Bagheri, Mohammadreza (Research Centre for Fluid and Complex Systems, Coventry University) | Shariatipour, Seyed M. (Research Centre for Fluid and Complex Systems, Coventry University) | Ganjian, Eshmaiel (School of Energy, Construction and Environment, Built & Natural Environment Research Centre, Coventry University)
The fluid pressure, the stress due to the column of the cement in the annulus of oil and gas wells, and the radial pressure exerted on the cement sheath from the surrounding geological layers all affect the integrity of the cement sheath. This paper studies the impact of CO2-bearing fluids, coupled with the geomechanical alterations within the cement matrix on its integrity. These geochemical and geomechanical alterations within the cement matrix have been coupled to determine the cement lifespan. Two main scenarios including radial cracking and radial compaction, were assumed in order to investigate the behaviour of the cement matrix exposed to CO2-bearing fluids over long periods. If the radial pressure from the surrounding rocks on the cement matrix overcomes the strength of the degraded layers within the cement matrix, cement failure can be postponed, while on the other hand, high vertical stress on the cement matrix in the absence of a proper radial pressure can lead to a reduction in the cement lifespan. The radial cracking process generates local areas of high permeability around the outer face of the cement sheath. Our simulation results show at the shallower depths the cement matrices resist CO2-bearing fluids more and this delays exponentially the travel time of CO2-bearing fluids towards the Earth's surface. This is based on the evolution of CO2 gas from the aqueous phase due to the reduction in the fluid pressure at shallower depths, and consumption of CO2 in the reactions which occur at the deeper locations.
An important aspect of reservoir management process is monitoring and revising plans and an essential component of reservoir management strategy is integration of technologies (Satter et al. 1994). In revisions of reservoir management plans, very rarely do operators incorporate any other data than the data from newly drilled wells and the field production in between the revisions. Any inference in the inter-well space is an interpolation between the well data, as surface seismic is limited by its resolution, as the calibration data is available only at well level. For an effective reservoir management, especially in the decline phase of the field, a logical integration of technologies to capture maximum heterogeneity in the interwell space can be very advantageous. Crosswell technologies, that provide high resolution data between a set of wells, but if used individually, are essentially limited to a very small part of the field having multiple wells. Therefore, in order to monitor and revise reservoir management plans, it is important that such technologies are integrated with full-field solutions. This paper describes a methodology that aims to better manage reservoir by logically integration the 3D reservoir model-a full-field solution-and crosswell electromagnetics/crosswell seismic-an interwell solution.
Application of polymer flooding as a chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) has increased over recent years. The main type of polymer used is partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM). This polymer still has some challenges especially with shear stability and injectivity that restrict its utility, particularly for low permeability reservoirs. Injectivity limits the possible gain by acceleration in oil production due to polymer flooding. Hence, good polymer injectivity is a requirement for the success of the operation. This paper aims to investigate the influence of formation permeability on polymer flow in porous media.
In this study, a combination of core flooding with rheological studies is presented to evaluate the influence of permeability on polymer in-situ rheology behavior. The in-situ flow of HPAM polymers has also been studied for different molecular weights. The effect of polymer preconditioning prior to injection was studied through exposing polymer solutions to different extent of mechanical degradation.
Results from this study reveal that the expected shear thinning behavior of HPAM that is observed in rheometer measurements is not observed in in-situ rheology in porous media. Instead, HPAM in porous media exhibits near-Newtonian behavior at low flow rates representative of velocities deep in the reservoir, while exhibiting shear thickening behavior at high flow rates representative of velocities near wellbore region. The pressure build-up associated with shear thickening behavior during polymer injection is significantly higher than pressure differential during water injection. The extent of shear thickening is high during the injection of high Mw polymer regardless of cores' permeability. In low permeable Berea cores, shear thickening and mechanical degradation occur at lower velocities although the degree of shear thickening is lower in Berea to that observed in high permeable Bentheimer cores. This is ascribed to high polymer retention in Berea cores that results in high residual resistance factor (RRF). Results show that preshearing polymer before injection into porous media optimizes its injectability and transportability through porous media. The effect of preshearing becomes favorable for the injection of high Mw polymers into low permeability formation.
This study discusses polymer in-situ rheology and injectivity, which is a key issue in the design of polymer flood projects. The results provide beneficial information on optimizing polymer injectivity, in particular, for low permeability porous media.
Gaol, Calvin (Clausthal University of Technology) | Wegner, Jonas (Clausthal University of Technology) | Ganzer, Leonhard (Clausthal University of Technology) | Dopffel, Nicole (BASF SE) | Koegler, Felix (Wintershall Holding GmbH) | Borovina, Ante (Wintershall Holding GmbH) | Alkan, Hakan (Wintershall Holding GmbH)
Utilisation of microorganisms as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method has attracted much attention in recent years because it is a low-cost and environmentally friendly technology. However, the pore-scale mechanisms involved in MEOR that contribute to an additional oil recovery are not fully understood so far. This work aims to investigate the MEOR mechanisms using microfluidic technology, among others bioplugging and changes in fluid mobilities. Further, the contribution of these mechanisms to additional oil recovery was quantified.
A novel experimental setup that enables investigation of MEOR in micromodels under elevated pressure, reservoir temperature and anaerobic and sterile conditions was developed. Initially, single-phase experiments were performed with fluids from a German high-salinity oil field selected for a potential MEOR application: Brine containing bacteria and nutrients was injected into the micromodel. During ten days of static incubation, bacterial cells and in-situ gas production were visualised and quantified by using an image processing algorithm. After that, injection of tracer particles and particle image velocimetry were performed to evaluate flow diversion in the micromodel due to bioplugging. Differential and absolute pressures were measured throughout the experiments. Further, two-phase flooding experiments were performed in oil wet and water wet micromodels to investigate the effect of in-situ microbial growth on oil recovery.
In-situ bacteria growth was observed in the micromodel for both single and two-phase flooding experiments. During the injection, cells were partly transported through the micromodel but also remained attached to the model surface. The increase in differential pressure confirmed these microscopic observations of bioplugging. Also, the resulting permeability reduction factor correlated with calculations based on the Kozeny-Carman approach using the total number of bacteria attached. The flow diversion of the tracer particles and the differences in velocity field also confirmed that bioplugging occurred in the micromodel may lead to an improved conformance control. Oil viscosity reduction due to gas dissolution as well as changes in the wettability were also identified to contribute on the incremental oil. Two-phase flow experiments in a newly designed heterogeneous micromodel showed a significant effect of bioplugging and improved the macroscopic conformance of oil displacement process.
This work gives new insights into the pore-scale mechanisms of MEOR processes in porous media. The new experimental microfluidic setup enables the investigation of these mechanisms under defined reservoir conditions, i.e., elevated pressure, reservoir temperature and anaerobic conditions.
Schumi, Bettina (OMV E&P) | Clemens, Torsten (OMV E&P) | Wegner, Jonas (HOT Microfluidics) | Ganzer, Leonhard (Clausthal University of Technology) | Kaiser, Anton (Clariant) | Hincapie, Rafael E. (OMV E&P) | Leitenmüller, Verena (Montan University Leoben)
Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery leads to substantial incremental costs over waterflooding of oil reservoirs. Reservoirs containing oil with a high Total Acid Number (TAN) could be produced by injection of alkali. Alkali might lead to generation of soaps and emulsify the oil. However, the generated emulsions are not always stable.
Phase experiments are used to determine the initial amount of emulsions generated and their stability if measured over time. Based on the phase experiments, the minimum concentration of alkali can be determined and the concentration of alkali above which no significant increase in formation of initial emulsions is observed.
Micro-model experiments are performed to investigate the effects on pore scale. For injection of alkali into high TAN number oils, mobilization of residual oil after waterflooding is seen. The oil mobilization is due to breaking-up of oil ganglia or movement of elongated ganglia through the porous medium. As the oil is depleting in surface active components, residual oil saturation is left behind either as isolated ganglia or in down-gradient of grains.
Simultaneous injection of alkali and polymers leads to higher incremental oil production in the micro-models owing to larger pressure drops over the oil ganglia and more effective mobilization accordingly.
Core flood tests confirm the micro-model experiments and additional data are derived from these tests. Alkali co-solvent polymer injection leads to the highest incremental oil recovery of the chemical agents which is difficult to differentiate in micro-model experiments. The polymer adsorption is substantially reduced if alkali is injected with polymers compared with polymer injection only. The reason is the effect of the pH on the polymers. As in the micro-models, the incremental oil recovery is also higher for alkali polymer injection than with alkali injection only.
To evaluate the incremental operating costs of the chemical agents, Equivalent Utility Factors (EqUF) are calculated. The EqUF takes the costs of the various chemicals into account. The lowest EqUF and hence lowest chemical incremental OPEX are incurred by injection of Na2CO3, however, the highest incremental recovery factor is seen with alkali co-solvent polymer injection. It should be noted that the incremental oil recovery owing to macroscopic sweep efficiency improvement by polymer needs to be taken into account to assess the efficiency of the chemical agents.
Jia, Ying (Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, SINOPEC) | Shi, Yunqing (Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, SINOPEC) | Huang, Lei (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Petrochina) | Yan, Jin (Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, SINOPEC) | Sun, Lei (SouthWest Petroleum University)
The YKL condensate gas reservoir is one of the biggest condensate gas reservoirs in China and has been developed more than 10years. At present, the combination of subdivision layer, production speed optimization and horizontal well drilling has been the key to economically unlocking the vast reserves of the YKL condensate gas. The primary recovery factor, however, remains rather low due to high capillary trapping and water invasion. While primary depletion could result in low gas recovery, CO2 flooding provides a promising option for increasing the recovery factor.
The objective of this work is to verify and evaluate the effect supercritical CO2 on enhancing gas recovery and analyze the feasibility of CO2 enhance gas recovery (CO2 EGR) of condensate gas reservoir.
Firstly, novel phase behavior experimental procedures and phase equilibrium evaluation methodology for gas-condensate phase system mixed with supercritical CO2 with high temperature were presented. A unique phase behavior phenomena was also reported. Then, CO2 floodingmechanism in condensate gas reservoir was analyzed and clarified based on experiments. Finally, a series of numerical simulation work were conducted as an effective and economical means to maximize natural gas recovery with the lowest CO2 breakthrough by varying strategies, including CO2 injection rate, injection composition, andinjection timing. Meanwhile the CO2 storage volumes of different strategies were calculated.
The results show that higher gas recovery factor can be achieved with CO2 injection through appearing interphase between two fluids, maintaining reservoir pressure, driving gas like "cushion" and controlling water invasion. All strategies have moderate to significant effects on gas production. The control of injection and production ratio needs to be balanced between pressure transient and CO2 breakthrough over the producer to obtain the maximum gas production. The varying injection pressure shows a positive effect of enhancing gas production. Numerical simulation indicated that the recovery of gas reservoir was improved by around 10 percent. The total CO2 storage would be around 30-40% HCPV.
The research showed that CO2 flooding presents a technically promising method for recovering the vast condensate gas while extensively reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Recent studies have indicated that Huff-n-Puff (HNP) gas injection has the potential to recover an additional 30-70% oil from multi-fractured horizontal wells in shale reservoirs. Nonetheless, this technique is very sensitive to production constraints and is impacted by uncertainty related to measurement quality (particularly frequency and resolution), and lack of constraining data. In this paper, a Bayesian workflow is provided to optimize the HNP process under uncertainty using a Duvernay shale well as an example.
Compositional simulations are conducted which incorporate a tuned PVT model and a set of measured cyclic injection/compaction pressure-sensitive permeability data. Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) is used to estimate the posterior distributions of the model uncertain variables by matching the primary production data. The McMC process is accelerated by employing an accurate proxy model (kriging) which is updated using a highly adaptive sampling algorithm. Gaussian Processes are then used to optimize the HNP control variables by maximizing the lower confidence interval (μ-σ) of cumulative oil production (after 10 years) across a fixed ensemble of uncertain variables sampled from posterior distributions.
The uncertain variable space includes several parameters representing reservoir and fracture properties. The posterior distributions for some parameters, such as primary fracture permeability and effective half-length, are narrower, while wider distributions are obtained for other parameters. The results indicate that the impact of uncertain variables on HNP performance is nonlinear. Some uncertain variables (such as molecular diffusion) that do not show strong sensitivity during the primary production strongly impact gas injection HNP performance. The results of optimization under uncertainty confirm that the lower confidence interval of cumulative oil production can be maximized by an injection time of around 1.5 months, a production time of around 2.5 months, and very short soaking times. In addition, a maximum injection rate and a flowing bottomhole pressure around the bubble point are required to ensure maximum incremental recovery. Analysis of the objective function surface highlights some other sets of production constraints with competitive results. Finally, the optimal set of production constraints, in combination with an ensemble of uncertain variables, results in a median HNP cumulative oil production that is 30% greater than that for primary production.
The application of a Bayesian framework for optimizing the HNP performance in a real shale reservoir is introduced for the first time. This work provides practical guidelines for the efficient application of advanced machine learning techniques for optimization under uncertainty, resulting in better decision making.
The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the choice of the conveyance method for Production Logging operations is key in horizontal wells, as it affects the flow dynamics and changes the well inflow performance compared to undisturbed flowing conditions. A case study is presented, showing that critical decisions to develop a field (or not) may have been wrongly influenced by Production Logging results, if the effects of the conveyance on the inflow distribution were not correctly understood.
Synthetic production logs and flowing pressure distributions along the horizontal section were computed, and sensitivities on conveyance method diameter (coiled tubing, tractor and cable), pipe diameter, well length and reservoir properties were also conducted. These results were compared with the normal well flowing conditions to establish the representativeness of the PL measurements. A method for simulating the undisturbed production profile is presented, which uses the results of a Multirate Production Logging and recomputed flowing pressures using nodal analysis.
The presence of the conveyance method alters the well's inflow performance and zonal contributions, due to the modifications of the flow geometry and additional frictional pressure drop. The bottomhole flowing pressure is disturbed, with lower pressures around the heel and higher towards the toe. The drawdown along the horizontal gets modified, acting as a preferential choke for production coming from the toe and increasing the driving force for production from the heel. The severity of the drawdown unbalance is a function of the induced frictional pressure, given by the pipe and conveyance diameter, well length, flow rates, etc. The simulations and sensitivities presented in this paper help to understand how significant the PL measurements are, and when these results become misleading. The case study supports these findings, where the pressure disturbance induced by the conveyance changed the flow distribution dramatically, wrongly indicating than an area of the field was relatively depleted compared to the zone around the heel. The lack of understanding of the impact of the conveyance method can lead to poor developmental decisions.
The significant oil reserves related to karst reservoirs in Brazilian pre-salt field adds new frontiers to the development of upscaling procedures to reduce time on numerical simulations. This work aims to represent karst reservoirs in reservoir simulators based on special connections between matrix and karst mediums, both modeled in different grid domains of a single porosity flow model. This representation intends to provide a good relationship between accuracy and simulation time.
The concept follows the Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) developed by Moinfar, 2013; however, this work extends the approach for karst reservoirs (Embedded Discrete Karst Model - EDKM) by adding a representative volume through grid blocks to represent karst geometries and porosity. For the extension of EDFM approach in a karst reservoir, we adapt the methodology to four stages: (a) construction of a single porosity model with two grid domains, (b) geomodeling of karst and matrix properties for the corresponding grid domain, (c) application of special connections through the conventional reservoir simulator to represent the transmissibility between matrix and karst medium, (d) calculation of transmissibility between karst and matrix medium.
For a proper validation, we applied the EDKM methodology in a carbonate reservoir with mega-karst structures, which consists of non-well-connected enlarged conduits and above 300 mm of aperture. The reference model was a refined grid with karst features explicitly combined with matrix facies, including coquinas interbedded with mudstones and shales. The grid block of the reference model measures approximately 10 × 10 × 1 meters. For the simulation model, the matrix grid domain has a grid block size of approximately 100 × 100 × 5 meters. The karst grid domain had the same block size as the refined grid. Flow in the individual karst grid domain or matrix grid domain is governed by Darcy's equation, implicitly solved by simulator. However, the transmissibility for the special connections between karst and matrix blocks is calculated as a function of open area to flow, matrix permeability and block center distance. The matrix properties were upscaled through conventional analytical methods. The results show that EDKM had a considerable performance regarding a dynamic matching response with reference model, within a reduced simulation time while maintaining a higher dynamic resolution in the karst grid domain without using an unconstructed grid.
This work aims to contribute to the extension of EDFM approach for karst reservoirs, which can be applied to commercial finite-difference reservoir simulators and it presents itself as a solution to reduce simulation time without disregarding the explicit representation of karst features in structured grids.
The wettability of reservoir rocks impacts many aspects of well planning and production, from estimating hydrocarbon saturation to enhanced oil recovery. Wettability is often experimentally quantified through laboratory measurements; however, in-situ wettability assessment is challenging. In this work, we introduce a new method to quantify wettability using resistivity measurements obtained from either well logs or core measurements. The objectives of this paper are (i) to introduce a resistivity-based wettability index from our recent analytically-derived resistivity model that takes into account wettability and (ii) to verify the reliability of the new resistivity-based wettability index using Amott Index, U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM), and/or contact angle wettability measurements as reference.
We quantify the resistivity-based wettability index using our new analytically-derived resistivity model which requires as inputs the resistivity of the rock-fluid system and brine, water saturation, porosity, and pore-geometry-related parameters. Water saturation and porosity can be estimated from the interpretation of borehole geophysical or core measurements. The pore-geometry-related parameters can be estimated from image analysis performed on three-dimensional pore-scale images (e.g. micro-computed tomography) or through a physics-based calibration method. Next, we calculate the resistivity-based wettability index by minimizing the error between the measured and predicted resistivity of the rock-fluid system. To verify this method, we prepare core samples covering a wide range of wettability states and saturation levels. We vary the wettability of the samples by injecting brine, an anionic surfactant solution, or a naphthenic acid and decane solution to make the core samples water-, mixed-, or oil-wet, respectively. Finally, we obtain the resistivity-based wettability index in the core samples and verify its reliability by comparing the estimates against the Amott Index and the contact angle measurements. We also used previously documented data in Berea sandstone for further verification of the new method.
We successfully demonstrated the reliability of the introduced resistivity-based wettability index for limestone and sandstone core samples. The resistivity-based wettability indices were in agreement with both Amott and USBM Indices for the limestone and sandstone samples, respectively. The average absolute difference between the resistivity-based wettability index and the Amott and USBM Indices was less than 0.4 for all the core samples documented in this paper. The outcomes of this work can potentially be used for assessment of wettability from borehole geophysical measurements, to deliver in-situ properties of rocks in real-time. Additionally, the new resistivity model consists only of physically meaningful parameters and minimizes calibration efforts. Furthermore, if the wettability, porosity, and pore-geometry-related parameters are known, then we can use this resistivity model to obtain water saturation without the need for calibration.