Influenza-like illnesses are often found among staff members. The influenza immunization program just covered 30% of the total number of workers. This research was therefore carried out to observe the effectiveness of immunizing BP Indonesia - West Java workers against the symptoms of influenza-like illnesses.
This research used a case-control design of 1:1. The number of random samples per group was 88 people.
Influenza-like illnesses were influenced by vaccinations (OR=4.83), workers' locations (OR=3.94), exercise activities (OR=3.86), smoking (OR=2.86) and Body
Mass Index (OR=0.44). The average length of illness for workers who were immunized was 3 (3-5) days, while those who were not immunized experienced an average length of 4 (2-7) days. This difference was significant, with a p value of 0.008. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccination against influenza-like illness symptoms was 69.4%.
This influenza vaccination program was the main determinant factor in reducing the incidence of influenza-like illnesses, with an effectiveness rate of 69.4%.
Influenza vaccination, influenza-like illnesses
Using the EIA as an instrument to facilitate public discussions of specific CCS projects
The theme of the Conference is: Facing New Challenges with Best Practices and Innovative Thinking. In our paper we will discuss our lessons learned in the Netherlands from EIA-procedures,
• one generic EIA to find common understanding between the authorities and CCS parties (AMESCO),
• specific project EIA's for CCS demonstration projects in the Netherlands.
After more than 50 years of oil production, from 1991 through 2010, the 'Schoonebeek Oilfield' has been cleaned up and restored. The ‘scope of work' consists of the abandonment of all (wellhead) locations, metering stations, installations, cables, pipelines and roads', including all disturbances of the soil quality. Finally, the area has been prepared for cultivation and transferred over to the owners. During the project, approximately 1 million m3 of contaminated soil has been removed and more the 2 million m3 of groundwater has been extracted.
The activities were carried out in such a way that the costs were reduced to a minimum, whereby the project was treated as a continuous improvement process. Besides the application of proven technology, new techniques have been developed. Not all of the newly developed techniques were successful. By way of evaluation at regular intervals, lessons were learned about engineering and data management, planning and necessary permit applications as well as clustered realization of projects. Also, lessons were learned for future operations based on the soil and groundwater contaminations found. For new developments, soil risk analyses were carried out and soil protecting measurements were taken on well locations and treatment plants. By not only taking into account the production of oil and gas but also considering prevention of contamination of the soil and/or the groundwater, the total life cycle costs can be reduced significantly. At the end of production time, the locations can then easily be given back to the owners or nature.
1.1 Schoonebeek Oilfield, situation
The Schoonebeek Oilfield (see figure 1), one of the largest onshore oilfields in Europe, was discovered in 1943 and was in production through 1996. Around 250 million total barrels of very viscous oil were produced. In 1996, production became unprofitable and was discontinued because the produced oil consisted of 95% salt water and 5% oil, although only about 25% of the potential volume of the oilfield was exploited.
In 1991, a start was made with the abandonment and soil restoration of the Schoonebeek Oilfield, a unique project in The Netherlands. After 20 years of clean up activities, in 2010 hardly anything in Schoonebeek shows signs of 50 years of oil production.
In 2005 investigations were carried out for a renewed start of the oil production with new technologies. First oil is expected in 2010 with horizontal wells in the oil layer and steam injection. In a period of 25 years a production of 100 - 120 million barrels of oil is expected.
ConocoPhillips holds leases over three blocks covering approximately 6,200 million acres in the northeast Peruvian Amazon Basin where it plans to perform exploration activities starting with a large regional (2D) seismic program. Most of this area of interest has little or no history of seismic activities in the past.
The northeast Peruvian Amazon Basin has been identified as a high biodiversity area dominated by primary forest. There have been a few scientific expeditions that have been able to record biological and physical information on a small area of the blocks. Therefore, to adequately evaluate the habitats which the seismic will impact, good coverage and extensive sampling of significant habitats are required.
In addition, the area of geological interest is located in a sector where little population exists and rivers are narrow and seasonally highly variable. This means that access to the area is very limited and should be carefully planned as all logistic support would have to be aerial and fluvial with its limitations regarding loads, weather, and minimization of impacts.
Under this scenario, two large field campaigns were planned incorporating biological, physical, and social scientists together with local community "experts?? who would stay in the field for periods of 30 days. These had to be supported by in-field catering, camping and medical support and a medical evaluation procedure.
This paper describes how a suitable health, safety, environmental, community relations and contingency plan was prepared. It identifies key risks and how these were prevented or mitigated, including planning, inspection, training, and supervision. Finally, the paper presents the key metrics associated with the operation.
The 2D Seismic Project in Blocks 123, 124 and 129 is located in the north-eastern region of Peru's Amazon forest; between the provinces of Maynas and Loreto, in the Loreto Region. The project area is characterized by low-relief hills in Block 129 and extensive alluvial terraces in Blocks 123 and 124. The zone houses a great variety of ecosystems, including floodable ecosystems, such as aguaje palm swamps and firm ground ecosystems such as hill forests and terraces. Blocks 123 and 124 contain part of the Pastaza wetlands complex, considered to be the most extensive in the Amazon region. The climate is tropical, hot, and very humid; there are no dry months. The hydrography consists of a dense drainage system comprised of the headwaters of rivers and small streams, which are not suitable for navigation, or meandering rivers that are navigable in certain sectors only.
Its hydrographic, altitudinal and physiographic features make Block 129 one of the most inaccessible areas of this part of Peru's Amazon region, and this is reflected in the scanty or nil presence of human settlements here; it is also an area whose biophysical systems are balanced and in a good state of conservation. In Blocks 123 and 124, there are villages on the river banks; nevertheless this is an inaccessible, remote area. Malaria is also endemic here1.
Preventing and Controlling Endemic Diseases in Amazon Region were identified as the most important action of the work environment. This project was implemented during the URUCU-COARI-MANAUS pipeline construction as a model project to be improved in Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) practices. After discussions with management and other stakeholders, several teams of prevention agents were trained for the project's development. Actions were taken to import HSE knowledge and training to all on site personnel indicated by contractors. The main focus of the actions was on worker's immunization and workplaces fumigation necessary for the project improvement. The validation of the training and implementation of actions was closely monitored by the Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Petrobras teams and by the stakeholders. There were 9.000 workers in the middle of Amazon forest during the construction and no endemic diseases infected them. There were 499 confirmed cases of Malaria in workers; however, all of these workers were contaminated before workplaces entrances, ratifying the project's control success. The implementation of this project resulted in one hundred percent (100%) of workers immunized for Yellow
Fever, Tetanus, and Hepatitis A and B. During construction, the incidence of Malaria in surrounding communities decreased around thirty percent (30%). Project benefits' include lower accidents rates, because the Brazilian legislation considers as accident, the appearance of endemic diseases in workers, and several new water treatment in surrounding communities in order to prevent water transmissible diseases which are very common in Amazon Region. This project resulted in trained of experts among local, which are now capable of preventing and controlling endemic diseases.
The current best practice for driving scoring is a simple Red, Amber, and Green (RAG) report. Our industry has pioneered much progress in land transport safety using the RAG scoring system and driver monitors - it served us well. But the coaching that management can provide through the RAG scoring is limited to the parameters that make up the score. For a complete understanding of driver behavior, the scoring system should take into account more sources of data: speed with respect to the current speed limit (speed by street), speed with respect to the vehicle type (speed by truck), the frequency of activation of the OEM safety systems (ABS, Traction Control, Lane Departure Warning) if installed, fatigue warnings and fitness for duty, journey characteristics, weather and road hazards, and more. We submit it is possible to understand and effectively coach drivers on a much deeper level with about the same amount of time and effort used in the current RAG best practice.
In this paper, we propose a next-generation best practice scoring framework for understanding and coaching at-risk driving behavior. The goal of this new algorithm is to rank drivers "apples to apples" with respect to safety even though their driving world is an "apples to oranges" world. The best practice will adapt to various vehicle types and installed safety equipment such as ABS, traction control, and stability control. It will provide a framework wherein key driving performance metrics such as speed by street can be seamlessly substituted with less-effective top-speed-only metrics. It shall be independent of the manufacturer of the driver monitor. And most importantly, the framework shall provide managers and HSE professionals with more analytical insight.
We analyze real driving histories of oilfield service trucks to explore the strengths of the proposed algorithm. Examples include safe, at-risk, and risky driver histories with long and short driving hours logged on various equipment. By comparing and contrasting analysis with the RAG method, the reader will understand the insight gained into driving behavior and the subsequent opportunities to take driving coaching to the next level.
The Red, Amber, and Green Report
The Land Transportation Safety subcommittee of the International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP) is a source of thought leadership in our industry. The depth and breadth of information and best practices offered through their website is astounding. It is our intention to only augment their recommendations with respect to driver scoring. We think the recommendations made are well thought out and of high quality.
During a full scale test of a freefall lifeboat on a permanent production installation offshore Norway in June 2005, weaknesses in the superstructure was experienced. The lifeboat had been type approved by Norwegian authorities, based on design and testing requirements in international codes. As a result of the discovery, The Norwegian Oil Industry Association - OLF, on behalf of its member companies, initiated a full investigation of all 16 freefall lifeboat types on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). During a four year programme of investigations, tests and analysis, several weaknesses have been disclosed. The outcome of the Norwegian Lifeboat project (LBP) has lead to proposed remedial actions for existing lifeboats and the development of a new standard for future freefall lifeboats. The project has been carried out in co-operation with unions, lifeboat manufacturers and authorities. It has been a unique life boat review project, and has reduced the risk of a potential evacuation situation offshore.
The result applies to design and operation of freefall lifeboats in offshore areas world wide.
The reports resulting from the project can mainly be divided into three topical groups; strength of superstructure and hull, impact on the human body from acceleration forces, and positive headway immediately after water entry. As regards existing freefall lifeboats, it has been necessary to reinforce the superstructure of 140 lifeboats and to develop new seats with 5-point seat belts. In certain weather conditions it is recommended to take operational precautions when there is a risk of excessive acceleration forces or a risk that existing boats do not have sufficient positive headway. A new navigational tool has also been developed. The results of the studies and tests carried out have been documented in a number of reports, available on request.
Additional project activities, not included in the initial scope, has been to study launching arrangements for evacuation means in general, as well as specific challenges for conventional launchable lifeboats. The main parts of the latter studies have been carried out within a project initiated by, and paid by, the Norwegian Ship owner Association. The results of the studies of the two additional areas, have been documented in separate reports.
The main Norwegian offshore unions have made important contributions throughout the project
The main project, as well as the part on launching arrangements, and additional studies on launchable lifeboats, has been financed by the oil & gas companies on the NCS.
Kuwait Oil Company is the premier oil & gas Company in the Gulf region involved in exploration and production of oil & gas reserves. The Company established 2030 vision to increase the production capacity by two folds. The also established an intergrated health, safety and environmental management system (HSMES) to achieve 2030 targets in a sustainable manner. The company faces many challenges in implementation of HSEMS. One of the main challenge is the diverse workforce. The company engages number of contractors, who in turn employees Workforce from more than 65 countries around the World. The workforce are highly diverse in nature and comes with different background, different languages, different skill set and it is altogether big challenge for the Company to achieve HSE (Health Safety & Environment) targets. The company adopts variety of methods in implementing the HSE Management by involving this diverse workforce. The speaker is involved in this process and played a key role. The presentation will share Company experience in achieving HSE targets under diverseworkforce. This is part of the best practices sharing among the global HSE community.
Skin problems, resulting from heat, are mainly caused in field workers through long periods of exposure to sun rays. In operational fields, there can be times when the local temperature will exceed 30°C, provoking an increase in body temperature that leads to significant changes in the skin (i.e., increase in perspiration, dermatitis, and eczemas), which can affect the quality of life and performance in the company's workers. In addition to skin irritation, excessive exposure to the sun can also cause cornea problems and can potentially lead to dehydration after the journey.
In addition to heat stress, employees working in excessively cold working environments can experience cold stress, which can potentially lead to hypothermia. To combat these stresses, an epidemiological surveillance system for employees exposed to extreme temperatures has been developed. This system allows companies to analyze and apply operational controls to minimize heat and cold stress.
Even though it is difficult to predict who will be affected by heat or cold stress and when, companies realize that certain environmental factors can affect an individual's response to heat or cold (i.e., ambient air temperature, radiant heat, air movement, conduction, and relative humidity).
Espinosa, Beatriz N. (PETROBRAS) | Azevedo, Ricardo Santos (PETROBRAS) | Turazzi, Ernani (Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.) | Glitz, Alexandre Guilherme (PETROBRAS) | Veloso, Luiz Eduardo Guerra (PETROBRAS) | Lacerda Filho, Milton Carneiro (Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.) | Bonaldo, Nivea Cristina (Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.)
An integrated energy company, which operates in Brazil and in 27 different countries, which produces 2.4 million boed and with 55800 employees depends upon contractors for a wide range of its activities. Successful completion of contractor work is highly conditioned to an integrated Environment Health and Safety (EHS) management. In 2001 the Company started reformulating its HSE Management System and set 15 Corporate Guidelines. One of these Guidelines is related to acquisition of services, which has a very important role for HSE performance, because of the large number of contractors. This guideline is subdivided into requirements that include HSE aspects in all stages of the contracting process, in a structured and integrated manner. These stages start with the specification of HSE requirements that count with the inclusion of the companies in the vendor list, depending on the risk involved in the scope to be executed, until the final evaluation of the contract.
The inclusion of new HSE requirements in its contracting process has contributed to the improvement of the quality of HSE management system and performance of Brazilian and International companies with which it deals. It is worth mentioning that the Company influences, direct or indirectly, about 30000 companies. Since 2001, five annual meetings involving the President, the Board of Directors and contracted companies' leaders were held to spread HSE policies and guidelines and communicate the new requirements. Each annual meeting involved the participation of the leaders of the 500 main contractors.
With this process the Company expects to expand HSE value involving contractors; standardize relationship with contractors; improve HSE performance and reduce losses caused by incidents.
The workforce Lost Time Injuries Frequency in 2008 was 0.59 (per million hours worked), almost 5 times less than 2001 and below the industry average. The Fatal Accident Rate (per 100 million hours worked) was 6 times smaller in the same period. In the last 7 years, oil spills were substantially reduced reaching during this period a maximum of 530 m3, one of the lowest records of the oil industry.
The inclusion of the new requirements promoted the implementation of a structured HSE Management System by the contracted companies, resulting in a higher commitment to social and environmental responsibility and significant results related to accident prevention in these companies.
1 - Introduction
Continuous improvement in safety and environmental performance is a goal for most all companies in the energy industry. The range of problems involved presents special challenges for a large international oil and gas company. An integrated energy company, ("the Company??) which operates in Brazil and in 27 different countries, dealing with exploration, production, refining, commercialization, transportation and distribution of oil & gas products, is undertaken numerous initiatives that are contributing to the improvement in its Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) performance. It is ranked 6th world's largest oil & gas Company by PFC Energy 50's ranking. The Company produces 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 55800 employees and about 260000 contractors.