As companies around the world plan for the future decommissioning of oil and gas platforms, a case study from California provides a model in terms of both process and the use of decision support tools. The question of how to decommission California's 27 offshore oil platforms, like many issues related to offshore oil and gas in California, began as a major public controversy. We created a decision analysis software tool (PLATFORM) to clarify and evaluate decision strategies as part of a larger policy analysis conducted for the California Ocean Science Trust. The in-depth analysis focused on two main options—complete platform removal and partial removal to 85 feet below the water line, with the remaining structures to be converted in place as an artificial reef to preserve their biological value. PLATFORM was key in structuring and performing analyses of the impacts of each option (e.g., on costs, fishery production, air emissions) and greatly improved the team's productivity. Sensitivity analysis showed that different preferences, especially about the importance of strict compliance with lease agreements, is much more important in selecting the preferred option than is uncertainty about specific outcomes, such as decommissioning costs. The project's results affected the decision to pass legislation enabling an expanded California "rigs-to-reefs" program, which includes a mechanism for sharing cost savings between operators and the State. The decision model presented here for the 2016 SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Social Responsibility can be adapted readily to other marine environments and could support regulatory decision making for decommissioning worldwide.
As an oil and gas industry, we are committed to "Getting to Zero" and to collaborating on our mutual goal of an incident free workplace. This paper describes our company's journey to embrace our industry's collective learnings, take action, and achieve a step change in HSE performance using a concept called "The Perfect HSE Day".
The first phase of our journey involved benchmarking best efforts and addressing the learnings identified in various SPE "Getting to Zero" workshops since 2010. These learnings include visible leadership, engaging employees and the pervasiveness of lagging indicators. While we developed methods to address these issues, such as our leading indicator scorecards, we realized we needed to do more. We also needed to adjust our mindset and really embrace the idea that getting to zero is possible. The real barrier was quite simply that to achieve it, you must first believe it. It was absolutely essential for all company leaders to believe, take a stand, and publicly declare our goal to "Make Every Day a Perfect HSE Day".
The second phase included defining the standard and metrics. Instead of focusing solely on safety, we chose a broad, well rounded approach, incorporating personal safety, transportation and also environmental aspects. The most critical part was employee engagement, to capture their hearts and minds using personal testimonials and a host of other means. It also meant celebrating success through daily email progress updates and enhancements to our HSE recognition program, among others.
The third and final phase is the continual evolution of The Perfect Day. This is a journey, and we must keep the momentum going to keep it alive. We've used a variety of strategies, including a personal renewal of employee commitment through what has now become an annual "HSE Commitment Day".
Using The Perfect HSE Day concept, we've achieved step change HSE performance improvement, far surpassing the incremental progress from prior years. This trajectory is dramatic and continues, as we are on track to achieve a 500% improvement since the Perfect HSE Day concept was introduced in 2012. And, the concept has been embraced by Quality and other groups, further expanding towards true operational excellence.
This paper describes our journey to zero, using a novel approach that connects broadly with employees on a personal level, in a way that statistical improvement goals never could. HSE goals that change from year to year can leave employees disconnected and feeling that they are back at square one. Instead, "The Perfect HSE Day" illustrates how breakthrough performance improvement can be achieved using an evergreen concept that can evolve and grow indefinitely.
Lopez-Plana, J. O. (Repsol E&P) | Barceló, I. (Repsol E&P) | Lastra, P. (Repsol E&P) | Andersen, T. (Repsol Norge AS) | Pérez, M. (Repsol Colombia) | Edghill, N. (Repsol E&P T&T Limited) | Cosendey, L. C. (Repsol Sinopec Brazil) | Nájera, I. (Repsol E&P)
The oil and gas industry is moving into offshore territory known for a high degree of sensitivity and complexity. For all operators, a prudent system of managing biodiversity and ecosystem services is quickly becoming a key success factor, but also a key responsibility.
There are many forums for identifying best practices. IPIECA has delineated parts of the process through the "Begin yesterday" and "Locate and assess sensitive areas" principles. CSBI supports the broader goals of innovative and transparent application of the mitigation hierarchy in relation to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while UNEP-WCMC works to improve global data and strengthen business approaches for biodiversity management through the Proteus Partnership.
However, neither global data nor methodologies are standardized. UNEP-WCMC has put a lot of effort into mapping critical marine habitats and has developed an online GIS-viewer, the Ocean Data Viewer. Equally, during 2014 IPIECA presented the Marine Geospatial Bibliography; a knowledge sharing platform collecting and making available information on oil, gas and the environment for industry, science and public. Finally, the CSBI, having identified the weakness of lacking standardization, created a biodiversity data collection work stream that aims to produce a practical guide on what ecological information is needed to sufficiently inform the biodiversity baseline assessment for projects. Different activities within the oil and gas sphere are performed in the marine environment and potential impacts inevitably vary. Standardization within differing contexts is a challenge the industry faces.
This paper will present scientific case studies highlighting the methodologies that can be adapted by the oil and gas industry for baseline and monitoring: recording with hydrophones vocalizing fauna and using underwater acoustics and ROVs for studying benthic communities (multibeam echo sounder, sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler). Furthermore, implemented and tested "good practices" regarding coral reef surveys, deepwater and shallow water baseline methodologies will be shared.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. However, in many locations around the world, tuberculosis has now become a "re-emerging infectious disease" that can significantly impact workforce operations. As part of the PNG LNG Project, a comprehensive TB management strategy was developed that included both the workforce and key proximal communities. Pre-placement evaluations, ongoing surveillance and community incidence and prevalence studies were conducted in an integrated fashion. Innovative technology, including use of the GeneXpert platform, was systematically utilized at both key worksite locations and target communities to support pro-active TB mitigation efforts.
Based on the findings of pre-project health risk and impact assessments (i.e. inside and outside the fence evaluations) and building on the corporate approach for TB control in Company workplaces, the Project determined that a comprehensive TB management program was essential. PNG has a significant underlying burden of TB with an increasing burden of multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB), while local health capacity to accurately diagnose and treat TB is variable. Importantly, there are no current indications that the PNG TB burden is related to HIV co-infection. Given the large workforce used during the Project's construction phase and focus on maximizing local hires, a comprehensive program to rapidly assess potential workforce TB status was needed. Existing assessment methods including questionnaires, TB skin tests, and chest x-rays. As all of these methods had significant limitations a more rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic system - the GeneXpert platform – was required. Comprehensive pre-employment evaluation was performed utilizing a combination of questionnaires, physical examinations and state of the art interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) with the GeneXpert platform applied to suspect cases to enable rapid assessment and referral. In the proximal worksite communities, the PNG Institute of Medical Research performed systematic TB incidence and prevalence studies. In addition, TB knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief surveys were conducted along with an assessment of local public health capacity for TB diagnosis and treatment. Enhanced laboratory diagnostics, including GeneXpert and improved microscopy training, were added.
In line with the Project team's expectation, the underlying burden of TB was extremely high in local proximal worksite communities. TB incidence and prevalence levels were 2–4 times higher than reported government data. In one area, the TB burden recorded is one of the highest ever documented in the world. HIV co-infection was not significant as HIV rates were <2%. Not surprisingly, workforce pre-employment burden of both latent and active TB were significant and reflected the local population burden of disease. Detailed data will be presented regarding workforce IGRA experience, active surveillance results and the benefits of the GeneXpert platform.
The development of an integrated, (workforce and community) comprehensive TB management and monitoring program represents a new benchmark both for PNG and the oil and gas industry. As noted through multiple engagements with the PNG government and donor community such an approach can be replicated by others in the extractives as well as non-extractives industries using field proven methods pioneered on the PNG LNG Project. In so doing the improvement in coverage and data quality can assist in improving public health policy development and implementation.
In 2008, the Norwegian oil and gas industry set a goal to reduce annual CO2 emissions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) by 1 million tonnes by 2020. For Statoil's operations this has meant a reduction of 800 000 tonnes. To reach this goal, Statoil introduced a systematic approach to energy management on all Statoil-operated installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). This approach is based upon ISO 50 001 – Energy Management, and anchored in Statoil's own governing documentation.
Relying on a network of energy coordinators, with dedicated roles and responsibilities for energy management initiatives and planning, Statoil has been able to identify and implement measures to meet the original 800 000 tonnes reduction target by the end of 2015, 5 years ahead of schedule. The combination of a well-coordinated and capable network with specific roles, responsibilities, and deliveries, the high price of CO2 emissions in Norway and significant attention to energy management activities by management have all contributed to the positive reduction results achieved by Statoil on the NCS.
Based upon the initial success of this systematized energy management work, Statoil has not only establish a similar energy network for Norwegian, land-based operations, but also set an even more ambitious reduction goal for 2020.
Lopez-Plana, J. O. (Repsol E&P) | Nyul, H. (Fauna & Flora International) | Watson, A. (Repsol Exploración Perú) | Parham, E. (Fauna & Flora International) | Garcia, A. (Repsol Exploración Perú) | Howard, P. (Fauna & Flora International) | Santamaría, C. (Repsol E&P)
The Company aims to implement best practice, and as such adheres to the IFC's Performance Standard 6 (PS6) and IPIECA guidelines to better understand the environment where activities take place and to mitigate potential impacts in the early stages of a development, proactively and effectively. The international NGO and the Company worked together to identify priority ecosystem services defined by PS6 as (i) those services which a project's activities are likely to impact and therefore could affect local communities, and (ii) those services which the project directly depends on (e.g., water) in a pipeline development project located in the sensitive Peruvian Western Amazon. The driver for this study is the aim to widen the current risk management approach to include an ecosystem approach. This concept includes considerations of human dependency and impacts on ES alongside conservation objectives highlighting the interdependence of humans with the environment.
The Ecosystem Services Review (ESR) methodology was adapted from the World Resources Institute's (WRI) Ecosystem Services Review and IPIECA's Ecosystem Guideline. This methodology required input from the social and environmental baselines and grounding through the amalgamation of experiences from social and environmental teams in the field. The information was gathered through desk top reviews and in a workshop that was facilitated by FFI and brought together the Company staff including the construction project team, the Safety and Environment team, the Community Relations team and successfully engaged the Company Peru's executive board.
The review of documents and baselines highlighted issues relating to the alignment of habitats and ecosystem services provision that both the company and the communities depend on. Without this information it was difficult to map the source and flow of ecosystem services across the landscape and therefore determine the impacts that a pipeline development might have on the provision of ecosystem services. The workshop however, produced important and interesting results that allowed for the identification of impacts that were not always captured within baselines. Participants also identified mitigation options related to impacts through the application of the mitigation hierarchy.
The main conclusions are that biodiversity baselines need to better integrate considerations of ecosystem services and that the social baselines need to provide more clarity with regards to communities’ dependence on natural resources before an effective impact and risk assessment of type (i) and (ii) ecosystem services can be completed. The key strength of this project was the communication and multidiscipline approach including the construction and engineering project team, the Safety and Environment team and the Community Relations team. From this process, mitigation actions were identified and are going to be part of a BES action plan. For the oil and gas industry, this study provides a framework to integrate an ecosystem approach into business management.
Drilling fluids contain multiple components that can interact in complex ways to affect overall toxicity; the nature of these interactions is not presently well-understood. A response-surface methodology (RSM) is an empirical technique that is suited to modeling such effects using a small number of data points. A RSM was used to model the toxicity of basic water-based drilling fluids consisting of bentonite, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and partially-hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA). Modeling was achieved by relating the 48-hour EC50 of Daphnia magna to the mass ratio of each solid component. The RSM model was able to fit the data better than the conventional concentration addition (CA) approach. Three typical drilling fluid compositions were then tested and found to be below the EC50 without dilution; this finding was consistent with predictions made by the RSM model, but in contrast to expectations based on CA. The effectiveness of the model opens opportunities for reduced testing requirements, enhanced regulatory compliance, and more accurate understanding of composition-toxicity relationships.
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria accounts for the production of oil & gas which provides over 80% of the revenues to the Federal Government. There is the perception that these revenues do not directly benefit the oil bearing communities that continue to lack basic amenities. This contradiction raised issues of equity, access to oil resources, self determination and eventually a struggle for resource control.
The central government, in trying to address the agitations, deployed several measures including the principle of derivation in revenue sharing and much later the creation of the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC). These measures could not properly address the issues as few resources filtered through to those communities that continue to bear the brunt of oil exploitation most notably environmental degradation.
The struggle increased in intensity with the passage of time and increase in awareness. The youths in the communities became more organized. As they could not see the government, they lunched vicious attacks on what or who they could see – the International Oil Companies or IOCs. The struggle gained popularity in the region and the activists acquired the name of "militants". This led to serious insecurity in the region with kidnappings, pipeline vandalism and consequent disruption of oil & gas output and revenues to the Nigerian Government.
In early 2014, after nearly a decade of planning, designing, engineering and early-works development of the Total E&P Canada (TEPCA) Joslyn oil sands mining and extraction site in northwestern Canada, the Joslyn project was delayed indefinitely. Significant changes to global energy market conditions and escalating project execution costs necessitated the change and a shift in business direction.
Although Joslyn is no longer considered a near-term priority for Total SA, maintaining an appropriate degree of social capital with TEPCA stakeholders is critical to ensure the asset will be accepted by regional stakeholders should the company, its industry partners, or another energy developer recommence project development in the future.
During the past seven years TEPCA's societal initiatives have raised the bar and set new standards with urban and Aboriginal stakeholders in the Northeastern Alberta region with highly active community engagement and community integration initiatives and partnerships; comprehensive long-term benefit agreements forged between the company and Aboriginal groups such as the Fort McKay, Mikisew Cree and Athabasca First Nations and the Fort McKay and Fort Chipewyan Métis
As Joslyn operations transition from active operations to paced site development, Aboriginal stakeholder uncertainty levels and interests will need to be well understood and addressed. With the goal at the societal level to ultimately create an optimized position for TEPCA to sustain Joslyn in its current state of suspended development and to also readily, efficiently and expediently recommence operations, Aboriginal Stakeholder relationships must be managed with prudence, resolve and efficacy. How the relationship with Aboriginal and regional stakeholders is managed over the short term will impact the company's ability to return for future development.
This paper will discuss the process TEPCA representatives underwent in an attempt to preserve the relationships, social license and reputational investment it established with stakeholders at the community leadership, business and grassroots levels. It will delve into learned lessons regarding the criticality of open and transparent communications, phased in approaches to devolvement and divestment and also outline how company/stakeholder relationships continue to evolve and progress today.
Eliminating serious incidents, which includes both - personnel and process safety, remains the most important priority for E&P-industry. This requires a safety culture with an appreciation of a near miss reporting by everyone at each level of an organization.
In Germany ExxonMobil has implemented the Safety Coach Concept, a safety program that helps to engage employees and contractors on peer-to-peer level to share near misses and to learn from those with a higher potential.
To achieve these objectives more than 600 employees and contractors have been trained in small groups of eight to twelve people with a specific focus on hazard and risk identification, effective communication and awareness of personality types. One key objective is actively caring. Each employee - no matter to which company he or she belongs - has the obligation to raise concerns, intervene and stop work, if she or he feels that something is not safe. In this context it is important to provide positive and remedial feedback on near miss reporting and reward good sharing.
In addition company's safety representatives have become safety coaches with dedicated time to observe on a peer-to-peer level within the workgroups on a weekly basis. One of the key advantages is the creation of an environment of trust.
This paper describes the Safety Coach Concept and first results of the near miss reporting and personal accountability in Germany since 2014. It gives an overview about important tools to identify and understand hazards and risks, the so-called Life-Saving-Actions and Risk Tolerance Factors.
This paper gives an outlook on the next evolution of the concept with Process Safety Coaches. It is necessary to create an understanding of barrier health and effectiveness. An important tool is to define these barriers in an asset-specific register for major hazards. Another one is the development of key Process Safety Actions analog to Life-Saving-Actions.