Foam assisted CO2 enhanced oil recovery has attracted increasing attention of oil companies (operators and service companies) and research institutions mainly due to the potentially high benefit of foam on CO2-EOR.
Miscible and immiscible CO2 flooding projects are respectively proven and potential EOR methods. Both methods have suffered from limited efficiency due to gravity segregation, gas override, viscous fingering and channeling through high
permeability streaks. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies as well as field applications have indicated that foaming of CO2 reduces its mobility, thereby helping to control the above negative effects. However, there are still various conceptual and operational challenges, which may compromise the success and application of foam assisted CO2-EOR.
This paper presents a critical survey of the foam assisted CO2-EOR process to reveal its strengths, highlight knowledge gaps and suggest ways. The oil recovery mechanisms involved in CO2 foam flood, the effect of gaseous and soluble CO2 on the process, synergic effect of foaming agent and ultra-low IFT surfactants, logistic and operational concerns, etc. were identified as among the main challenges for this process. Moreover, the complex flow behaviour of CO2, oil, micro-emulsion and brine system dictates a detailed study of the physical-chemical aspects of CO2 foam flow for a successful design. Unavailability of reliable predictive tools due to the less understood concepts and phenomena adds more challenges to the process results and application justifications.
The study highlights the recent achievements and analysis about foam application and different parameters, which cannot be avoided for a successful foam assisted CO2 flood design and implementation. Accordingly, the study also addresses prospects and suggests necessary guidelines to be considered for the success of CO2 foam projects.
Angsi field is slated to be the first in the world for Alkaline-Surfactant and Polymer (ASP) chemical flooding via a floating structure in an offshore environment. The chemical flooding will be for 3 years with 6 months of low salinity water pre-flush injection prior to chemical injection to condition the reservoir, and 6 months of treated seawater with polymer injection as post-flush activity. The chemical flooding will be conducted via injection of treated and partially desalinated seawater mixed with ASP chemicals produced from the floater which is tie-in to the existing Angsi water injection pipeline network (Figure 1.0). Angsi reservoirs will experience three (3) different salinity range exposures with two (2) as invading fluids with effects of chemical cocktail, wettability and fluid distribution. One of the main challenges for ASP flooding in an offshore environment is handling the chemical residuals breakthrough in produced water causing the water unable to be disposed overboard. To overcome this problem and to eliminate environmental pollution, a full scale Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) system with full integration to existing Angsi Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system should be adopted to meet the new water reinjection specifications. Since the PWRI water will be commingled with treated and partially desalinated seawater mixed with ASP chemicals from the floater, it is paramount to predict the range of salinity of the produced water over time to help to design the PWRI and Floater's water treatment system to achieve the final water quality and optimum salinity required for an effective ASP cocktail for re-injection. This paper will summarise the PWRI design and operation philosophy coupled with subsurface studies to predict salinity profiles for the produced water.
Mohd Shafian, Siti Rohaida (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Kamarul Bahrim, Ridhwan Zhafri (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Abdul Hamid, Pauziyah (Petronas Research Sdn Bhd) | Abdul Manap, Arif Azhan (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Darman, Nasir B. (PETRONAS) | Sedaralit, Mohd Faizal (PETRONAS) | Tewari, Raj Deo (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd)
This paper discusses laboratory results of enhancing the performance of water alternating gas (WAG) injection process. Currently, field is under primary and secondary phases. It is light oil with moderate to good reservoir characteristics and relatively higher in reservoir temperature between 92 - 101oC and higher CO2 percentage in produced gas. Field is in decline phase and rise in water cut and GOR values. Redevelopment strategy of the field includes optimization of well spacing and WAG application to maximizing the oil recovery. One of the key challenges faced on WAG injection is gas overriding. Therefore, it becomes important to control the gas flood front during gas injection cycle of WAG and allowing the reservoir to reach to Sorg level.
The study will focus on measuring the variation of petrophysical parameters for surfactants that has bulk foam stabilization properties. In addition to classical foam Mobility Reduction Factor (MRF) determination, effect of foam on gas saturation has also been monitored along the core using in-situ X-ray monitoring tool. Propagation of foam in porous media is less understood and application of X-ray monitoring for gas saturation in dynamic condition helps to understand this to great extent.
Experiments have been carried out on Berea and reservoir cores mounted on dedicated X-Ray-equipped core flood bench. The core, initially at Swi, is flooded up to Sorw with water followed by gas injection to Sorg level to establish the reference condition for WAG. A slug of surfactant solution is then injected followed by gas prior to co-injection of surfactant and gas (83 % quality foam). Fluid propagation in core is correctly monitored for every 0.1 PV injection of fluids. The results suggest efficient mobility control by achieving required MRF in presence of ROS. High MRF is an essential ingredient for the success of the process. These results are also correlated with a homogenization of the gas front in presence of foam.
Qiang, Wang (CNPC Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development) | Ming, Gao (CNPC Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development) | Zhaoxia, Liu (CNPC Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development) | Bakar, Mohamad Abu (PETRONAS) | Chong, Yeap Yeow (PETRONAS) | Adnan, Izwan B. (PETRONAS)
The objective of this paper is to scope the Chemical EOR potential in both GNPOC and PDOC fields in Sudan. From the initial EOR screening, the most amenable EOR processes identified for both GNPOC and PDOC are mainly chemical and thermal EOR. Chemical EOR is the leading EOR process in GNPOC fields while thermal EOR is the leading EOR process in PDOC fields.
Chemical EOR evaluation was performed using Eclipse EOR black oil simulator. Simulations were performed on sector models constructed or extracted from full field models which have been conditioned to the current reservoir condition. The chemical input data was referenced mainly from Qing Hai oil field lab data which oil properties are similar to that of Sudan's. The chemical EOR evaluation encompass 3 different types of chemical processes; polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer (SP) flooding and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding. Chemical EOR can potentially improve field recovery factor between 4-18% depending on the type of chemical EOR process. ASP flooding possess the highest potential with incremental oil recovery over waterflood ranging between 12%-18% followed by SP flooding and polymer flooding. ASP flooding is taken as the reference chemical process in this study as it as it represent the highest chemical potential.
The outcome of this study is believe to be helpful to successful planning of Chemical EOR applications in sudan.
Tewari, Raj Deo (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Bui, Thang (Schlumberger) | Sedaralit, Mohd Faizal (PETRONAS) | Kittrell, Chuck M (Schlumberger IPM-RMG) | Riyadi, Slamet (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd) | Rahman, Hibatur (Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd)
This paper discusses about the optimization study of applying the enhanced oil recovery technique in a multilayered mature offshore oilfield. This field is located at water depth 65-70 m. There is significant variation in rock and fluid properties from top to bottom in the field. Upper sands are highly porous and permeable, poorly consolidated and hold viscous oil.Whereas lower formations are fully consolidated and contain lighter oil with a high GOR. Oil in most of these reservoirs are under- saturated. The field is under primary production for the last 30 years with appropriate sand control and artificial lift measures.
Production performance indicates that current development strategy and practices will yield a moderate recovery lower than average recovery in Malay basin fields. A comprehensive reservoir characterization has been carried out to capture the reservoir heterogeneity and multiple realizations of reservoir properties distribution have been used to understand the major uncertainties of the field. Performance analysis combined with simulation modeling identified a suitable EOR application with appropriate well spacing to maximize the drainage of undrained oil while improving the sweep from partially drained portions of the reservoirs. Since the field is in mature stage of the producing life, delaying the enhanced oil recovery application may not be a sound strategy for maximizing the recovery. Improving the well density and applying EOR should be part of a redevelopment strategy. Exhausting the option of primary production and then embarking on enhanced oil recovery application may be detrimental in maximizing the value of the asset. Water alternating gas injection (WAG) in immiscible mode has been firmed up for improving the oil recovery from this offshore field. The improvement in recovery due to WAG injection is attributed to contact of the upswept zones and modification of residual oil saturations and targeting the attic oil. The combination of water and gas injection in WAG improves the microscopic displacement efficiency and increases the mobile oil saturation. Hysteretic effects which change saturation paths, due to sequential injection of water and gas, additionally improve the recovery. Thus the combined effect of water and gas injection in improving the recovery in WAG is better as compared to separate gas or water injection. Three phase flow (oil, water and gas) is better in displacing the residual oil compared to two phase flow water and oil or gas and oil.
One of the major challenges envisaged in the application of EOR in a multilayered reservoir with very large thickness is poor conformance of injectants. This is critical for the success of the process. Parameters which are critical for impacting the WAG enhanced oil recovery process are studied thoroughly. The study suggests that improving the well spacing and proper injection volume with good conformance control and timely initiation of the process would result into an improvement of recovery factor on the order of 8-10%. The paper also discusses the laboratory results of mechanism of formation damage with water injection and rock-fluid interaction.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) has been touted as the Holy Grail for achieving the highest possible recovery factor. This technology is fairly matured in land based development, with older fields in Bakersfield and Indonesia achieving up to 90% recovery factors. However, EOR considerations take on a whole new dimension in an offshore environment. Astronomical rig rates and escalating operational costs have deterred operators from pursuing ambitious offshore EOR programs.
Most EOR pre-development studies are focused on the reservoir; in particular altering relative permeabilities, reducing residual hydrocarbon saturations, and improving sweep efficiencies. But with up to 40% of slated huge EOR capital development cost earmarked for well construction, more technical focus should be emphasized on well architecture.
This paper details the well architecture work done on several Malaysian fields scheduled for EOR redevelopment. A workflow featuring the various design and operational considerations is explained. Well architecture is composed of two main components: Trajectory and completions functionality. Malaysia's portfolio of complex reservoirs requires EOR development to be done through a creative lens of complex trajectories and multilateral wells. Marginal economics have precluded the practicality of conventional well construction.
A key enabler in cost efficient EOR redevelopment is advanced completions, namely remote downhole flow control and monitoring. In order to achieve incremental production beyond secondary recovery, reservoir conformance is of critical importance. Remote real time monitoring will allow decisions to be made accurately in a timely manner. Downhole flow control permits purposeful manipulation of injection and production streams. Proper installations of advanced completions will also reduce future intervention and operational costs.
Advanced well architecture however, also comes with a whole range of operational and installation risks. But these can be mitigated with proper planning and coordination with all parties involved.
Chemical EOR projects were very active during 1980?s, however, during 90?s the interest in chemical EOR has fallen due to the low oil prices and also technical challenges that the methods poses. While surfactant flooding has difficult design considerations of chemicals, large capital requirements and is very sensitive to local reservoir heterogeneities, alkali can react strongly with minerals in the connate water and reservoir rocks may adversely impact the process. This complex process is yet to be understood. If the field is offshore, chemical EOR becomes even more challenging due to sophisticated logistics, incremental costs, highly deviated wells, larger well spacing and limited well slots on the platform. However, recently there has been a renewed interest in chemical flooding mainly due to valuable insights gained through chemical floods done in the past and better technical understanding of the processes and favorable economic conditions
For robust production forecasts, various uncertainties due to complex chemical processes should be quantified thoroughly. Some of the important uncertainties for full field production forecasts are chemical adsorption on rock surface, interfacial tension (IFT) and residual oil saturation reduction by chemical. Proper coreflood experiments are critical to reduce these uncertainties. Careful matching of coreflood experiments in numerical simulations is also important which provides key inputs for full field forecast. Another important element in the successful commercial application for chemical EOR process is a well-designed pilot. After the completion of pilot, the results should be carefully matched in the simulation model. Once satisfactory match is obtained, the key step would be to upscale the results to the full field level.
Discussed in this paper are the impact of some of these uncertainties and the method used to reduce them. In this paper the workflow and key tasks in dealing with the simulation of chemical EOR process elements like residual oil saturation, IFT reduction and adsorption parameters are discussed. The results show that the incremental oil is very sensitive to the various simulation inputs.
Wan Daud, Wan Ata (Exploration and Production Technology Centre, PETRONAS) | Sedaralit, Mohd Faizal (PETRONAS) | Wong, Fadhli (PETRONAS) | Affendi, Amierul Redza (Exploration & Production Technology Centre. PETRONAS)
With declining oil production, the Exploration & Production companies are in search of applying innovative methodologies to improve recovery factors from existing fields. Immiscible Water Alternating Gas (IWAG) has been identified as one of the enhanced-oil recovery techniques for offshore Dulang oil field in Malaysia. The field redevelopment FDP study was initiated in 2007 to evaluate the optimum recovery scheme to increase oil production from all reservoirs in Dulang field. Results from the simulation study indicated that the major reservoirs will benefit from IWAG injection, with ultimate recovery as high as 50% in some reservoirs. Phase 1 of IWAG injection was started in April 2012
Prior to IWAG field implementation, extensive surveillance program was developed to ensure requires data is captured for monitoring the success of the project and provide a feedback for improvement.
This paper explores the selection of tools and testing programs adopted in surveillance program which include Integrated Operation (IO) for IWAG injection in the Dulang field. The new proposed surveillance program is expected to improve water flood and IWAG monitoring;
The new IWAG surveillance program with the IO system will enable the surveillance team to move from reactive to a proactive asset management system. Real time data will enable engineers to know the status of injection facilities, well status and rate and the performance of IWAG EOR in Dulang.