A health, safety and environmental management system has been developed to meet the business demands in the North Sea area. After reviewing published best-practice solutions a model that allowed the incorporation of existing programmes was adopted. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to implement a system that would promote continuous improvement, meet customer audit requirements and meet both current and projected future business requirements. In addition to formalising and documenting a number of existing programmes the system introduced two new programmes; competence assurance of all operational personnel and internal auditing and benchmarking of management system performance. The system and its associated management tools are now being implemented in three countries in the North Sea area. Plans for future development of the system, particularly with respect to the integration of quality management programmes are also described.
In the years following the publication of the report of Lord Cullen's investigation into the causes of the Piper Alpha incident there have been unprecedented changes in industry working practices in the North Sea. Developments in Operator - Contractor relationships. the creation of contractor alliances, changes in the structure of regulatory bodies and cost-reduction initiatives have all required new business management solutions.
In response to these changes a decision was made in 1994 to develop a health, safety and environmental management system that recognised the needs of this new business environment and incorporated published best practice solutions. A decision was made not to use the model of the existing corporate health, safety and environmental management system. The elements of the corporate system would be retained, however, as they had been developed into valuable management tools.
Two external factors played a significant role in the development of the new system. First, rapid growth in the requirement from customers that service contractors be subject to audits of their management systems. The need to repeatedly demonstrate compliance with accepted best practice solutions could not easily be met by the existing system. Second, a decision by a regulatory agency to undertake a management audit in late 1994 created an exceptional opportunity for discussion with management systems specialists.
This paper describes the development of the health, safety and environmental management system designed to meet the needs of a well services contractor operating in the North Sea. The selected model and the incorporation of the existing corporate system are described. In addition to the use of the existing system tools, the new system introduced some important concepts and two of these, competence assurance and system audit, are considered in detail. The paper closes by describing the planned evolution of the management system and the integration of quality management and health, safety and environmental management programmes.
The Corporate Health, Safety & Environmental Management System
Introduced in 1991, the corporate health, safety & environmental management system comprises four tools: an incident and accident reporting and analysis tool, the Risk Identification Report (RIR); a workplace inspection tool, the Safety Action Checklist (SAC); a business planning tool, the Safety Action Plan (SAP); an employee training programme.
The RIR system is designed to encourage employees to report near-accidents, as well as to record and categorise all health, safety and environmental incidents. In 1995 the North Sea Region business group recorded an average of three reports per employee, with over sixty percent of employees participating. An electronic database of nearly nine thousand incident reports has been established in the Region over the five years from 1991 to 1995.
The SAC system uses a set of checklists for planned inspections of wellsite, workshop, yard and office environments. The checklists are designed to be used by operational employees.
The SAP system is an annual health, safety and environmental planning and management review programme. Plans are established on a site-by-site basis. Resources are allocated in accordance with the annual business plan and quarterly management reviews of progress are conducted.
Employee training is delivered on a risk specific basis.
Traditionally safety has been measured by personal injury rate. It is also customary to set goals for this parameter. Most personal injuries are of minor consequence. Through a system for criticality assessment and analyses of underlying causes it can be shown that the causes for minor personal injuries are significantly different from causes for events which can be serious or critical. Criticality assessment is done by looking upon both real and potential consequences of an event. For instance a recordable injury where someone cuts his hand and is given 3 stitches is coded as not critical, but an event where a crane load is dropped close to workers is coded as critical.
Using this assessment it is shown that major causes for personal injuries are direct and focus mainly on the workers or operators in the field. These causes are of little importance for critical events, where more underlying causes such as the physical state of the equipment, procedure problems and the general knowledge of personnel are more important. Focusing only statistical measures for personal injuries, and using these as achievement factors and goals can lead to directing all efforts to correct the minor causes, and not upon the causes that can lead to serious or disastrous events. In the worst case, close focus upon recordable injuries may decrease overall safety because direction is concentrated on minor causes.
In many companies, the goals and measures defined in an overall operating or strategic plan are regarded as key objectives. All oil companies operating on the Norwegian shell, and probably around the world, have goals relating to Health, Environment and Safety (HES). For Safety, the common measure has been the number of personal injuries. These measures are defined and named differently around the world. In the following, the Norwegian definitions, Lost Time Accident (LTA, any absence into next shift) and Medical Treatment (MT, prescription medicine or needing treatment by qualified nurse) are used. The sum of these is comparable to the US Recordable Injury definition.
Personal injuries are only a small part of unwanted events. In Phillips Petroleum Company Norway (PPCoN) these events are named Unintentional Events. These events are further classified into critical, somewhat critical and not critical events (see below and Navestad). All Unintentional Events are analysed according to causes. The findings from these analyses are presented and show why strong focus upon personnel injuries can lead to a more unsafe operation.
Critical and somewhat critical events As mentioned above, there are several types of Unintentional Events. The traditional division has been between personal injuries and near misses. PPCoN has found that this division is very hard to use in practice. Instead, Unintentional Events are divided into categories such as injuries, gas releases, fires, shutdowns, environmental releases, material losses and near misses. PPCoN treats all these types in exactly the same way with regard to determining criticallity.
In an era of increasing awareness of worker health issues one of the key concerns in exploration activities is the exposure of wellsite personnel to vapors generated by organic materials in drilling fluids. Areas on the drilling location with the highest exposure potentials are the shale shakers and mud pits. These areas are often enclosed in rooms and ventilated to prevent unhealthy levels of vapors from accumulating. In continuing efforts to minimize health risks, new products are evaluated to minimize the volatility of organic materials used in drilling fluids.
This study presents a laboratory technique for measuring vapors generated from organic materials in drilling fluids. Using this technique, data will be presented comparing the volume of vapors generated from diesel oils, mineral oils, synthetic fluids and a water-miscible glycol. Field data collected from the shaker and mud pit areas of drilling operations will be used to validate the laboratory study to field conditions. The potential health effects of the collected vapors will be reviewed.
A study was initiated in 1989 to determine the nature, concentration and source of vapors generated from oil-based muds. Previous studies indicated over 90% of the vapors from oil-based mud originates from the base oil.1 The initial laboratory study consisted of the evaluation of six diesel fuels and three mineral oils. The results of the initial analyses indicated that vapor generation on the rig could be predicted by laboratory analysis and that the selection of the base fluid significantly impact vapor generation. For this paper, an additional six mineral oils have been analyzed for vapor generation.
Since the initial study, synthetic-based drilling fluids have begun to replace mineral oil-based muds in an effort to reduce the impact of discharges on the marine environment. Four of the synethic fluids currently in use and one experimental water miscible glycol (WMG) have also been analyzed for vapor generation using the same procedures. In addition to the laboratory analyses, field samples were collected from offshore rigs using mineral oil-based mud (OBM), polyalphaolefin (PAO) synthetic-based mud (SBM), WMG, and also from an onshore rig using diesel OBM.
Methods and Materials
In order to properly analyze the vapors from oils, synthetics, water miscible glycols, and the muds based on these fluids, suitable techniques for sampling, quantifying and analyzing the collected vapors had to be established. An air sample pump and coconut-based charcoal sorbent tubes were obtained from SKC Inc. The sorbent tubes contain two sections of charcoal. The function of the front section is to collect organic vapors for analysis; the function of the second section is to determine if the first section has been saturated with absorbed organics.
This NIOSH/OSHA approved equipment came with a general test procedure but it was necessary to establish a suitable sample collection rate and time. A 50 mL sample of #2 diesel fuel obtained from a rig was heated to 66°C in a 250 mL beaker. The air just below the top rim of the beaker was sampled at a rate of 1 L/min. The first sample collected for 5 min produced good results with no organics seen in the second section of charcoal. The second sample collected for 10 min saturated the front section of charcoal so that organics were measured in the second section.
In the initial laboratory investigation of diesel and mineral oils, a sample collection time of 5 min was used. In later analyses of low volatility mineral onils, synthetics, and water miscible glycols, the sampling period was increased to allow for detectable levels of organics to be absorbed in the first section of the sorbent tubes. Temperatures were selected to match the mud temperatures normally observed in the field at the flow line.
Shawn Denstedt, Bennett Jones Verchere
The general theme of the paper will be the increasing awareness of the public and ENGOs about environmental issues and perceived impacts of the oil and gas industry. The focus of the paper will be on the public consultation process and how the risks associated with oil and gas development are communicated to the public. The paper will review how the public consultation process has changed and the demands that stakeholders are making on the industry for constructive input into projects and information on the impacts of projects. The paper will consider the types of risk that oil and gas projects present:
1. Impacts on air quality and related quality of life and health impacts;
2. Contamination (soil and groundwater) that impact on environment, land values, and health;
3. Worst case "catastrophe" scenarios and impact on public safety; and
4. Perceived impacts of the public on quality of life.
As part of this section, the paper will consider a number of examples of projects in Alberta.
Finally, the paper will consider how a company should approach public consultation and risk communication. The paper's conclusion will be that a proponent should consult broadly and present clearly the negative and positive impacts of the proposed project with a goal of creating an informed public, not to convince the public that the project is in its best interest.
The paper will also conclude that today's public and environmental groups are more sophisticated and more organized than in the past. Regulatory authorities are demanding that accurate and comprehensive information be provided to stakeholders with a result that more and better information will be required upfront which will mean longer timelines for projects to get approved.
Engineers are people who want to build things (and play with them). But before anything can be built, there are many hurdles to be overcome, not the least of which is regulatory approval. In Alberta, the regulator, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (referred to here as the Board but sometimes referred to as the "AEUB", and sometimes "Y"), must determine that a project is in the public interest having regard to the social, economic and environmental impacts of the project before it can proceed.
A proponent must prove to the Board that a project is, in fact, in the public interest. In order to do that a proponent must first determine what the public interest is and how a proposed project may impact the public interest. While it may be one of those self-evident truths, the only way to determine the public interest is to talk to the public.
While energy industry players are well aware of the need to consult with the public on projects, I get the sense many are not enamored by the process. Too often proponents see public consultation as a box they must "tick off" on the way to regulatory approval. Public consultation, even by some of the biggest and most sophisticated players, tends to focus on convincing the public that a project will be good for it, the local area and the country at large (and perhaps cure the common cold along the way) instead of trying to inform them about both sides of the project. Despite the numerous handbooks on public consultation, and public affairs staff trained to deal with the public, there persists in the energy industry a paternalistic attitude towards the public; an attitude of, "don't worry, everything is safe". It is an attitude that is changing and must change.
What many proponents find frustrating is that, while their process for public consultation is evolving -- they are consulting earlier, providing more information to the public and attempting to address concerns in a meaningful way -- the evolution of the industry's approach to consultation has not kept up with the public's demand for consultation and meaningful input into projects. The result is often a bitter pill for both the oil company and the public. The oil company does more and more but it is never enough. The public wants to know more about the risks and wants their concerns addressed before any approval is given. The public's demand for more is caused by what I call the "CNN Syndrome".
Today's public, even in the remotest area, is tuned in.
Many areas in the United States are not in attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, These areas include some with petroleum production operations, such as Kern County, California. In addition, major OCS development and production sources in the Western Gulf of Mexico are located offshore of the Houston and Beaumont/Port Arthur nonattainment areas. EPA requires that states implement a planning (SIP) process to develop strategies to achieve the federal ozone standard. These plans have the potential to result in significant control requirements for the production facilities. Potential impacts from different source types can be assessed through use of photochemical modeling of ozone precursor emissions (hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides) from all anthropogenic (man made) sources. This modeling information can be used to: 1) identify whether specific types of sources contribute to the ozone nonattainment problem, and 2), develop a set of control measures to reduce ambient ozone levels.
This paper will examine two photochemical modeling case studies which assessed the impact of petroleum productions sources in the Bakersfield and Houston nonattainment areas, The San Joaquin Valley SIP modeling showed that additional controls of NOx emissions from heaters, boilers and internal combustion engines located on the west side of the Valley were not necessary to meet the federal ozone standard by 1999. In the case of the assessment of OCS impacts on Houston, modeling showed that at times and locations where the federal ozone standard was exceeded, OCS contributions were minimal, This finding not only removes the probability of controls, but also greatly limits any probability of transfer of jurisdiction for OCS air quality from Minerals Management Service to EPA.
Recommendations on how to develop and implement a modeling assessment program will be presented to aid those who may be involved in similar planning processes in the future.
This paper will present two case studies in which decisions about the need for controls of air emissions from petroleum productions sources were based on air quality modeling. Unlike simple permit modeling, the assessments were made for multiple sources and used sophisticated photochemical models The paper will describe how air quality monitoring and modeling programs were implemented in a cooperative fashion with the appropriate regulatory agencies. This resulted in all parties having a vested interest in the success of the program. As important, it allowed all parties to accept the results of the assessment. In both cases, no new or additional controls were required, and the avoided costs to the petroleum industry were estimated at $ 50,000,000 and $ 100,000,000 respectively.
In 1990, the U. S. Congress passed the federal Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Major changes were made with respect to requirements to attain the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). This standard is set at 12 parts per hundred million (pphm), averaged over one hour, It is not be exceeded more than once annually, averaged over three years. Title I of the Act mandated that those states which contained areas not yet in attainment with the ozone NAAQS submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) by November 1994. The SIP was required to demonstrate that the areas in question would attain the standard by the applicable deadline.
No common definition of waste has been agreed upon in the Oil Industry, what is waste in some countries, represents valuable raw material to a multitude of small industries in others. This paper presents an initiative taken in an offshore field West of India by Schlumberger W&T, with the support of its main client, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, to better manage offshore wastes. International and Local regulations are discussed. Different types of wastes produced by the service company are identified and certain alternative technologies are presented. Finally, the program in place, the results thereof; successes and failures and future prospects are described.
As a third world/developing country, India presents a vastly different scenario for waste management. In the absence of very many certified waste treatment systems in place, the thriving 'scrap' industry comes as a surprise. The reasons for this industry are largely linked to the poverty line and unemployment figures in the country. This industry assumes different dimensions at different levels, from independent rag pickers to large pulp factories and metal recycling plants. The reasons which support this industry are also responsible for evolving creative methods for 'extracting' economic value from waste. very often the product itself is recycled locally with minimum effort without the substance (metal, paper, etc.) being recycled and remoulded.
The drawback in such a system is quite apparent. There is a remarkable lack of accountability. It is very difficult to follow a particular waste category to its final disposal or re-utilisation. However, public awareness in India is on the increase. It is expected that with time, legislation would become more stringent, and rigidly enforced.
At the outset, it was realised that the conventional waste disposal treatment methods would not be entirely applicable and some adaptation to local systems was necessary. Four main components were identified, as shown in.
1. Characterisation on the basis of toxicity, flammability, reactivity and environmental criteria.
2. Waste minimisation through engineering and local solutions.
3. Reuse/Recycling using the resources available locally.
4. Disposal through pre-treatment, landfill, incineration, sewage, etc.
Gower-Jones, A.D. (Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.) | van der Graaf, G.C. (Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.) | Milne, D.J. (Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.)
Shell companies have their own separate identities. In this paper the collective expressions "Shell" and "Group" and Royal/Dutch/Shell Group of Companies" may be used for convenience where reference is made to the companies of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group in general. Those expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies.
Many tools and techniques are promoted for the analysis and management of hazards and their effects. The proliferation in the last 5-6 years of these tools has resulted in an overload on designers, engineers and operators of E&P activities and assets to the extent that they are unsure what to do when and how this fits together. This paper starts from the basic E&P business (a business model) the basic structure of any accidental event (bow tie) and maps the tools and techniques to analyse the hazards and effects for both asset and activity HSE management. The links to developing an HSE case within the HSE-MS for assets and activities are given.
The analysis of any accident shows that a hazard was present, that hazard was released and developed into a accidental event. The release of the hazard and the development is due to failures of barriers which were in place to control the hazard. In reviewing an incident a single line of what happen can be followed, however in pro active prediction there are many potential cause that may allow the hazard to be released. Also the development may follow a number of different routes dependent on which barriers work and which fail. These can be depicted graphically in a "bow tie" shown in figure 1. A number of causes lead to an event and there are a number of potential outcomes from that event. The same basic model applies to the release for hydrocarbons causing the loss of a platform with multiple loss of life or to a cook cutting a finger.
Successful HSE Management ensures that applicable tools and techniques are used, the information available is analysed in order to design systems such that the chance of releasing the hazard is minimised and that should the hazard be released the effects can be contained or reduced. The key in the successful application of HSE tools is to ensure that the right technique is used at the right time to the right level of detail. The complete quantitative risk assessment taking two days per event for every potential cut finger in a proposed new offshore installation at the concept design stage would be impractical for the operator and would not have any significant effect on the HSE management of the asset under development. Designing a novel complex process plant in deep water by pure experience and judgement would overlook significant issues. The decision on which tools or technique to use relies on the risk of the hazard in terms of its potential frequency and consequences. Qualitative judgement using a matrix to represent risk, is extremely useful in ensuring that hazards are analysed to the appropriate level and that time is spent in the most efficient way, concentrating on the things that really matter.
The Business Model
To manage Hazards and effects in E&P operations it is essential to have a clear understanding of the business. To assist in that understanding Shell has developed a business model (fig 2) that maps our business initially at a high level and then at successively more detailed levels.
In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol. 6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.
Substance abuse is the persistent or sporadic, excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice. Any drug, whether illegal, prescribed or over the counter, may be abused but the ones commonly involved are those that can influence or alter man's psychic activities - mood, behavior, perception and mental functioning. These include alcohol, cannabis, opiates (morphine, heroin, opium), phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), benzodiazepines and barbiturates (sedatives and tranquilizers). Some of these drugs especially heroin and barbiturates are highly addictive and can lead to prolonged morbidity. Substances are abused for a wide variety of reasons and these include a desire for a novel experience or improved insight, to feel high, keep awake, to relieve boredom and facilitate enjoyment of social gatherings, drug availability and parental deprivation. Sometimes people abuse drugs simply because friends do, and want to be part of the group.
Occasionally, factors at the workplace may predispose to substance abuse. They include the organizational culture of the workplace, social pressures to drink, separation from normal social and sexual relationships, stresses and hazards, and extremes of income. The particular drug(s) used in any geographic area varies with the people's culture, degree of sophistication, availability and affordability.
Substance abuse in the workplace is both a sensitive and emotional issue to the employer and employee alike. While the employer is concerned with creating a safe, drug-free workplace, the employee fears being wrongfully accused of illicit drug use and victimization. Opponents to blanket drug testing in the workplace claim it unnecessarily violates civil liberties and random tests generate the most heated arguments. Mandatory tests are described as degrading and embarrassing, and are seen to be forcing individuals to prove their innocence.
Sedco Forex is a drilling contractor that operates approximately 80 rigs on land and offshore worldwide. The HSE management system developed by Sedco Forex is an effort to prevent accidents and minimize losses. An integral part of the HSE management system is establishing risk profiles and thereby minimizing risk and reducing loss exposures.
Risk profiles are established based on accident reports, potential accident reports and other risk identification reports (RIR) like the Du Pont STOP system. A rig could fill in as many as 30 accident reports, 30 potential accident reports and 500 STOP cards each year. Statistics are important for an HSE management system, since they are indicators of success or failure of HSE systems. It is however difficult to establish risk profiles based on statistical information, unless tools are available at the rig site to aid with the analysis.
Risk profiles are then used to identify important areas in the operation that may require specific attention to minimise the loss exposure. Programs to address the loss exposure can then be identified and implemented with either a local or corporate approach.
In January 1995, Sedco Forex implemented a uniform HSE Database on all the rigs worldwide. In one year companywide, the HSE database would contain information on approximately 500 accident and potential accident reports, and 10,000 STOP cards.
This paper demonstrates the salient features of the database and describes how it has helped in establishing key risk profiles. It also shows a recent example of how risk profiles have been established at the corporate level and used to identify the key contributing factors to hands and finger injuries. Based on this information, a campaign was launched to minimise the frequency of occurrence and associated loss attributed to hands and fingers accidents.
In Sedco Forex, HSE is considered an integral part of our business, and is of equal importance to service quality, motivation and profitability. It has been well understood that there is a permanent interaction between HSE performance, operation efficiency, personnel motivation, morale and financial success. With this as the HSE management philosophy, significant improvements have been made in the HSE management system which have been instrumental in reducing HSE losses.
Several systems have been introduced over the years with the aim of continually improving HSE results and one area where significant improvements have been made is with HSE reporting and follow up. The different HSE reports that are filled out at the rig site are as follows:
1 Accident Reports
2 Potential Accident Reports
3 STOP Cards
4 Remedial Actions from HSE audits and Meetings
5 Remedial Actions from HSE suggestions
The objectives of reporting are:
- Communicate the information through line management, for analysis and action
- Circulate the information of general interest and nature within the company
- Monitor the implementation of plans
- Develop Risk profiles and implement programs to address the risks and reduce associated losses, thereby effectively closing the feedback loop between the field and corporate management.
Conserving biological diversity and enhancing the wellbeing of people is a significant challenge for all of society including both the private sector and conservation organizations. This paper describes efforts by the Kutubu Petroleum Development Project (KPDP), operated by Chevron Niugini, and World Wildlife Fund (WFF) to enhance conservation of the rich biological diversity of Papua New Guinea and to assist local indigenous communities with sustainable development. Supported by a grant from the KPDP, WWF is implementing an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) with local communities in the 2.3 million hectare Kikori River catchment located in the Gulf and Southern Highlands Provinces. The region is characterized by biologically diverse tropical rain forests that provide the predominant livelihood for over 40,000 indigenous peoples. The Kikori ICDP is assisting local people to establish culturally appropriate conservation management areas and to develop eco-tourism, sustainable fisheries, and community based eco-forestry. Detailed biological surveys established the conservation significance of the region, and confirmed the health of the environment. The KPDP is a one billion US dollar capital cost operation which produces Papua New Guinea's first commercial oil reserves. Protecting people and the environment is an essential design and operational criteria for the KPDP. Comprehensive environment and community policies including strict design codes and operational standards, rain forest protection measures, and community business and public health programs are used to minimize the environmental impact and to increase local community benefits. This case study demonstrates the benefits to conservation and local communities of the collaborative efforts of the KPDP and WWF, and the national benefits of a new development paradigm where the economic and environment interests of a nation are considered together.
Introduction to Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea is situated in the western Pacific Ocean between Australia and Asia, and is the world's largest tropical island nation. (Fig. 1). It is one of the most biologically diverse countries on earth where the web of life includes tree-dwelling kangaroos, butterflies with wingspans up to 10 inches (25 cm.), 33 species of the spectacular birds of paradise, and the world's largest parrots, doves, and lizards, as well as its tallest tropical trees. PNG contains one of the few remaining large tropical forests (36 million hectares) in which deforestation and habitat loss still remain at comparatively low levels. According to one projection, by the end of this century or shortly thereafter, only four large blocks of the world's tropical moist forest biome are likely to remain more or less intact: western Brazilian Amazonia, the Zaire basin, the Guyana shield of northern South America, and Papua New Guinea.
Most of the country's 4 million people live to some degree on a subsistence basis and depend on the ecological sustainability of the use of the environment for both subsistence and some cash economies. More than 700 different languages are spoken, which is one third of all the languages spoken on earth. However, the standard of living for most people is low, with life expectancy, health standards, and literacy rates, all well below global averages.
Ninety-seven percent of the land area of Papua New Guinea remains under customary tenure of the indigenous people. Communal indigenous landownership is recognized in the constitution. Clan or extended family groups are the decision makers for local land use, for the future of their forests and for their relationships with commercial developers.
A desire to more vigorously develop cash economies to help meet aspirations is driving a growing interest in development in PNG. The country is endowed with rich forest, fisheries, and mineral resources.
However, a number of the most readily available development options for local communities are destructive of the natural resources on which they depend.