With growing recognition of the importance of understanding potential impacts to freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems, approaches for systematically assessing site-level risks at a global level are needed. Chevron and Conservation International (CI) partnered in 2012 to test using the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT) - with enhancements to functionality - in evaluating site-level freshwater biodiversity risks. The enhanced functionality is a new and innovative way to mine data from the IUCN Red List to look systematically at species’ threats at the watershed scale. Outputs from the enhanced functionality were evaluated for general utility as well as applicability as input information for the GEMI Local Water Tool (LWT).
Pilot applications of the enhanced IBAT tool were conducted at three Chevron locations around the world. The output was applied in the pilots, and refined with each subsequent pilot based on lessons learned. Key findings included:
• The information derived from the systematic presentation of threat data, in addition to a list of threatened and endangered species included in the IUCN Red List, provided important additional insight on specific watershed-level freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem risks.
• Supplemental local data and expert opinion is still useful in tool application to validate and augment findings regarding potential freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem risks.
As a result of this effort, it was concluded that an enhanced IBAT tool would be useful in identifying specific existing threats to freshwater ecosystems that the information could be used to inform decisions in the oil & gas industry. CI and Chevron are currently working with IBAT to build in enhanced freshwater functionality formally into the tool. Beyond Chevron, the enhanced IBAT tool will be available to any user, including other oil & gas companies, project financiers and users of the LWT.
The risk for skin absorption from chemical contact or from airborne vapor is sometimes questioned during workplace exposure assessments. Although of interest, assessing the dermal route of exposure has been a challenge due to a lack of sampling methods and dermal exposure values. The IH SkinPerm model was developed as a practical tool to help estimate the dermal absorbed dose from skin exposures to pure substances in occupational settings. Three types of dermal exposures can be simulated. The first type of scenario that can be modeled involves an instantaneous deposition; such as those received by accidental skin contact or splash situations. A second scenario that can be modeled is one where the deposition occurs over time, e.g. a repeated rate of skin exposure. The third scenario models the risk of vapor absorption through the skin. Real time description of dermal absorption and evaporated mass is provided in graphical displays and as numerical outputs. Comparisons of measured and estimated dermal absorbed dose show that IH SkinPerm estimated dermal absorbed dose within a factor of 3 compared to the reported study values. The presentation will describe the use of the IH SkinPerm model by example scenarios involving skin exposure to chemicals having skin notations along with methodology to interpret results for dermal risk assessment.
Over the last 10 years total recordable incident rates (TRIR) within the oil and gas industry continue to decline whereas fatality rates sustain by an average of five fatalities per year. The objective of a risk-based approach to fatality prevention is to differentiate high-risk work activities from low-risk work activities, assisting organizations in prioritizing resources such as supervision, procedures, and the allocation of trained personnel. The scope of a risk-based approach to fatality prevention includes organizational leadership, first-line supervisors, and personnel performing high-risk activities. Within the oil and gas industry total recordable incident rates continues to decline although a consistent number of fatalities occur each year.
The first step to institutionalize a risk-based approach to fatality prevention is to perform a risk- assessment of work activities to determine which activities possess the greatest likelihood of a fatality. The risk assessment is accomplished by reviewing past incidents and selecting the appropriate risk ranking method, such as a process hazard analysis or risk prioritization matrix. Using the results from the risk ranking separate the activities with the greatest likelihood of a fatality into groups and validate against past incident data. Once validation is complete use the high-risk activities to identify integration opportunities within existing processes and procedures. For example, using a risk-based approach to identify hot work in a confined space entry as a high-risk activity the fatality prevention emphasis prompted by integration into existing management processes ensures the appropriate procedures, training and oversight to complete the work safely.
The fatality prevention opportunities identified within existing processes and procedures assist the enterprise in business planning ultimately creating a management system shift to provide a higher emphasis where risk is greatest, such as activities where an individual may lose one’s life. In the past the oil and gas industry demonstrates the ability to decrease total recordable incidents although record ability does not necessarily correlate to severity. A risk based-approach to focus on activities where a fatally may occur ensures the appropriate level of management for activities while the existing safety management principles continue to decrease total recordable incidents.
The Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) rule was one of the key responses to the Macondo well blowout. The rule, which is based on API RP 75, became effective November 15th 2011.
Companies were then given two years to complete their first audits and to submit their audit reports to the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE). There are approximately 104 operators in the Gulf of Mexico and many thousands of contractors, so the audit reports _ all of which are due November 15th 2013 _ should provide useful information as to how much progress has been made regarding the management of safety on offshore oil and gas facilities.
This paper will provide a brief timeline to do with the development of standards and regulations for offshore oil and gas facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States. Starting with the first edition of API RP 75 in the early 1990s (following the Piper Alpha catastrophe) the paper will discuss the first SEMS rule that was implemented immediately following the Deepwater Horizon/Macondo disaster. The paper will then describe the new initiatives from BSEE, including SEMS II and their Culture guidance.
The paper will also discuss some of the practical issues that operators and contractors have faced with regard to the implementation of SEMS. Topics covered include:
• Preliminary results from the audits filed with BSEE;
• The use of independent auditors as part of the audit teams;
• The role of the Center for Offshore Safety;
• The profound distinction between drilling and production when developing process safety programs; and
• The challenges to do with measuring progress with regard to offshore process safety.
1.Description of the material: Barzan Onshore Project is a very unique and challenging Construction Project that is being executed in Ras Laffan Industrial City in Qatar. The Project manpower during peak exceeds 20,000 workers which make for a lot of different behaviors, which can have a big impact on the overall safety performance on the Project.
Develop a strong safety culture during construction execution at the mega project of workers from multiple nationalities with Behaviour Observation and Intervention (BO&I) program supported by Incident and injury free (IIF) program which encourage building personnel relationship.
Observers that are trained in observation and intervention techniques are observing workers, mainly within their work group, with regards to “at-risk” but also “safe” behaviors and intervene correctly and immediately by either coaching and correcting or appreciating the person observed. Coaching and correcting takes place isolated and confidentially, but appreciation is carried out publicly in front of the work group to motivate safe behavior. The valuable data gathered is recorded in a database and a quarterly BO&I trend analysis report provides a clear understanding of the level of safety culture developed on the Project.
2. Application: This program will be best applicable for small to mega oil and gas construction project and in any country.
3. Results, Observation, and Conclusions: Awareness has risen amongst the entire workforce. The BO&I Logo is widely recognized and associated with the Program. The Quarterly BO&I Trend Analysis Report indicate critical trends and the analysis suggest further course of actions. A clear understanding of a “Behaviour Based Safety” has been achieved site wide.
Barzan Onshore Project has developed and implemented an excellent behavior based safety program that has great and positive impact on Barzan’s overall safety culture. Considering the large number of manpower and exposure hours, the positive safety culture and behavior change will significantly contribute to incident, accident and personal injury prevention.
4. Significance of subject matter: Combination and integration of system program as BO&I with IIF program which encourage developing individual relationship.
RasGas Co Ltd is a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) production company based in the state of Qatar. The company is unique in that it produces large volumes of LNG with a vast culturally diverse workforce; in excess of sixty nationalities split among three thousand employees, while maintaining pacesetting, world class safety performance when benchmarked against other oil and gas producers. [Benchmarked against other similar companies taking part in the International Association of Oil & Gas Produces benchmarking activities].
In order to maintain Safe, Reliable, Production in a potentially hazardous environment, while maintaining pacesetting safety performance, the Company recognized that a highly developed generative sustainable safety culture is required.
Initially, cultural diversity was seen as a challenge to achieving a sustainable, generative safety culture, however, with further analysis it was hypothesized that a multicultural diverse workforce maybe the key to success. If positive traits from each cultural aspect could be identified and assimilated into day to day business, and become “how we do things around here” we would be able to achieve our goal of “Safe, Reliable, Production”.
This paper will provide a road map of how RasGas, drawing on the work of Hofstede and the Energy Institute, embarked on this journey of continuous improvement, through educating, coaching and implementing both lessons learnt and international best practice to raise awareness of risk tolerance, while melding the multicultural values and expectations, to yield a sustainable, generative safety culture.
Some of the tools used to develop this paper are culture assessments, employee climate surveys, employee forums, discussion groups and statistical analysis of the historical data.
In recent years there has been an explosion of initiatives calling for private sector organisations to report on health, safety, environmental, social and governance factors. As increasing numbers of policy makers, governments and stock exchanges are embedding sustainability into policy and regulation through mandatory reporting initiatives, many civil society organisations, research institutions and investors are also launching voluntary reporting frameworks.
Many Oil & Gas companies have been dedicating significant resources to producing yearly sustainability reports for a long time. These reports have been used as a way to measure performance and communicate with stakeholders. However, companies are now increasingly being asked for additional information, or the same information presented in different ways, by growing numbers of external organisations. Each individual request for information presents its own unique challenge to companies, but the reality is that stakeholder expectations, maintaining a societal licence to operate, as well as pressure from the investor community and the reputational risks make it difficult not to respond to such new requests, particularly for companies in the Oil & Gas sector. Increasingly, significant company resources are being expended on providing information, both qualitative and quantitative, and in completing surveys and questionnaires, in particular from ESG rating agencies, instead of focusing on performance improvement itself.
The recent growth of mandatory reporting initiatives globally has not served to halt the proliferation of voluntary initiatives. Furthermore, many of the voluntary reporting schemes require increasing levels of complex information year after year without clear explanations of why a reasonable investor or analyst would need such information. There is also a gap in the evidence that demonstrates the link between reporting extensive levels of information and good performance or even performance improvements.
In this context this paper will examine and compare a number of voluntary reporting initiatives including the:
- GRI G4 framework
- GRI Oil & Gas Sector Supplement
- IPIECA, API and OGP Oil & Gas industry guidance on voluntary sustainability reporting
- UN Global Compact principles
- International Integrated Reporting Council framework
- Sustainability Accounting Standards Board
- Global Initiative for Sustainability Ratings
The use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) is an emerging technology in many fields of marine activity (military, scientific, industrial), offering a significant potential in cost savings and extension of the operational capabilities related to the solutions currently adopted in offshore operations.
Commercially available AUVs are mainly used by the oil&gas industry for the execution of seabed surveys and they are not usually applied for carrying out the environmental monitoring and asset integrity around oil&gas offshore infrastructures.
eni e&p and its subsidiary Eni Norge, in cooperation with Tecnomare, have launched the CLEAN SEA project (Continuous Long-term Environmental and Asset iNtegrity monitoring at SEA) with the objective to use a commercially available AUV, properly upgraded with key enabling technologies, for the execution of environmental monitoring and asset integrity in offshore fields where eni operates.
This paper will address how to reach this goal. A custom designed mission payload, arranged as modular and interchangeable pods, has been installed at the AUV. These modules, characterised by a set of sensors, are built to perform different offshore monitoring activities according to specific needs: automatic water samples collection; visual inspection (asset, seabed) and hydrocarbon leakage detection; automatic chemical analyses of trace pollutants and acoustic survey of seabed and pipelines / flowlines.
This paper will in addition illustrate the possible future extension of the AUV operational capabilities through the integration and field demonstration of key technologies such as underwater docking, wireless underwater communication for mission data downloading and wireless power recharge for increased autonomy. This may enable a “permanent” operation subsea independently of support from surface.
A comprehensive technical overview of the concept will be presented as well as the results of the demonstration tests.
Australia experiences frequent and intense heat waves during the summer months, with temperatures rising off the charts such that the Bureau of
Meteorology had to add new colours to extend its previous temperature range that was capped at 50 degrees. The resources industry’s awareness to working in heat and the risks of proper precautions not being observed will be discussed. Worker productivity, permit to work, heat stress indices, medical management, dehydration testing and heat illness protocols are all important components in managing heat illness.
Heat index is a range or sequences of single numbers that attempt to reflect the effects of basic parameters in any thermal environment. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature(WBGT) is the most commonly used index but has its limitations
Different Empirical Indices are available and include Effective Temperature ; Corrrected Effective Temperature; Predicted 5 hour sweat rate; Heat Stress Index; Required Sweat Rate and predicted Heat Strain/Heat Stress which models according to complex computer programs.
Heat stroke may develop suprisingly quickly e.g. in confined spaces and Heat related Illness presents significant challenges to remote site medical managment. Work design and work pace are important considerations including absolute and relative contraindications to heat stress exposure. Risk mitigation can be addressed by intelligent design, pre employment and pre deployment health checks.
Problem Statement: Upstream Oil & Gas business involving high volume of process equipment changes coupled with less experienced workforce presents a challenge to establish and maintain an effective MOC program.
Objectives and Scope of Study: Physical scope includes surface facilities in a typical heavy oil steam-flood operation. Objectives included taking the MOC beyond regulatory compliance to a proactive level. Specifically:
• Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS) approach to manage brownfield facility changes and involving the right people.
• Influencing workforce behaviors to support proactive process safety (PS) culture
• Optimize the MOC workflow for high volume changes
Method: Enhanced MOC process for Chevron’s San Joaquin Valley Business Unit (SJVBU) in California included:
• Methodology to screen MOC’s, identify high risk changes and assign elevated peer reviews, field verifications and elevated management approvals (all the way up to General Manager level) to allow increased visibility and use a fit for purpose to the level of risk approach.
• Workforce behavior influence model to encourage proactive use of MOC and discourage the critical deficiencies by capturing them as PS/MOC near misses. Examples of such PS/MOC near misses are: overdue temporary MOC or a change is started without pre-startup safety review - PSSR.
• Optimized MOC process for low risk, “typical”, high volume changes by defining an optimized work-flow for each of them, developing custom reviews / checklists and SOP’s. This again aiming at use of RBPS concept.
• Methodology to assess MOC quality as they proceed to completion and intervene/stop the change if necessary.
Results and Observations:
• “fit for purpose to the level of risk” approach for MOC
• Workforce behavior influence model for proactive PS culture
Conclusions: A risk based approach to MOC’s coupled with a behavior influence model leads to effective MOC process and contributes to building a stronger PS culture.
Applications: Brownfield facilities with high volume of changes
Innovations or Technical Contributions: Use of RBPS concepts and behavior influence model in MOC