Kaizen, or rapid improvement processes, focuses on eliminating waste, improving productivity, and achieving sustained continual improvement in targeted activities and processes. This philosophy promotes small, incremental changes and when routinely applied over long periods results in significant improvements. The Kaizen strategy aims to involve workers from all levels and functions in the organization in working together to address or improve a problem or process. In addition to improved operational efficiencies and reliability of products and services, successful implementation of Kaizen also brings about a step changes in HSE ownership which is driven to multiple levels of the organization. The journey in implementing the Kaizen philosophy in an Assembly, Maintenance and Overhaul (AMO) facility of a global oilfield services company in Singapore will be examined in detail. The immediate impact of the Kaizen implementation is a tidy, ordered work environment and an optimized work flow for processing equipment. Both have the effect of reducing exposure and risk, and overall improve human reliability. Sustained focus and involvement of employees also helps to shift the HSE culture barometer towards an Interdependent HSE Culture in the AMO facility. Specific initiatives like the 6S program that are part of the Kaizen implementation will be discussed in detail. The successes with Kaizen will not stop at the Singapore AMO facility. Ongoing efforts to expand the implementation to other AMO locations are underway. While there have been early successes, recognizing the varying level of infrastructure and support will provide some notable challenges when driving this philosophy across a multinational organization in the Asia Pacific region. Looking further afield, expanding the Kaizen philosophy into field operations offers exciting opportunities to further drive HSE excellence throughout the organization and perhaps serve as a model for the industry.
Hydraulic fracturing for acquiring shale gas requires a significant amount of water be used. The sourcing, transport, storage, reuse, and disposal can each pose environmental and social challenges. The hydraulic fracturing industry has been targeted for consumption of fresh water and for the traffic the trucks on the road introduce to local communities. Pits used for storage of water pose an eyesore and require extensive reclamation.
Chevron Appalachia has implemented a number of water management best practices and will share these. Best practices include storing water in above ground storage tanks, treating and reusing water rather than disposing of water, maximizing use of non-potable water, and installing fresh water pipelines rather than trucking fresh water. Above ground storage tanks built to a design standard allow for minimal impact to the environment during construction and also improve reclamation. The chemical treatment of water can be accomplished in a cost effective and environmentally friendly manner that can then enable its reuse, resulting in less disposal volumes and less draw upon other sources of water.
All of these require a workforce dedicated to water management - these best practices require focus and acceptance of transition in order to cause change. A water driven approach must be taken from the start of an asset’s development in order to execute wells in a manner that minimizes the environmental impact of water consumption as well as allows for delivery of cost efficient wells. Many of these practices while not only diminishing impact on the environment have yielded significant cost savings for operators. The best practices shared in this meeting can be used by other operators not only in the Marcellus shale but also in many other shale plays.
The most significant innovations that will be presented are the use of a patent-pending mobile above ground storage tanks, an environmentally friendly and efficient treatment methodology, and a model all inclusive water management lifecycle.
Ageing and mature oil and gas assets may pose serious problems when it comes to ensure Integrity of Process and Operations. Depending on age, repair history, deterioration ( even not necessarily associated with time), and all the other factors that influence the beginning, evolution and mitigation of their degradation many equipment may be out of compliance with Safety standards or with original manufacturer’s specification. This may result in an increasing likelihood of failure and urge the company to make a partial or total refurbishment of the plant to prevent Major Accident Hazards.
It is therefore apparent that management of equipment integrity especially in old facilities requires an effective Process Safety Management approach that can support at managerial level the decisions and the actions that need to be under taken with respect to the asset itself: the alternatives can consist in elaborating dedicated studies to justify continued service, re-rating, fix, refurbish or scrapping the equipment.
This paper describes how integrity issues related to old facilities in Congo have been managed in the framework of the Company Process Safety Management System through the application of BART (Base line risk Assessment tool)
BART is a Process Safety risk management tool supported by dedicated software that combines a simplified quantitative risk assessment (QRA) with a bow-tie model a to identify and assess any potential hazards and associated risks, that may arise from process activities in onshore and offshore oil & gas installations.
In the ageing assets in Congo, the application of BART has provided a clear picture of the risk level of the plant: the need for some actions already included in the HSE risk register has been confirmed and further recommendations to improve the overall safety of the installations (in addition to those already implemented or foreseen) have been suggested.
In the overall, this application has once again confirmed the soundness of BART methodology and its important role as a tool for assurance and verification within the Company’s Process Safety Management framework.
One of the major concerns in drilling operations is gas kick detection and blow out control. If not detected early or properly controlled, gas kicks could be disastrous. Loss of human lives, polluting the environment (especially in deep offshore drilling) and financial losses are possible consequences of a blow out. Despite significant enhancements in offshore drilling technology, still conventional well control indicators are applied for gas kick detection in most of the offshore wells. These indicators are rudimentary and are not sufficiently reliable for drilling costly offshore wells.
Now, having access to continuous pressure data along the wellbore at very high rate and independent of drilling fluid type is offered by mounting pressure sensors on intelligent (wired) drillpipe. One the most important applications of this new technology is early gas kick detection and enhancements in safely. However, in order to apply this technology for early gas detection, variations in annular pressure profile during entering gas influx to the wellbore should be precisely predicted.
To accomplish this goal, different involved regions are modeled and a numerical scheme and a transient gas kick simulator are developed to solve the equations. Simulator is validated with available two-phase experimental data (air-water and air-mud) from a large-scale flow loop (8 in X 4.5 in, 90 ft long) at The University of Tulsa. Based on the analysis of simulated annular pressure profile, methodologies are developed for early kick detection and determining its location for different drilling scenarios.
For instance, obtained results indicate that during entrance of gas influx in Constant Bottomhole Pressure Technique of Managed Pressure Drilling, pressure at all sensors increases simultaneously. This criterion can be used for early detection of gas influx; furthermore, determination of influx location is conducted by monitoring variations in pressure derivative curve at each sensor. For this scenario, when gas influx reaches a certain sensor, pressure derivative value starts to decline. This study shows that mounting pressure sensors on intelligent drillpipe can enhance safety significantly by shortening gas detection time to half and monitoring its movement in the wellbore.
Description of the Material
After years of tense confrontations between industry and Aboriginal communities in Canada, there is growing acceptance among all parties of the importance of building mutually beneficial development goals. This coincides with global public recognition of the importance of indigenous perspectives in development decisions and consultation processes aligned with the unique needs of Aboriginal communities.
This paper aims to explore trends and success factors in establishing mutually beneficial business practices for the oil and gas sector and Aboriginal communities in Canada with lessons learned for other geographic regions. It will specifically focus on challenges and opportunities for companies in supporting SME development among Aboriginal communities. Our findings are based on our own experience with companies and indigenous organizations, interviews with business owners and Aboriginal leaders, field observations of peer company practices, insights from conference proceedings highlighting Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal business initiatives and literature review.
Results, Observations, Conclusions
Our research will highlight the importance of, and tactics for, building an SME and community development approach that also highlights investments in women as leaders of Canadian Aboriginal businesses. It is important that Aboriginal communities are able to respond to rapidly evolving developments in a particular area and be prepared to provide local services on an acceptable scale of expertise and mutual financial gain.
Significance of Subject Matter
One significant way the energy industry can contribute to Aboriginal communities is through investments in small and medium enterprise development. As evidence of this, there are now multi-million dollar businesses in the form of joint ventures which combine Indigenous and non- Indigenous business practices through relationships built on a foundation of trust and respect.
HBM is an important tool in assessing workplace and environmental exposure to potentially hazardous substances. It’s use by governments, NGOs and industry is becoming increasingly commonplace. However, there are several critical factors in the manner in which HBM is designed, conducted, interpreted and communicated that must be considered to ensure that an HBM program enhances decision making.
Objectives and Scope:
• Identify critical factors in the design, conduct, interpretation and communication of HBM programs
• Discuss issues and challenges associated with these critical factors
• Describe an approach to ensure that these factors are systematically addressed maximizing the value of the HBM program
Results and Observations:
Critical factors that should be considered in an HBM program include:
1. The rationale for the program - Is HBM more effective than conventional exposure assessment, e.g., air monitoring in this scenario
2. Does this program constitute research and if so, has it been reviewed by an IRB and is informed consent planned?
3. Has a sensitive and specific marker of exposure been identified?
4. Is an appropriate sample collection strategy defined taking into account the nature of the exposure and the toxicokinetics of the chemical and its metabolites?
a. Timing and frequency of sampling
b. Chain of custody
c. Prevention of contamination
5. Has a laboratory been identified that is qualified to conduct the test and has adequate quality control and assurance methodologies?
6. If HBM is being used to assess risk, has an appropriate reference value been identified?
7. How and to whom will results be communicated?
a. If there is not reference value, will individual subjects get results?
b. Have other communications been considered (e.g. publication, US EPA TSCA reporting)?
Conclusion and Application:
A standardized process involving reviewers who are not directly involved in the proposed HBM program can be utilized to ensure that HBM programs are designed in a manner that maximizes their utility and minimizes unintended adverse outcomes. This approach is currently being used in a major petrochemical company but could be equally applicable in other settings such as government agencies and NGOs.
According to the Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to “integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices” in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly systematically address contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a long-term study (1988-2005) of more than 600 well documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures are due to HOFs.
This paper introduces a risk analysis framework to address the critical role of human and organizational factors in conducting and interpreting Negative Pressure Test (NPT), which according to many experts, is a critical step in ascertaining well integrity and quality of cementing during offshore drilling. The introduced framework in this study has been developed based on the analyses and lessons learned from the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and the conducted NPT by the DWH crew. However, the application of this framework is neither limited to the NPT nor to the DWH case. In fact, it can be generalized and be potentially useful for risk analysis of future oil and gas drillings as well.
Analysis of the stated framework indicates that organizational factors were the root-causes of accumulated errors and questionable decisions that affected the result and the interpretation of the conducted NPT. Further analysis of this framework identifies personnel management, communication and processing uncertainties, and economic pressure as the most influencing organizational factors, which resulted in the misinterpretation of the negative pressure test. Investigative studies confirm that organizational factors such as personnel management and economic pressure are the common contributing causes of other offshore drilling accidents as well.
In summary, significance and contribution of this paper is based on three main factors: introducing a substantial risk assessment framework, analyzing HOFs as a main contributing cause of offshore drilling accidents, and concentrating on the NPT misinterpretation as a primary factor that affected the loss of well control and the subsequent blowout on the DWH.
Site selection and pipeline routing has been historically lead by facilities engineers with the environmental and social team following with a screening and ranking process. This frequently leads to conflicts within the project development team as both groups tend to pick their favorites early on and then struggle to defend their preferred choices. The author, a civil / geotechnical engineer by training, has been involved with siting / routing analyses from both perspectives over a 35 year career.
Ideally, an integrated team of engineers and environmental and social scientists is formed to screen and rank sites / routes such that the selected short list satisfies both project requirements while being sensitive to environmental and social issues and concerns. Both technical and non-technical aspects need to be considered. Desk top studies followed by field visits and preliminary mapping supports this process. Once the preferred sites / routes are identified, detailed investigations (including an environmental and social assessment -ESHIA) are conducted to select the preferred alternative. This approach leads to petroleum facilities which are designed, constructed and operated in a more sustainable manner.
The author reviews this preferred siting and routing process using several case studies, including recent and historical projects in Africa and South America. The most recent project in a remote area of southern Africa has used the integrated approach in a proactive and successful manner.
This siting and routing methodology is recommended to project executives and project managers developing facilities in sensitive and / or remote areas.
Greater public scrutiny of all oilfield activities and regulations regarding water usage has become progressively more restrictive. This situation has made the need for water reuse even more important. Water is essential to oilfield operations. Sourcing, storage, logistics, production, and disposal of water all represent huge costs to the industry, and they can have major impacts on the environment. Smart water management saves money and results in environmental benefits.
Smart water management integrates the well and water lifecycles to holistically design a system that reduces, controls, and reuses water. This approach includes reducing unproductive water in the formation, proactively controlling water-induced issues (such as scaling and bacteria), and maximizing reuse of produced water. The results are better productivity, less freshwater usage, better logistics (reducing heavy truck traffic), and overall improvement to the environmental footprint.
Subsurface water shutoff treatments, like water inflow detection, mechanical shutoff tools, permanent cement retainers, and gel and chemical remediation for water conformance, effectively decrease unproductive water in producing wells to extend the life of oil and gas fields. Minimizing water production at the source reduces energy required for lifting as well as trucking, which translates into less associated emissions and road damage.
Flow assurance can be improved by solid chemicals that counteract water-related bacteria and corrosion as well as inhibit scale, paraffin, asphaltenes, and salt. These solid chemicals minimize safety hazards because they are mixed onsite, making it safer for transportation and spill mitigation.
Surface water treatments using environmentally preferred solutions such as chlorine dioxide, electrocoagulation, and filtration enable operators to reuse produced and flowback water in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Virtually any oilfield water can be treated. Unwanted water is converted into reusable water onsite, further reducing disposal, trucking, and emissions.
Technology and best practices exist for smart water management, and it’s good for the environment, too. This paper details the best of these technologies and gives examples of best practices where their use has saved operator’s money, improved production, and reduced the environmental impact.
When an oil spill occurs, time is critical: the oil slick must be identified as soon as possible, followed permanently and its drift must be anticipated as much as possible in order to take the right decision and put the recovery equipment at the right place. That’s the reason why Total decided to develop a captive balloon specifically dedicated to the follow up of drifting oily slicks. The balloon is held in position at 150 m (500 ft) above sea level, above the ship in intervention. Two digital cameras are suspended to it, one of them being an infrared/thermal one. This device leads to visualisation of the hydrocarbons during day and night. That’s a real plus for the rescue team which until now faced serious difficulties to determine the position of the response boat with regards to the oily slick from the deck due to the acute angle of observation and reflection issues.
The equipment, which weights less than 3 kg (6 pounds), is made of two parts: the balloon itself (8 m3, filled with Helium), and a stabilised turret, equipped with two cameras. A software installed on the ground station which can be positioned on the upper deck on the boat analyses the images from the cameras (transmitted by radio wave) and steers the cameras. A particular attention has been drawn to easiness of use and rapidity of unfurling: 10 mn only are enough to fill the balloon with Helium, and in total the whole equipment is ready within 1 hour. The paper will present the balloon and provide details on the various steps from the reasons to develop such piece of equipment, the difficulties met during its development, and the results obtained so far.