ziegler, 1993) and Kern River (Gael, 1994) is easy to recognize that the best strategy varies according to the particular characteristics of the reservoir.
In Colombia there are some reservoirs with presence of interbedded shale and a long history of steam cycles stimulation, thereby research using numerical simulation to determine the best scenarios for steam flooding implementation was conducted. A deep analysis taking into consideration, injection rate, well spacing, selective injection strings technology, partial interval completion as a strategy of delaying the steam breakthrough in the production well and finally, strategies of heat management such as periodic reduction of the injection rate and scheduled shutdown of injection well were evaluated.
The final results showed eight possible implementation scenarios that later will be compared from an economic perspective to identify the ideal scenario for field implementation. Simulation results showed that high injection rate (700 BWE/day-well) in patterns of 2.5 acres produced the highest incremental production, yielding an accumulation of about two million of oil barrels over a period of 10 years. Unfortunately, this production is associated with a high cumulative steam oil ratio (cSOR) near to 13. The best strategy to reduce cSOR was the periodic reduction of injection rate reaching a cSOR ratio of 11. The time of evaluation of the project was identified as one of the most influential parameters for the establishment of the heat management strategy.
Castro, Ruben Hernan (ECOPETROL, S.A.) | Maya, Gustavo Adolfo (Ecopetrol SA) | Sandoval, Jorge (Ecopetrol SA) | Leon, Juan Manuel (Ecopetrol SA) | Zapata, Jose Francisco (Ecopetrol SA) | Lobo, Adriano (Ecopetrol SA) | Villadiego, Darwin Oswaldo (ECOPETROL, S.A.) | Perdomo, Luis Carlos (ECOPETROL, S.A.) | Cabrera, Fernando Ariel (TIORCO, Inc.) | Izadi, Mehdi (TIORCO, Inc.) | Romero, Jorge Luis (TIORCO Inc) | Norman, Charles (TIORCO, Inc.) | Manrique, Eduardo Jose (TIORCO, Inc.)
Dina Cretaceous Field is located in the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) Basin, Colombia. Dina Field operated by ECOPETROL S.A. (discovered, 1969) started peripheral water in 1985. Based on high water cuts (96%) and recovery factors of 32%, comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR), screening evaluation began late 2009, identified Colloidal Dispersion Gel (CDG) as an optimum EOR method for the field.
This paper summarizes Dina CDG project from the laboratory to the field evaluation. Laboratory studies include basic fluid/fluid evaluation, static adsorption, CDG formulations, slimtube, and coreflood tests. Pilot area selection was based on a comprehensive reservoir and injection/production data analysis, water management, well integrity, among other factors. Pilot design was based on detailed numerical simulations using sector and full field models. CDG pilot design also considered water handling limitations and potential injectivity constraints due to the narrow margin of maximum injection and reservoir pressures, combined with low reservoir permeability (50 to 200 mD).
Peripheral CDG pilot included one injector and three producers. CDG injection began in June 2011 and as of September 2012, approximately 437,000 bbl of CDG have been injected (5% of pilot PV). CDG injection strategy considered a fix polymer concentration of 400 ppm and a variable polymer/crosslinker ratio ranging from 40:1 to 80:1; to control maximum injection pressure. Field results showed an important increase in oil recoveries (oil productivity up to 300%) and reduction of water cut decrease (10%). After 16 months, no polymer had been produced in offset producers. Main operating challenges experienced during the pilot project included; the improvement in water quality and its impact on CDG injectivity which will also be described.
This study provides guidance to successfully design, implement, and evaluate CDG pilot projects and other potential chemical EOR technologies in waterflooded reservoirs. Lessons learned during pilot testing contributed to defining pilot expansion strategies supported by an integrated decision-risk management approach.
Tewari, Raj Deo (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Bui, Thang (Schlumberger) | Sedaralit, Mohd Faizal (PETRONAS) | Kittrell, Chuck M (Schlumberger IPM-RMG) | Riyadi, Slamet (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Rahman, Hibatur (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd)
This paper discusses about the optimization study of applying the enhanced oil recovery technique in a multilayered mature offshore oilfield. This field is located at water depth 65-70 m. There is significant variation in rock and fluid properties from top to bottom in the field. Upper sands are highly porous and permeable, poorly consolidated and hold viscous oil.Whereas lower formations are fully consolidated and contain lighter oil with a high GOR. Oil in most of these reservoirs are under- saturated. The field is under primary production for the last 30 years with appropriate sand control and artificial lift measures.
Production performance indicates that current development strategy and practices will yield a moderate recovery lower than average recovery in Malay basin fields. A comprehensive reservoir characterization has been carried out to capture the reservoir heterogeneity and multiple realizations of reservoir properties distribution have been used to understand the major uncertainties of the field. Performance analysis combined with simulation modeling identified a suitable EOR application with appropriate well spacing to maximize the drainage of undrained oil while improving the sweep from partially drained portions of the reservoirs. Since the field is in mature stage of the producing life, delaying the enhanced oil recovery application may not be a sound strategy for maximizing the recovery. Improving the well density and applying EOR should be part of a redevelopment strategy. Exhausting the option of primary production and then embarking on enhanced oil recovery application may be detrimental in maximizing the value of the asset. Water alternating gas injection (WAG) in immiscible mode has been firmed up for improving the oil recovery from this offshore field. The improvement in recovery due to WAG injection is attributed to contact of the upswept zones and modification of residual oil saturations and targeting the attic oil. The combination of water and gas injection in WAG improves the microscopic displacement efficiency and increases the mobile oil saturation. Hysteretic effects which change saturation paths, due to sequential injection of water and gas, additionally improve the recovery. Thus the combined effect of water and gas injection in improving the recovery in WAG is better as compared to separate gas or water injection. Three phase flow (oil, water and gas) is better in displacing the residual oil compared to two phase flow water and oil or gas and oil.
One of the major challenges envisaged in the application of EOR in a multilayered reservoir with very large thickness is poor conformance of injectants. This is critical for the success of the process. Parameters which are critical for impacting the WAG enhanced oil recovery process are studied thoroughly. The study suggests that improving the well spacing and proper injection volume with good conformance control and timely initiation of the process would result into an improvement of recovery factor on the order of 8-10%. The paper also discusses the laboratory results of mechanism of formation damage with water injection and rock-fluid interaction.