BP and its peers have been addressing business and human rights matters since well before the arrival of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) in 2011. However, the UNGPs were the first clear articulation of the corporate responsibility to respect human rights. This has greatly influenced the industry’s approach to understanding and managing human rights risks. In BP, the UNGPs provided an opportunity to review how we address our potential social and human rights impacts.
While the UNGPs may appear relatively straightforward, the cross-cutting nature of human rights makes implementation complex in multinational energy companies. While there are parallels with disciplines such as environment and health and safety, human rights are far more cross-cutting. No one function can manage the whole topic: multiple functions, including Human Resources, Supply Chain Management and Ethics & Compliance, need to collaborate. The UNGPs ask companies to look beyond potential impacts of wholly owned and directly managed operations, to investments, joint ventures and business relationships, including suppliers and contractors. The multiplicity and complexity of our business relationships, partnerships and subcontracting make this challenging.
This paper will chart BP’s actions to align with the UNGPs over time, from the independent review of our policies and practices in 2011, to the formation of an implementation plan in 2012, and more recently the development of a progress review mechanism. Lessons learned from the practical application of the UNGPs within BP have supported the evolution of our implementation plan. Our human rights governance seeks to promote clear ownership of practical actions by relevant functions, segments and businesses whilst also providing senior management overview of progress.
The corporate responsibility to respect human rights is achieved through continuous effort. Like health and safety, human rights issues require on-going management. By sharing the successes and challenges encountered along the way, we hope to contribute to the industry’s fund of knowledge on this complex topic. BP is contributing to and benefiting from IPIECA’s human rights programme, a collaborative industry approach to developing good practice tools and guidance, which enables peer sharing and learning.
Hydraulic fracturing for acquiring shale gas requires a significant amount of water be used. The sourcing, transport, storage, reuse, and disposal can each pose environmental and social challenges. The hydraulic fracturing industry has been targeted for consumption of fresh water and for the traffic the trucks on the road introduce to local communities. Pits used for storage of water pose an eyesore and require extensive reclamation.
Chevron Appalachia has implemented a number of water management best practices and will share these. Best practices include storing water in above ground storage tanks, treating and reusing water rather than disposing of water, maximizing use of non-potable water, and installing fresh water pipelines rather than trucking fresh water. Above ground storage tanks built to a design standard allow for minimal impact to the environment during construction and also improve reclamation. The chemical treatment of water can be accomplished in a cost effective and environmentally friendly manner that can then enable its reuse, resulting in less disposal volumes and less draw upon other sources of water.
All of these require a workforce dedicated to water management - these best practices require focus and acceptance of transition in order to cause change. A water driven approach must be taken from the start of an asset’s development in order to execute wells in a manner that minimizes the environmental impact of water consumption as well as allows for delivery of cost efficient wells. Many of these practices while not only diminishing impact on the environment have yielded significant cost savings for operators. The best practices shared in this meeting can be used by other operators not only in the Marcellus shale but also in many other shale plays.
The most significant innovations that will be presented are the use of a patent-pending mobile above ground storage tanks, an environmentally friendly and efficient treatment methodology, and a model all inclusive water management lifecycle.
Cryogenic spill on the Floating LNG (FLNG) is one of the risks which need to be managed to avoid the possibility of large flammable cloud within the facility that may cause fire, explosion and potential embritllement of exposed unprotected steel work and subsequent fracture. In onshore LNG plants, guidance on spill control has been based on the widely used NFPA59A and EN1473. In locating the LNG plants in a floating installation, these guidelines are not directly applicable and, with the absence of international rules directly applicable to this new concept, risk-based approach can be considered to determine the design.
The challenge is how to control the cryogenic liquid spill in a congested installation when there are no proven robust existing installations for this application. Onshore practice is to collect the cryogenic liquid spill in an impoundment pond. However, this practice is not suitable for offshore installation due to limitation in space and FLNGs are congested in nature. In using risk based approach, the cryogenic spill is presumed to have a large extent because of liquid jet due to high pressure systems. Thus, a study and optimization for the cryogenic spill control design on the onset of the project is important.
There are several options that have been considered during the design development on how to control the cryogenic spill in floating LNGs. In this paper, it will describe the features of the different possible options. There will be a case study to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of each option in terms of safety, operability and environmental impact. Risk reduction measures will be recommended to evaluate any hazards that will arise in the course of the case study.
Sick leaves caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorders were analyzed from 2009 to 2011 medical records of the PTTEP in Thailand. Health care cost of the company increased two-fold in 2011. The results showed that the prevalence ratio of musculoskeletal disorders was 51% and high prevalence was found at the Bangkok office. The computer work-related musculoskeletal complaints were low back pain (47%), neck and upper extremity problems (31%), knee and ankle discomfort (14%) and muscle strain (8%). Those who worked at Bangkok office were 2.56 times to have musculoskeletal disorders and sick leaves compared to those who worked at the provincial division of PTTEP.
Therefore, we designed a study to determine prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and their risk factors in approximate 1500 computer workers working in office in various PTTEP locations in Thailand.
The findings will lead to guidelines for health care program, behavior adaptation, and risk factor management. A survey research will be conducted in July 2013 using electronic questionnaires. The questions related to four issues including physical, administration, psychological and environmental factors will be included.
The prevalence ratio (PR), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confident interval (95%CI) will be calculated and demonstrated those who are at high risk to have work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Since the nineteen seventies, Total E&P Indonesie (TEPI) operates a block in the Mahakam River delta, where it coexists with local communities that live in a traditional way and get their livelihoods from agriculture and marine activities such as shrimp farming. For ten years, the relationship with these communities has become more and more intense, occasionally leading to conflicts and reaching a peak where TEPI neighbors are getting unsatisfied with the company and have increasing societal expectations. Consequently, the societal strategy was in dire need of an update, to improve TEPI’s relationship with its stakeholders and ensure undisturbed operations. To achieve this goal, TEPI used SRM+, a corporate tool by which the company compares its perception of the societal context in which it operates with that of its external stakeholders, with a view to better adapting its societal strategy. Usually used at subsidiary level, the innovation here was that it was adjusted to the operational needs. In the Mahakam block, operations are divided into 3 assets, which cover several sites and have a dedicated management. Therefore, four SRM+ surveys were conducted: one on each of the assets and one at Province level to listen to higher level stakeholders. Internally, the survey consisted in workshops gathering around 50 people from societal and operations teams, in order to jointly identify the societal risks and to map the stakeholders. Externally, 45 stakeholders were interviewed, 27 at assets level and 18 at the level of East Kalimantan province. The result was the delivery of a uniquely shaped action plan, made of 4 different plans: one common and one for each asset. Each of these plans aimed at answering local stakeholder’s expectations, which vary from one asset to another. The global action plan targeted general actions to improve impact management, redirect the community development strategy towards needs of local communities, while improving the quality of relationships with stakeholders. Whilst this project strengthened ties between societal and operations teams, and triggered an opening of sites to local communities, it also enabled TEPI to improve its societal management practices and, most importantly, to better understand its neighbors.
Recent well known major accidents occurred in the Oil and Gas sector and their consequences on companies’ reputation and public image have dramatically confirmed that asset integrity enhanced safety performance and effective management of environmental risks remain one of the key challenges facing the industry today.
Investigation reports prove that Major Accidents typically materialize as a result of a combination of failures in processes, plant integrity and human behaviours. Processes, people and plant can be regarded as ‘barriers’ between the hazard and an incident. If they are all present and flawless, they can prevent a hazard becoming an incident.
Barriers which prevent Major Accident Hazards becoming accidents are called Safety Critical Elements.
Safety-critical elements (SCE) are defined as any parts of an installation (physical or non-physical elements), plant or computer programmes whose failure will either cause or contribute substantially to a major accident, or the purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of a major accident hazard (MAH). SCEs are thus generally designed to Prevent Detect Control Mitigate Rescue and Recover
This paper presents the overarching strategy adopted and the requirements set out within our company for an effective Management of Safety Critical elements
The process by which SCEs are identified and performance standards set is fully described along with the strategy for their implementation within the company assets. The document also describes the verification scheme which is crucial to ensure that the integrity of SCEs is maintained and guidance is provided for the management throughout the various stages of the asset lifecycle; it also deals with the management of change in relation to SCEs.
The paper concludes with considerations on the correct identification of roles and responsibilities for identification of safety critical systems, and the production, review and implementation of their Performance Standards during the whole asset life cycle: at the design stage for new facilities, or major modifications to existing facilities, until handover to the operating organization takes place; and at the operations stage.
Osofsky, Howard (LSU Health Sciences Center) | Osofsky, Joy (LSU Health Sciences Center) | Wells, John (LSU Health Sciences Center) | Weems, Carl (University of New Orleans) | Hansel, Tonya (LSU Health Sciences Center) | King, Lucy (LSU Health Sciences Center) | Ciccone, Anne (LSU Health Sciences Center)
1. This presentation will focus on the importance of behavioral health services in meeting community, physical and mental health needs.
2. The Mental and Behavioral Health Capacity Project (MBHCP) is part of the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program (GRHOP), covering impacted coastal regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. In collaboration with the Primary Care Capacity Project (PCCP) and other GRHOP projects, MBHCP is tasked with developing a sustainable system of mental and behavioral health care, decreasing barriers to care, and increasing access to care within primary care clinics. MBHCP directly delivers evidence-based therapeutic and supportive services to the clinics with on-site and telemedical psychiatric and psychological consultation and centralized care management. Lending relevance to the work, community surveillance data collected by LSUHSC Department of Psychiatry (the Louisiana MBHCP partner) in the Fall of 2010 and again one year post oil spill revealed increased symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress compared to national norms, with symptom scores higher for individuals directly impacted by the spill. A higher sense of ability to cope or bounce back from adversity was associated with fewer mental health symptoms.
3. Louisiana MBHCP data shows that a large number of clients are being referred by primary care providers for collaborative mental health consultation. The data shows that the integration of mental and behavioral health services into primary care clinics has resulted in significant decreases at follow-up of depression, generalized anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Additionally, a greater decrease in mental health symptoms correlates with a greater decrease in physical health symptoms. Clinic feedback indicates enhanced comfort in dealing with complex mental health conditions.
4. Attention to the ecosystem is of fundamental priority in dealing with the impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. It is important to address the interdependence with the exosystem and the integration of mental and behavioral health services into primary care. Evidence-based mental health consultations and therapeutic services delivered onsite and with telemedicine can
significantly improve physical and mental health of clients. Vicarious traumazation of clinic staff can be addressed, and clinic resilience to future disasters can be increased.
Problem Statement: Upstream Oil & Gas business involving high volume of process equipment changes coupled with less experienced workforce presents a challenge to establish and maintain an effective MOC program.
Objectives and Scope of Study: Physical scope includes surface facilities in a typical heavy oil steam-flood operation. Objectives included taking the MOC beyond regulatory compliance to a proactive level. Specifically:
• Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS) approach to manage brownfield facility changes and involving the right people.
• Influencing workforce behaviors to support proactive process safety (PS) culture
• Optimize the MOC workflow for high volume changes
Method: Enhanced MOC process for Chevron’s San Joaquin Valley Business Unit (SJVBU) in California included:
• Methodology to screen MOC’s, identify high risk changes and assign elevated peer reviews, field verifications and elevated management approvals (all the way up to General Manager level) to allow increased visibility and use a fit for purpose to the level of risk approach.
• Workforce behavior influence model to encourage proactive use of MOC and discourage the critical deficiencies by capturing them as PS/MOC near misses. Examples of such PS/MOC near misses are: overdue temporary MOC or a change is started without pre-startup safety review - PSSR.
• Optimized MOC process for low risk, “typical”, high volume changes by defining an optimized work-flow for each of them, developing custom reviews / checklists and SOP’s. This again aiming at use of RBPS concept.
• Methodology to assess MOC quality as they proceed to completion and intervene/stop the change if necessary.
Results and Observations:
• “fit for purpose to the level of risk” approach for MOC
• Workforce behavior influence model for proactive PS culture
Conclusions: A risk based approach to MOC’s coupled with a behavior influence model leads to effective MOC process and contributes to building a stronger PS culture.
Applications: Brownfield facilities with high volume of changes
Innovations or Technical Contributions: Use of RBPS concepts and behavior influence model in MOC
Greater public scrutiny of all oilfield activities and regulations regarding water usage has become progressively more restrictive. This situation has made the need for water reuse even more important. Water is essential to oilfield operations. Sourcing, storage, logistics, production, and disposal of water all represent huge costs to the industry, and they can have major impacts on the environment. Smart water management saves money and results in environmental benefits.
Smart water management integrates the well and water lifecycles to holistically design a system that reduces, controls, and reuses water. This approach includes reducing unproductive water in the formation, proactively controlling water-induced issues (such as scaling and bacteria), and maximizing reuse of produced water. The results are better productivity, less freshwater usage, better logistics (reducing heavy truck traffic), and overall improvement to the environmental footprint.
Subsurface water shutoff treatments, like water inflow detection, mechanical shutoff tools, permanent cement retainers, and gel and chemical remediation for water conformance, effectively decrease unproductive water in producing wells to extend the life of oil and gas fields. Minimizing water production at the source reduces energy required for lifting as well as trucking, which translates into less associated emissions and road damage.
Flow assurance can be improved by solid chemicals that counteract water-related bacteria and corrosion as well as inhibit scale, paraffin, asphaltenes, and salt. These solid chemicals minimize safety hazards because they are mixed onsite, making it safer for transportation and spill mitigation.
Surface water treatments using environmentally preferred solutions such as chlorine dioxide, electrocoagulation, and filtration enable operators to reuse produced and flowback water in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Virtually any oilfield water can be treated. Unwanted water is converted into reusable water onsite, further reducing disposal, trucking, and emissions.
Technology and best practices exist for smart water management, and it’s good for the environment, too. This paper details the best of these technologies and gives examples of best practices where their use has saved operator’s money, improved production, and reduced the environmental impact.
While many parameters influence the environmental consequences of oil spills, the quantity of oil released remains one of the most important. The total volume may be expressed as the leak rate multiplied with the duration of the discharge. By detecting a spill at an early stage, it could be possible to reduce the duration and hence the amount spilled.
Detection technologies are also becoming increasingly important as the petroleum industry is progressing into the Arctic and closer to shorelines or environmentally sensitive areas. With increased environmental concerns and stakeholder engagement, company integrity and accountability is essential for maintaining a license to operate.
At the Norwegian Continental Shelf, operators are required to detect pollution of significance within a short time, usually between one and three hours. Leak detection systems must also be effective regardless of darkness, visibility and weather conditions. On behalf of the Norwegian Oil and Gas Association, a methodology was developed for assessing and selecting remote measurement techniques to address these challenges.
For a leak detection system to be effective and reliable, it is vital to select techniques that complete and complement each other. The methodology firstly maps relevant requirements, risks, facility limitations and field specific factors. A BAT (best available techniques) framework is used to identify appropriate technologies, while gap analyses map the overall limitations and flaws by comparing a proposed system’s performance with the requirements. Gaps or weaknesses are further evaluated through an ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) analysis assessing the cost and benefits of additional techniques. The methodology provides the operators with valuable information concerning factors affecting the performance.
Finally, it is necessary to integrate leak detection into facility management systems.This paper presents the complete methodology and explains how a structured approach can be applied to both existing and new installations. It provides examples of how assessments are conducted and an overview of the most relevant remote sensing techniques. The methodology has been reviewed by several operators and been employed for numerous projects. While the framework was developed for the Norwegian sector, it is relevant and applicable for installations globally.