This paper describes the unique engineering design, construction and environmental and social aspects implemented to develop the Chipirón T-B oil field in Arauca, Colombia. This paper builds upon the design and construction aspects shared previously with the SPE to include the critical environmental and social factors integrated into the Occidental Colombia ("OxyCol" or "Occidental") risk management approach that have enabled learning and new innovative techniques from Chipirón to other projects.
Using Occidental's Health, Environmental and Safety Management System (HESMS) to identify the project and surrounding socio-environmental risks is important so that a robust analysis of project risks leads to the development of mitigation approaches. The innovative capacity of OxyCol's engineers and the Company's respect for the environment and local communities led to a collaborative effort by multiple stakeholders achieving a successful project outcome. The knowledge and the experience gained through this project are transferable to other Occidental operations and assets.
This year (2018) marks the 30th anniversary of Alpha Piper disaster in the North Sea, which is in terms of loss of life, the worst disaster in the history of the offshore oil industry. On the 6th of July 1988, a natural gas condensate leak resulted in explosions and fires that engulfed the Alpha Piper platform and claimed the lives of 167 people. The Alpha Piper tragedy and the subsequent investigations led by Lord Cullen practically reshaped the offshore oil industry.
How did the upstream oil industry change since? How did process safety legislation evolve across the world over these years? Is the upstream oil industry doing enough about process safety? If so, why are there still major accidents happening? Is there enough being done to address "Human Factors"? Is process safety legislation adequate in the various major oil producing regions around the world? Or does the development of process safety legislation remain largely in response to major accidents.
After a brief review of the Alpha Piper disaster and its impact on the development of process safety legislations around the world, this paper attempts to answer the above questions.
Saipem’s life saving rules (LSR) have been well established in Saipem’s processes and procedures for many years. However, the need for an effective campaign to transmit and embed them through the organization was recognized. An internal development team began to regenerate and precisely define the topics the LSRs should specifically target, focusing on how to critically define the way they could be released in an impactful way. This also extended into increasing competence.
There are the two key campaign aims: the effective release of each LSR (one at a time over a 6-month period) and the building of the skills and knowledge needed to apply them.
The challenge resided in communicating the rules across a multi-language workforce with impact, whilst creating engagement. The ‘core rules’ were transmitted through highly impactful and interactive film clips, demonstrating the rule violation leading to an accident, pausing for group led discussion and reflection, before again proceeding to demonstrating the correct approach. The films were dubbed into 11 different languages, with the remaining LSRs presented through an innovative ‘language-free’ way. This approach facilitated understanding across languages in a very visual and simple way, without the need for subtitling or dubbing.
There are 15 individual rules, and the communication campaign format releases one rule per month, using various tools to engage all levels of the organization, from management to the workforce, and enabling each rule released to be supported by local training programs and specifically targeted campaigns.
This closely focused approach toward each rule allowed for the embedment and growth of competence before the next rule release.
A comprehensive online toolkit holds the campaign materials, including guidelines for the local assessment and implementation of the LSRs, toolbox talk guides, presentations and film media, recording and reporting mechanisms.
This paper describes the methodology behind an innovative and slow release campaign, including how the rules were developed and tailored to the organization’s context, senior management commitment, the strategy to increase the technical competence and knowledge, and the campaign’s success in impacting Saipem’s safety performance.
Since the launch of the LSR campaign in October 2015, more than 4,000 events have been arranged, covering more than 50,000 people worldwide, in order to ensure exposure to each LSR by all employees. People were engaged from 117 different Projects and Sites around the Saipem world and directly benefitted from this campaign. The safety performance of Saipem has recorded a step change improvement perfectly aligned with the LSR implementation period.
The response from the organization has been so overwhelmingly positive that the story of this successful communication strategy is worth sharing.
Exploration and Production (E&P) activities take place across the globe. Environmental management is governed by national and regional laws and international standards, which draw red lines and establish management rules for emissions, wastewater and waste. Although international biodiversity management guidelines are in place, adherence in areas with high biodiversity value, either in terms of habitats or species, is complex and ALARP (As Low As Reasonable Practicable) impact targets are not easily established.
A simple but effective approach, the Repsol Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Tool (BEST-R), has been developed to meet this challenge for all Repsol E&P activities and has been evaluated by applying this tool to 15 projects at 7 operating assets. The BEST-R is designed to evaluate 30 parameters (6 recommended practices, each of which impact on 5 key environmental aspects), describe these parameters in detail; set homogeneous mid-term goals, enable benchmarking between sites; and test the effectiveness of impact mitigation measures. In addition, the BEST-R adheres to the IPIECA Guidance document, "Biodiversity and ecosystem services fundamentals" good practices in the current environment for Oil and Gas companies.
This approach for building a Corporate Biodiversity Strategy that integrates biodiversity into business management to turn challenges into successes could inspire other companies that operate in various countries and environments.
The importance of establishing best practices for the responsible management of chemicals manufactured, purchased, and used by companies within the oil and gas services sector cannot be overestimated. Chemical stewardship principles should be used to communicate a company's practices throughout its value chain. This paper discusses the unique challenges of developing a sustainable chemical stewardship program for the oilfield services (OFS) companies in this sector.
Chemical stewardship goes beyond the responsible management of chemicals used by an individual company. Other industry sectors, such as chemical manufacturing, have established mature and sophisticated voluntary programs with code of management practices and branding (e.g., Responsible Care®). A model chemical stewardship program incorporating existing best practices should set the minimum expectations for social responsibility and sustainable chemical management for companies within the OFS sector.
A clear commitment by the sector to adhere to a code of best management practices can demonstrate its leadership in the development of new sustainable technologies and chemicals. The development of a model program and standard best practices for the OFS sector addresses the gap between programs designed primarily for chemical manufacturers and the challenges faced by the oil and gas services industry.
Because of increasing focus from regulatory agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) on the hazards and use of chemicals in oil and gas operations, strengthening the framework of industry best practices should provide assurance to stakeholders that the current regulatory environment is sufficiently robust. Individual companies that commit to the chemical stewardship principles promoted by such a program demonstrate their commitment to systematically minimizing risks associated with chemical management.
Oil & Gas industry, by nature of its operations, creates a hazardous working environment therefore over the years the industry has developed safe systems (procedural & design) to eliminate or minimise risks. Despite these initiatives often incidents occur resulting in serious injuries, release of gases, equipment damage and other losses. ADCO has established a comprehensive system to reduce both the number and severity of incidents as a part of its HSE Management System which was based on root causes of incidents and embedding learning into work planning. Since 2010, ADCO Drilling has increased its operations and activities significantly in terms of number of rigs, drilled wells and associated services. During the period approximately 500 incident events, including no work related, were recorded, resulting in injuries (300) of varying natures, vehicle (81), property damage (77) and releases of gas (12) & spillages (13) events. It resulted in 104 recordable injuries, 30 vehicle crashes and 10 well control events. Repetitive gap in the implementation of HSEMS required out of the box approach to embed the learning into drilling programme to reduce incidents.
Over 200 Drilling incident investigation root causes and findings were analysed and effectiveness of HSEMS implementation and identification of HSE performance risks were assessed. Gaps in identification of worksite/ job hazards, work planning, leadership, monitoring & inspection and communication accounted for 60% of root causes of incidents. In 2015, barrier analysis for incident event sub type basis was done considering root causes and associated findings and learning from the incident was mapped with barriers in conjunction with risk assessment. The scheme was implanted in 2016 and incident trends, root causes and findings are discussed in this paper. The strengthening of barriers was implemented and there reduction in number of incidents was noted despite increase in rig fleet and exposure to risks. Despite the scheme being in initial stages, it has showed significant potential in incident reduction.
The paper discusses the novel understanding of the difference between the steps in the IOGP HSSE culture ladder and the methods used in a high hazard operation to effect the change required to move up those steps. The organisation involved has been de-identified.
In the expert report to the U.S. 5th Federal Court Deepwater Horizon case (Hudson 2011), the transitions ascending the cultural steps are described by the sequence "In place – In operation – Effective – Permanent". The authors applied this understanding in a high hazard aircraft engineering operation and discuss the challenges, roadblocks and adaptations required to effect the desired organisational changes. It includes the methods used to gain senior management involvement for the process and the general processes developed to create the understanding within the organisation.
A frequently stated organisational goal is the development of the organisational culture using the HSSE Culture ladder. While the ladder can provide a road map that allows for realistic incremental improvements of the safety culture the actual detailed definition of the measures to be taken can still be challenging. Using the cultural sequence as set out in the report to the court a more understandable path can be forged that allows improvements to be mapped onto current operations, by identifying processes and activities associated with higher steps on the ladder. This enables a clearer definition of the desired goals and assessment of whether those goals have been achieved leading to cultural change. This includes changing or moving on from performance indicators as and when they are fulfilled.
In this case study the organisation achieved advanced cultural behaviours through application of standard management techniques. This includes topics that distinguish more from less advanced cultures such as: Managing Non-compliance, Operational Discipline, Using Standards and Best practises. Improvements in the major lagging Process Safety indicators were gained through the application of this method, demonstrating a marked reduction of major incidents, as would be predicted by a more advanced safety culture.
This paper introduces a number of measures that can be used to effect lasting cultural change within organisations. Use of these methods allows more granular control over the cultural development, which allows more effective and efficient change programs.
This paper will present the findings of a research project, and content of IPIECA's
From 2015 – 2016 IPIECA undertook a research project to assess the content of its 2008 SI Guidance. While the research concluded that the principles of the Guidance remain valid and useful, it was also acknowledged that the document did not reflect the latest thinking on key SI issues and approaches. As a result, a series of Practitioner Notes were produced to present practical information on current industry practices on issues related to SI. The Notes were produced by collecting information through more than 50 telephone interviews with practitioners from IPIECA member companies and external stakeholders, as well as a literature review.
IPIECA's research found that companies in the oil and gas sector were facing challenges related to the monitoring and evaluation of SI in three areas: (1) how to accurately measure the socio-economic or developmental impacts of their SI efforts at the asset level, (2) how to better demonstrate the added value of SI to the business at the asset level, (3) how to better demonstrate the collective results of SI efforts across a company's global activities at the corporate level. It was found that companies in the oil and gas sector have reviewed their SI approach in recent years; with increased focus on being able to demonstrate results, there is now a renewed emphasis and increased rigor on M&E, and in some cases, a need to redesign a company's entire SI approach (e.g. how SI is shaped, tracked and communicated).
IPIECA's Practitioner Note helps to address the challenges faced by oil and gas companies by (1) describing the need for better M&E of SI, (2) demonstrating how to design an M&E framework for SI, (3) highlighting the need to strengthen reporting procedures to better communicate the company's SI performance both internally and to external stakeholders, and (4) highlighting approaches to quantify the added value of social investment in monetary terms.
The technology consists on using microorganisms in biofilm in order to remove the toxicity of produced water, at low cost with a low footprint for offshore sites.
For a long time, the concentration of oil-in-water was the unique specification for water disposal into the sea. With a new European regulation and worldwide evolution, the environmental performance includes also the demonstration of toxicity removal close to the production site.
Worldwide, the quantity of produced water is increasing continuously year after year of production. Even if produced water reinjection is the favorite option within TOTAL, a large part of produced water is still released into the sea.
The technologies, currently implemented offshore, are not always sufficient to comply with this regulatory evolution: suspended hydrocarbons are well treated but dissolved compounds are not. Biological treatment can reduce the toxicity of wastewater as it will biodegrade organic pollution such as phenols, mono or Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons. But the size of conventional biotreatment equipments is not compatible with the offshore constraints.
Among biotreatment systems, a technology called MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) which involves bacteria organized in biofilm attached to supports, demonstrated a strong robustness compared to conventional activated sludge. The size reduction of equipments induced by MBBR has never been evaluated on saline produced water.
Lab trials demonstrated the potential of biodegradation for saline water. The team wanted to reduce the size of equipments by dividing by at least 20 the residence time of the bioreactor.
Lab experiments with supported biomass demonstrated the efficiency of the system on produced water containing up to 15% of salinity. The ecotoxicity measured on sensitive species was removed and the concentration of hydrocarbons was drastically reduced (<3 mg/L).
The experimental pilot (0.5-4 m3/h) was operated for 10 months until May 2017 in South West of France on a production site. With only 30 min residence time, the toxicity was reduced by 85% where usual biotreatments require 24 hours of residence time.
The pilot is equipped with a final step including membrane filtration with reverse osmosis in order to demonstrate the feasibility of desalination for water reuse.
The technology is the first compact biological treatment. Stakes are huge. For a flowrate 20000 bpd, the investment cost for a TOTAL site offshore is today close to 40M$. This cost is estimated at 10M$, the footprint is divided by 3 and the weight reduced by 2 compared to extraction process. It is now possible to implement a biotreatment offshore.
When drilling and experiencing a well control event, the decision to either function the shear and seal BOP with pipe in the hole or evacuate the rig before shutting in the well is a complex one. Many human and technical influences come into play in a highly time dependent, often escalating situation. At this time pressured moment the crew concerned fully appreciates that the consequences of their actions are likely to be significant.
A new BOP activation technology has been developed and tested to assist the operations team in making better (safer) decisions at this critically unsafe time. The paper will explain the core system components and detail the testing methodology adopted to facilitate field introduction of this new technology in Saudi Arabia.
At its core, a bespoke safety critical wireless communications solution has been developed which when coupled to robust electrical control and hydraulic power unit hardware, provides a rig upgrade solution when the planned well conditions warrant. It should be noted that the system is a supplementary well control technology designed to operate alongside existing, conventional BOP control systems as opposed to other attempted methods that seek to replace reliable, proven and heavily regulated equipment. The technology is novel in that no technology has been previously developed and tested that allows well shut-in following rig evacuation on land or jack-up rig installations.
Significant learnings captured during the development project, including the testing phase will be shared, with a look forward to full operational deployment considerations such as integration with existing rig technology.