Waltrich, Paulo J. (Louisiana State University, Pedro Cavalcanti de Souza, Texas A&M University) | Capovilla, Matheus S. (Louisiana State University, Pedro Cavalcanti de Souza, Texas A&M University) | Lee, Woochan (Louisiana State University, Pedro Cavalcanti de Souza, Texas A&M University) | Zulqarnain, Mohammad (Louisiana State University) | Hughes, Richard (Louisiana State University) | Tyagi, Mayank (Louisiana State University) | Williams, Wesley (Louisiana State University) | Kam, Seung (Louisiana State University) | Archer, Alexander (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) | Singh, Jagdeep (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) | Nguyen, Hai (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) | Duhon, John (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management) | Griffith, Craig (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management)
An experimental investigation was carried out to investigate the behavior of gas-liquid flows in a large-diameter pipe with high flow-rates. The objectives are to experimentally evaluate two-phase flows in vertical pipes of large diameter and collect information to verify the accuracy of wellbore flow models applied to Worst-Case Discharge (WCD) calculations.
The flow correlations developed for small diameters, used on Worst-Case-Discharge calculations, show errors of more than 100% compared to the experimental data for large-diameter pipes. However, for low gas-liquid-ratios, the there is a reasonable agreement between experimental data and simulation results for all wellbore flow models tested, with errors lower than 10%. This study uses the experimental data to provide guidance on how to improve these flow correlations and proposes how to use the flow models to obtain improved results on WCD calculations.
Engler, Royce A. (Remediation and Environmental Xperts) | Rome, Gary (Remediation and Environmental Xperts) | Rainey, Rex (Remediation and Environmental Xperts) | DeLeon, Vallerie (Texray Laboratory Services) | Good, Mitch (Megos)
Objectives/Scope: An ongoing issue for many operators is the need to be able to safely and quickly remediate environmental issues. Of particular interest are the cleanup of petroleum productsd, and the cleanup of produced water, which often has extremely high levels of Chlorides (Cl-), and may include hydrocarbon components. This paper will discuss a methodology that has been applied in over 1400 locations
Methods, Procedures, Process: Methods used in the past have been difficult and expensive, often causing issues with the disposal of contaminated soil.
Attempts have been made for many years to perform in-situ remediation. In the 1950's, processes were developed that enhance the growth of naturally occurring microbes by applying a culture of microbes and enzymes to the affected area.
The process studied has been used in over 1400 individual locations, providing a rich data set for analysis. Differences in how the processes were executed have resulted in variances in the results and the scope of the treatment required to meet environmental standards. This paper will document the work, and identify features and techniques that enhanced or diminished success rates. Processes will then be optimized to maximize the consistency of results at minimum cost.
Results, Observations, Conclusions: Six treatments are described in this abstract as representative examples of the effectiveness of the process. The first treatment reviewed involved remediation of a wellsite in West Texas near Garden City, TX. The treatment resulted in reductions of Cl- contamination by 83% to 99%. The second treatment reviewed was completed on another site near Garden City, TX where a produced water spill had contaminated cotton fields. Reduction of contaminants at this site was over 99%. The third treatment reviewed was a site in Fisher County, TX, where a spill contaminated a pond on the site. Reductions of Cl- up to 84% were observed, and hydrocarbon contaminants were reduced over 99%. The fourth description involves a site in Gaines County, Texas that experienced a produced water spill in April 2016. As a result of the spill, the initial contamination of the soil was tested to be 30,000 PPM. The area was treated using the process and the biological agent. Within twenty-one days, the salt level in the soil had been reduced to 900 PPM. Local plant life was observed to be growing in the formerly contaminated soil within twenty-eight days. The fifth description involved a site in Fisher County, Texas, where a pipeline leak contaminated soil. Samples were taken at several locations at the surface, and at depths of 48" and 60" to evaluate ground penetration. Post treatment samples indicated reductions of 57% to 99.99%. The sixth description involved a site in Jal, New Mexico where crude oil was spilled into a storm sewer, and the oil flowed into a sewage treatment plant. The site and the sewage plant were treated, and reductions of hydrocarbons were observed to be 98%-99% of the original sample values.
The processes described in this paper offer a significant benefit not only to the oil and gas producing community, but also to the general public in that the ability to restore previously damaged soil enhances the environment we live and work in.
Operators need to manage a complex environment of operating activities, plant conditions, and working practices. All interact with each other as well as with process safety barriers, deliberately and inadvertently changing the potential for a major hazard event. With this complex range of interactions in mind, every operational decision has an element of risk. By taking a step back to look at how these interactions and process safety are managed across the planning-to-execution business processes, there is big opportunity to not only reduce risk but improve the productivity of operations.
Ultimately, Operators need to make risk mitigation arising from Process Safety Management (PSM) systems an integral part of efficient and effective daily operations.
Process safety deviations and non-conformances are often assessed and managed in different ways, by different functions. Furthermore, operational risk data is often stored and managed in multiple places. As a result, many key decisions can be made unaware of the major accident hazards arising from deviations as well as the interaction between deviations and daily operations. The absence of a consistent way to understand and mitigate the combined impact of risks to frontline operations adversely affects operational performance as well the overall risk profile. Operators need to employ a common means of balancing risk against productivity, so everyone across the business can make better operating decisions.
Arguably, Process Safety Management (PSM) has the greatest potential to affect major accident risk. As such, it is essential to capture the residual risk arising from each deviation in a transparent and common to understand the overall cumulative risk arising from deviations.
By placing PSM risk in the context of daily operations, PSM can become a powerful driver of operational performance.
By capturing all activities, performance deviations, and non-conformances in terms of the risk they carry to the business, operators can build a holistic picture of operational risk. This approach makes the impact of PSM deviations on safety and operational performance clear for all to see, and it enables plant operators to improve their planning, maintenance, and work execution.
Rather than implement a new process safety model or an additional safety model, organizations are enabling a common language of risk to ensure that operational risk mitigation becomes an integral way of achieving efficient and effective operations. Through this, organizations are able to understand their levels of major accident hazard risk in a dynamic real-time view. This new approach allows organizations to better understand the cumulative risk they are carrying at any given time which can be used to improve long-term operational decision making, and achieving overall operational excellence.
Alaska's North Slope is a unique environment, located above the Arctic Circle. Despite harsh weather conditions and logistical challenges, oil and gas development has been a part of this environment for many decades and environmental management and monitoring continues to be a significant aspect of development and operating facilities. Several innovative approaches to environmental monitoring will be highlighted, including early detection of polar bears using radar, caribou monitoring using satellites, and vegetation and hydrology monitoring using unmanned aerial systems (UAS).
Co-produced water resources in oil & gas fields raise technological interest under the condition of increased energy demand and carbon dioxide emission reduction. Primarily the development of medium and lowtemperature co-produced water resources are discussed in terms of energy production and further utilization in the downstream facilities of petroleum industry. Addition of the Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) as a compact binary power plant to the existing scheme allows harvesting a great portion of energy that is usually lost as waste heat. This additional system does not interrupt the main facility streams and operational parameters. The simple case with R134a refrigerant was numerically explored for the wide range of coproduced water flow rates and temperatures. The results show that with the increase of water production the power generation is increased up to 1 MW at 50,000 BWPD and 275 F water temperature. The economic evaluation shows that the Levelized cost of electricity falls lower than 1.5 cents/kW.
With the drilling and completions industry constantly changing, salt water disposal well (SWD) evaluation has become increasingly more challenging. By looking at water production and disposal problems using big data analytics, a better evaluation is achieved. The current method of evaluating SWD wells involves investigating maximum injection pressures and volumes. While these metrics are useful, they are unable to address how much disposal volume is available in order to remain below permitted pressure and volume constraints. To answer this question, this paper proposes a new estimation for SWD wells, and investigates potential effects of increasing oil prices on the disposal market. If market conditions in the petroleum industry become more favorable, operators will need to plan now in order to meet their disposal need in the future.
This study was developed to compare the effects that four commonly used onshore diesel oil spill response techniques (natural degradation, in-situ burning, flooding and bioremediation) have on the ability of soil to sustain plant life following an oil spill.
The use of autonomous marine vehicles (AMVs) to do work in marine environments is a new and novel technology approach that reduces the presence of humans and improves safety withour compromising quality of service delivery. Over the last four years, this technology has grown and matured from a level of skepticism to full maturity. One particular AMV glider harnesses kinetic energy from wave action to produce forward propulsion in an environmentally friendly manner. This glider is a hybrid sea-surface and underwater vehicle that has taken the concept of autonomy beyond that of the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). This wave-powered sensor platform enables collection and transmission of data gathered at sea on missions lasting up to a year. It is capable of crossing thousands of kilometers of ocean to gather oceanographic data, as well as maintain a stationary position while taking meteorological readings, or it can circle a rig at a preset distance to provide early warning of security or environmental threats. Once deployed, the glider uses no crew, requires no fuel, and produces no emissions, thus eliminating both risks to personnel and impact on the environment.
During a marine seismic survey, the worst possible nightmare is to have any of the seismic survey vessel assets, in particular the streamer spread, collide with the client's installations. This type of collision can occur due to metocean changes and feathering, unpredicted changes in the profile of currents, and the onset of cyclones and hurricanes. Typically, the knowledge of currents around platforms during seismic close pass acquisition (CPA) is provided by acoustic Doppler current profilers (ACDPs) that are bottom mounted on vessels that hold station just outside the 500-m exclusion zone, thus providing real-time currents information to help the seismic fleet navigate. This conventional method is an expensive use of the vessels held on station. Such vessels cost USD10 to 20 thousand per day, and typically these are chase vessels that have been pulled away from their primary duty, which is to chase away unwanted visitors in the area. The AMV provides an alternative; it replaces the vessel and performs the same work more efficiently at a much lower cost. At the same time, the AMV glider lowers HSE risk and reduces the environmental impact.
To date, 35 missions have been completed using this technology, which has resulted in an operational savings of 2 to 3 days per month on average through better management of the CPA and line changes. Slowly, operators are accepting this technology as a viable replacement for vessel-mounted ADCPs.
This case-study, covering the period 2012 - 2015, describes how a "Change in the Safety Culture" process that took place in workshops which were manufacturing, assembling, and repairing valves used in the fracturing of unconventional reservoirs. The need for action was clearly demonstrated by an unacceptable 2012 Total Recordable Incident Rate of 13.99. A situational assessment, executed by late 2012, showed that the prevailing safety culture was one that accepted as inevitable that "accidents happened, happen, and will continue to happen." Corrective and proactive actions were outlined and implemented in order to change that state of mind. The ultimate and most important key performance indicator (KPI) chosen to monitor the "Change in the Safety Culture" was the rolling 12-month total recordable incident rate (Rol12Mo TRIR). From the period of May 2013 thru the end of 2015 the trend in Rol12Mo TRIR was almost continually downward. The last OSHA recordable injury occurred in November 2014; over the subsequent 13 months in a row, not a single recordable injury was registered.
The SPE has recently formed a process safety work group to help engineering, drilling and operations personnel to apply process safety to the upstream oil and gas business. One of the goals of this work group is to help apply process safety principles, commonly used in other industries to the upstream E&P industry. Many of the hazards found in the upstream E&P industry can be mitigated through the use of process safety techniques. The objective of this paper is to inform the reader how the principles of risk- based process safety management can be applied to the upstream oil and gas industry to reduce risk, injuries and environmental incidents.
Many "case histories" were reviewed when developing the methods and procedures for applying process safety to the upstream business. Process and safety principles were examined from many other industries for applicability to the upstream oil and gas industry. This paper covers the principles forming the foundation for process safety and the different elements of process safety and shows how they can be best applied to upstream operations. A risk-based approach is used showing how to select and prioritize the most critical aspects of process safety. Use of risk-based process safety techniques can be applied to all facets of the upstream industry from discovery to abandonment.
The results presented in this paper will provide an innovative resource so that companies and personnel can apply process safety to upstream oil and gas operations using a risk-based approach. Elements, of process safety, can be prioritized by using the techniques and information provided.