The Super Giant Largest Gas Field in the world, South Pars, is located in the Persian Gulf Waters between Iran and Qatar offshore. The E&P activities started in 1998 are based on Assaluyeh, the nearest area on the northern Persian Gulf coast to the South Pars Gas Field. In addition, there are already 5 Petrochemical Complexes in the area, which will increase to 25 complexes according to official government reports. These activities and complexes have converted Assaluyeh, a previously rural, undeveloped area into an industrial zone, which contributes more than 40% of Iran's Natural Gas Capacity, and is expected to raise its share to more than 50% in the near future. Despite many efforts done by the government to develop and extend infrastructures, the Assaluyeh district is faced with such issues related to sustainable development and social responsibility as severe environmental pollution, lack of education and health facilities for indigenous people, migration, unemployment, drug abuse, etc. The impact of industrial activities and air /water pollution on the archaeological area, Siraf, and sensitive mangrove area in the Nayband protected Bay are other issues to be addressed.
This paper analyses the current strategy of CSR programs and budget distribution approach in the problem definition, approval, implementation, and supervision. A number of parameters which affect the effectiveness of CSR projects in Assaluyeh are also presented and discussed.
Keywords: Iran, Assaluyeh, CSR, host community
Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are estimated to account for $1 of every $3 spent of workers compensation costs. This accounts for more than $15 to $20 billion in direct costs such as medical bills. In addition to CTDs, computer users may also experience eyestrain, back pain and many other medical problems.
The increased prevalence of CTDs associated with video display terminals and the work environment has been well documented. The problem of CTDs continues to plague business as both a medical issue and performance issue. In the US alone, CTDs account for 5% of non-fatal injuries.
The relationship between computer usage and musculoskeletal complaints continues to be soft, while workers increasingly complain of pain and discomfort with computer usage. Physical and psychosocial work exposures have been shown to be risk factors for low-back pain and neck and upper limb symptoms, with CTS excluded (Aas et al. 2005; Bongers et al. 2006; van Rijn et al. 2009a, 2009b).
The program's experience indicated that over the past 5 years, the number of office-based worker ergonomic illnesses has been fairly constant with all workplace related injuries/illnesses reflecting a slight increase in the rate from ~3% to ~5%. The overall illness severity (measured in days away from work) has been consistent over this same period (~10% of workplace related office ergonomic illnesses resulted in days away form work). The data indicated the primary medial diagnosis for these musculoskeletal upper limb disorders included carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), tendonitis, and tenosynovitis. The body parts impacted by these
illnesses were hands/fingers approximately 65%, arms 25%, and shoulders/neck 01%. Many of these illnesses were experienced by our office based workers whose tasks includes frequent interface with computers and repetitive use of computer input devices.
A recent review of a major oil and gas company office ergonomic program prompted management to request the medical department assistance to review the corporate office ergonomic program to ensure office based activities are performed in a manner thereby reducing or eliminating stress, strain and injury /illness. An inter-professional team was assigned the task to implement the program. The objective of the program was to develop a template and toolkit to provide consistent criteria for additional intervention and a prioritized set of intervention options and guidelines to help supervisors and managers. The corporate process would define the requirements to ensure office safety and consistency in application.
This paper reports on the experience of implementing a worksite-based ergonomic program, the essential components of the program, and lessons learned for a more effective system-wide project approach.
Keywords: Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Worksite, Ergonomics, Self Assessment Guide, Office Ergonomics (OE)
Velez, Peter (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Clark, James (ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company) | Lerch, William (ExxonMobil) | Johnsen, Hanne Grieff (Statoil Hydro) | Dickins, David (IPIECA) | Osikilo, Yvette
This review paper outlines past and upcoming activities undertaken by the oil industry on prevention and preparedness for oil spills on ice. It is envisaged that a best practice guidance document which clearly states the consensus view of the oil industry on this issue will be produced and disseminated in the near future.
In recent decades, there has been strong growth in exploration and production activities in ever more remote, environmentally sensitive and potentially challenging places, including the Arctic. The risk of oil spills perceived by the public in these areas is therefore heightened. There can be technical challenges and regulatory issues involved in the detection and recovery of oil in ice.
The oil industry actively promotes the prevention of spills in cold weather areas due to the difficulties associated with response, but the importance of readiness to respond to spills in these regions when possible is also recognised. Numerous projects are thus being undertaken by oil companies as well as other organisations either independently, through Joint Industry Projects or as part of an industry association to enhance spill response capabilities in remote and challenging regions.
The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP) have taken steps to address the issue by assembling a task force to coordinate the efforts of the oil industry in Arctic activities, including developing preparedness to respond in extreme weather conditions. The IPIECA Oil Spill Working Group (OSWG), working closely with the Industry Technical Advisory Committee (ITAC), is also assessing these issues and will help lead efforts to improve oil spill response capacity.
A joint committee comprising representatives from OGP, IPIECA, ITAC and other key partners will be formed in 2009 to review the work done by the oil industry on prevention and response to oil spills in ice, identify remaining gaps in industry preparedness, and prioritize identified issues.
This paper will contribute to knowledge in working in extreme environments.
This paper reports the results achieved by a Health Promotion Program in Oil Company during the year 2008. The implementation of this program begun in 2003 and involved a multidisciplinary team. Over the years it benefited from strong participation of supervisors of the operational area.
Companies are already aware that promoting health and quality of life for employees is a guaranteed investment in both - in the medium and long term. Small quantitative advances in the area of health promotion can cause a significant impact if we are to consider that the change of lifestyle of an employee affects his colleagues and his family to make healthy choices too. Thus the Health Promotion Program aims to encourage the workforce to adopt healthier habits and life style changes.
Results, Observations, and Conclusions:
The consolidation of many ideas occurs from partnerships and multipliers. This report presents the actions proposed and implemented in the year 2008, by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physical educators, dance teacher and yoga teacher, nutritionists, doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, social workers and psychologists. Collective and individual actions wewr promoted throught the year in order to stimulate all the workforce to adopt healthy dietary habits and behaviors, including: immunization, procedures for sanitary control of food and water treatment for domestic use, labor gymnastics daily practice, approach and treatment of smoking and drinking habits, competitions of desserts, salads, integral biscuit, healthy snacks, light and diet desserts recipes and promotion of leisure and sports activities.
Significance of Subject Matter
The Health Promotion Program helped to build a culture of health promotion by promoting Leisure, Health, Education, Food and Healthy Active Lifestyle. Well informed employees who are aware that their behavior may determine the greater or lesser risk of falling ill are certainly more healthy, productive, and possibly happier.
Cardozo Feijó, Sirgiane V. (Repsol Brazil S.A) | Carvalho, Paulo Pereira (Repsol Services Co) | Rocha, Gustavo (Repsol Brasil S.A) | Lima, Gilson Brito Alves (Universidade Federal Fluminense) | de Souza, Jose Carlos (HSE & Quality Consultoria e Treinamento LTDA)
Due to the considerable time lost, resources and investments and negative environmental and health impacts, oil companies have developed techniques and methodologies for accidents prevention and analysis caused by unsafe behaviors in the work environments. The companies therefore are connecting its Integrated Management Systems to the Safety process focusing on the human behavior with the main objective of defining procedures to avoid accidents occurrence. The evaluated Company is implementing the Integrated Management System of its activities, based on the accidents prevention concept with focus on the human behavior. Following this direction this work presents an analysis of one of the evaluated Company corporate tools, adopted for the accidents prevention work and details its concepts and objectives. This tool has the main objective of making the workers understand the reason why they developed the unsafe behavior and allows that the professional reaches, together with the observer, the conclusion of which would be the safest way to perform the task, preserving his integrity and the others one'.
Key-Words: Preventive observations, Safety behaviour, Behaviour management.
The companies are more and more looking the results maximization, in way to join value for all their "stakeholders", seeking for the excellence in all of the areas that compose its business.
In this context, the companies that act in areas that involve high technological risks, as in the petroleum and gas segment, are more susceptible at the confront with difficulties in the success obtaining in this search, due to the accidents risks inherent to its activities.
The Ormen Lange gas processing facility at Nyhamna in Norway treats gas and condensate produced from the Ormen Lange gas field in the Norwegian Sea. Condensate is exported from the plant via tanker, while gas is exported via subsea pipeline to the UK where it fills 20% of UK natural gas needs. From the start, the intention was to build and operate a plant with minimal impact to the sensitive coastal environment in which it is located. With few exceptions, with respect to discharges and emissions, noise, light, emergency planning, risk management and environmental monitoring, the plant has operated from start-up well within compliance with the very detailed and demanding environmental requirements relative to any comparable facility in a highly regulated industry.
Subsea completed wells at a seawater depth of 850m produce to the plant onshore via a 120km pipeline. Slug catchers at the plant reduce the velocity of the flow and begin separation of gas, condensate and water. Further processing includes the reclaiming of mono-ethylene glycol, treatment to meet gas export specification, recompression of the gas to the export pipeline and transfer of the condensate to ships. Concurrent with operations, research and development of new technology to enhance production from the field is carried out at the onshore site.
The plant operates without the need for operation of the flare or pilot except under emergency conditions. Process water is treated in a bioreactor to meet strict discharge specifications in a populated, coastal area. Apart from the use of diesel to test emergency fire pumps and electricity from the hydro-electric powered national grid, the majority of the plant's energy needs are provided by heat generated by burning less than 0.5 percent of the incoming gas to the plant.
This paper describes the environmental standards governing operation of the Nyhamna plant and the challenges encountered in achieving compliance with these standards. These include technological challenges to measure, monitor and minimize discharges and emissions, studies on possible impacts on the varied marine and terrestrial environments and ongoing efforts to increase energy efficiency of plant operations.
Land transport-related activities continue to be the most hazardous activities performed in the oil and gas industry year on year. This is reflected in the International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP) yearly safety-performance indicators report, in which vehicle incidents are cited as the single biggest cause of fatal accidents. Much has been done to improve the motor vehicle crash rate (MVCR) by addressing vehicle technical safety standards, implementing a journey management (JM) process, providing driver training, implementing driver improvement monitors, and working on the behavior of drivers. Among these listed key control measures, the JM process is often poorly or inconsistently implemented, resulting in accidents that could have been otherwise prevented. Too frequently, best practices are not implemented universally or are dropped because of a lack of situational understanding. Over time, internally managed processes have a tendency to degrade.
This paper presents the learnings from an oilfield services company's introduction of a web-based journey management application that was developed to promote a consistent and standardized process flow for creating a trip, assessing the risks of the trip, approving the trip, and monitoring the trip before finally closing the trip. Additional benefits of such an electronic JM approach include the capability to more easily measure and monitor deviations from a company's JM standard and the visibility to enforce accountability during the journey approval process.
Description of the Proposed Paper:
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and the primary component of natural gas and minimizing methane emissions creates both environmental and commercial benefits. Offshore production platform air emissions have been studied and characterized in detail by the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS)1, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program has gathered information on methane emission reduction technologies and practices applicable to these facilities. This paper analyzes and summarizes methane emission volumes and sources from offshore production platforms, outlines mitigation technologies and practices, and provides a methodology for conducting full cost-benefit economic analyses to prioritize mitigation actions to yield the maximum environmental benefits at the lowest cost. The information presented can help companies better understand emissions from their offshore facilities and provide guidance they can use to optimize their own operations.
Worldwide offshore oil and gas production operators can use this approach to improve their current methane emissions inventories and identify mitigation technologies and practices that could be used to reduce emissions at existing facilities or be considered in the design of new platforms as a way to minimize or prevent potential methane emissions.
Results, Observations, and Conclusions:
MMS provides a significant body of knowledge about overall operations and methane emissions from offshore oil and natural gas production platforms. New research and data gathering was utilized to develop a comprehensive analysis of methane emissions from individual platform operations. In doing so, this information was synthesized for the first time in a comprehensive way to identify mitigation technologies and practices that could be applied to the most significant emission sources. Marginal abatement cost curve analyses were then developed to prioritize mitigation actions. This analysis indicated that up to 85% of an individual platform's methane emissions can be reduced cost-effectively through replacement of centrifugal compressor wet seals with dry seals; routing vent sources such as storage tanks, dehydrators, and pig launcher to a vapor recovery system; and implementing a directed inspection and maintenance program to target fugitive emissions.
Significance of Subject Matter:
Optimizing platform design to reduce methane emissions contributes climate change benefits, given methane's role as a greenhouse gas, and also enhances operational safety on offshore platforms. These pillars of environmental and safety benefits, along with economic benefits of conserving and utilizing a valuable clean energy source, contribute to overarching principles of corporate social responsibility.
The process of exploration and production (E&P) in the oilfield typically generates large volumes of drilling fluids and cuttings that must be properly managed. Cuttings reinjection, thermal desorption, stabilization, landfill disposal and other techniques have been used to mitigate potential hazards from drill cuttings and used drilling mud. These methods have been historically favored methods of treatment from a regulatory perspective. However, land treatment avoids hauling drilling mud and cuttings long distances to disposal sites, allows on-site mitigation and natural attenuation of potential hazards, and promotes waste minimization.
When properly applied, land application is an excellent technique to protect surface and groundwater supplies.
Globally, common concerns about potential environmental damage from drill cuttings and fluids continue to drive research, technology and regulations with the goals of beneficial reuse and decreased footprints in oil and gas operations. Global trends for the introduction of new technology and the development of regulatory approaches are examined along with a critical review of the scientific research used to support these standards. Additionally, this paper contrasts and summarizes the current regulatory and management practices in active onshore oilfields.
Results and information collected from this research are compiled onto an interactive site which is accessible to those interested parties in the industry as a reference tool.
Industry sharing of knowledge and practices contributes to including environmentally protective standards and new technologies in the development of future regulations in all parts of the globe to protect our onshore resources. This information can aid key stakeholders to reach a higher level of understanding regarding the current state of onshore drilling waste management.
"The right person in the right place doing the right job??
Managers selecting health personnel for projects and operations are often not aware of the capability required for each role or the roles required, with the expectation that health professionals are already trained and therefore capable. However, training does not always equate to safe and competent practice and standards differ across the World. To address health capability, BP's health function developed a project to assure capability globally within BP.
• Each health role was defined and profiled using global academic and professional bodies curricula and in wide consultation internally and externally regarding job requirements.
• Role profiles contained pre-requisite competencies, core responsibilities, accountabilities and sphere of influence over 3 levels - inexperienced, experienced and expert practitioners.
• Health competencies were determined for each discreet role and proposed for other roles such as Project managers and HSE managers as the informed purchasers and managers of health services.
• Role profiles were incorporated into HR and recruitment templates, health provider contracts and the internal competency assessment tool.
• A number of tools were developed to assess capability gaps globally.
• A learning and development framework was devised per health role including behavioural skills
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLAN
Capable health professionals are vital to a company's performance and reputation. Utilising many years of professional experience within and outside the organisation, tools were developed to define and identify gaps in capability and resourcing globally and a plan formulated to address any gaps.
HR and organisational capability functions and business segment leads were fully involved in the process and endorsed its application.
The plan now is to continue to assure competent and safe practice utilising the role profiles, competency online tool and functional mentors and provide global L&D opportunities to address any competency gaps.