Oseberg Sør is an oil production and drilling platform, located at the Oseberg field in the North Sea. Since the start-up of the platform in 2000 we have achieved an excellent development in our safety records over the last years of operation. We have been operating for over 5 years without any injuries that have led to absence from work.
There are also very few, and none severe, personal injuries without absence.
Our M value = "Working condition based injuries?? Have also shown a similar development.
To achieve these excellent results, we have been working systematically with all aspects of safety at the platform. Due to this the Oseberg Sør Platform was nominated and won the President Safety Award from Hydro ASA for 2004 in competition with all Hydro plants worldwide.
In this paper I will point out some of the factors I believe are the most important reasons for our very high safety figures.
I will start by giving you some facts about the platform. Then I will present our management philosophy and how we are practising it. Further I will explain how we have managed to develop a safe, secure workplace and what we have done to achieve this. There are no magic formulas, but we strongly believe that if people are happy at work, proud of their workplace, feel safe at work and look after their workmates, they will also work more safely.
Here we can see the location of Oseberg Sør compared with the other Hydro installations within the Oseberg oil field.
The platform is situated out at sea, some 130 kilometres from Bergen, with many other platforms in the visible distance.
Here are some figures and capacities of the platform. The platform was completed in 2000, and stands on a steel jacket at a depth of 110 metres. It is a combined drilling and production platform and has one of Hydro's most modern drilling rigs. The platform has a processing plant with single-step separation, with gas and water injection. The partially stabilised crude oil is then exported to Oseberg A. It has a production capacity of 94.000 barrels pr. day.
Hydrocarbon production generates aqueous effluents that may contain traces of either hydrocarbon or chemical products which have to be eliminated according to regulations and to the operator's policy, to reduce the potential impact of their discharge on the environment. Quantity of water produced with crude oil increases as fields are getting older. Watery effluents have to be treated by specially designed installations to comply with both regulations and technical requirements. The disposal of the aqueous effluents may be done by various means: dedicated water disposal wells, injection wells (as part of a re-injection system for pressure maintenance), disposal in the water column, at sea for offshore sites or disposal to an onshore water system (lakes, rivers, etc) for onshore sites.
The paper will present the approach taken by TOTAL to significantly reduce the quantity of hydrocarbons discharged in surface from produced waters from its existing installations (both onshore and offshore) already equipped with treatment facilities to cope with more stringent performance standards, at best cost.
It will describe the methodology and the main techniques used, and present the results obtained in several different cases such as: debottlenecking, lack of efficiency of existing equipment, stabilized emulsion, onshore-offshore sites, and so on.
Measuring the "Risk Perception Index?? of individuals could provide a step change from the current plateau in HSE performance. By taking into account each individuals ability to detect, assess and react to hazardous situations and their knowledge and willingness to follow rules and procedures we may more effectively select personnel requiring non-technical skills training, then test its effectiveness and gauge the necessity for and effectiveness of existing hazard controls.
In this study "Risk Perception Index?? was measured in a computer virtual reality simulation of the working environment. Seventy-two participants were immersed into a realistic scenario where they focussed on completing a task. Risk stimuli were initially presented in subtle ways, then more apparently, to detect the participant's degree of risk perception each participant's reaction to the stimuli was recorded and scored. 6% of the participants demonstrated excellent risk perception by "stopping the job?? when they were uncertain. 33% of the participants demonstrated good risk perception by following rules. 38% of the participants initially demonstrated good risk perception then broke rules when put under additional time pressure but interpreted cues and went back to following rules. 23% of the participants broke rules, then failed to respond to cues and endangered themselves.
It is expected that a knowledge of "Risk Perception Index?? will assist in the reduction of incidents and accidents where root causes include 'poor risk assessment'.
This paper addresses the PetroSkills route to develop and build HSSE competence in staff, including:
Structure and management of staff competence
The economic justification
The nature and function of Competence Maps
The contents of the HSSE competence maps
Creating Job Competence Profiles
Assessing personal competences
Developing and Approving Learning Events to fill competence gaps
Developments in HSSE competence
Linkage to National / International accredited training
"PetroSkills??™ was created by BP, Shell, and OGCI to provide training high quality, business-relevant, technical competency development. This alliance now includes, Saudi Aramco, Halliburton, Occidental, Unocal, ConocoPhillips, Chevron, REPSOL-YPF, Trinidad & Tobago Institute of Technology and John M. Campbell & Company. Marathon & Nexxen are also licensees. As members of PetroSkills, these organizations work together to create and continually improve a common competency based development program that spans the petroleum industry. One unique aspect of PetroSkills is that operators, not service companies, lead the effort through participation on an industry board. The aim is to proactively manage competency development and provide training across the industry in a cost effective manner in all parts of the globe.
Significance of Subject Matter
Over the last decade greater complexity and expansion in our facilities has progressed, yet maintenance of the skills and staff development has over the same period been in decline.
The "Big Crew Change?? of staff reaching retirement is upon us and we need to know what skills we require to run the business.
The costs associated with taking a person from their job and sending them on training courses justifies raising staff capabilities through more blended and workplace learning.
Become the world leader in the provision of quality, business-relevant learning programs that span all Oil & Gas Industry technical processes. "From prospect development to the refinery??.
Objectives of the alliance are to:
Provide the highest quality, business relevant program that spans all technical processes, and gives management assurance they have the skilled people they need to maximize asset value.
Offer added value to employees via courses that are new, broad, or fill gaps, and that give them the ability to perform and be able to prove it.
Increase the availability of courses in both the number of offerings and the number of delivery locations, thereby delivering competencies at the lowest total cost.
Lower internal training costs by reducing administrative burdens, improving economies of scale, and/or eliminating marginal courses.
Ensure that instructors are the best available.
Develop, and continuously improve PetroSkills competency maps and progression trees; Continue to align competency maps with corporate E&P business goals.
Share knowledge of learning and development technologies among member organizations.
All of the above with perceived industry needs and the specific needs of the PetroSkills member organizations.
Shell companies have a systematic approach to health, safety, security and environmental management in order
to achieve continuous performance improvement. To this end, Shell companies manage these matters as critical business activities, set standards and targets for improvement, and measure, appraise and report performance externally. We continually look for ways to reduce the environmental impact of our operations, products and services.
Shell has, over the years, built up a comprehensive suite of Health, Safety, Security and Environment (HSSE) courses for its employees and contractors. These are mainly classroom courses, managed and delivered by Shell specialists. With the introduction of a new Shell-wide Competence Based Development framework in 2004, the opportunity was taken to rejuvenate the complete HSSE learning portfolio, using the latest learning methods and distribution systems.
Two forces drove the design philosophy -
To make relevant HSSE training available at the right time in the right place at the right cost
To facilitate "real learning?? which takes place when the theory is applied in practice. This happens at the workplace
Advances in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and telematics application were applied to the design and delivery of the new HSSE training.
Basic HSSE awareness learning is supplied as a set of electronic newspapers, delivered daily by e-mail. They are written in simple language, and contain pictures, cartoons and puzzles. They have embedded links to slidepacks and websites. They have a common "red-thread?? case study, and there is a test at the end of each module. These were launched at the start of 2005, and take up has been massive, with excellent feedback.
Advanced HSSE knowledge learning is supplied by a blended learning event, which uses combinations of the most effective learning methodologies. The event is delivered through TeleTOP, an electronic course management system. The heart of each module is three assignments - one to prove understanding, one to show workplace application, and one to challenge and discuss. These assignments are assessed and marked by a facilitator. Networking and best practice sharing is stimulated and documented.
This paper describes the thinking process around and the outcome of the novel design and delivery of HSSE training at Shell.
Shell has, for some years used Tripod Beta in its investigation and analysis for serious incidents. Tripod Beta is a root cause analysis tool, which identifies the underlying causes of failed barriers that set the events in motion to result in the incident.
After reviewing many incident investigations within Shell, it was revealed that the lack of competence of employees at various layers in the organization was one of the major underlying causes of incidents. A comprehensive competence based development framework for all jobs that are critical to HSSE management was set up, and relevant learning modules were developed and implemented.
Shell has had a long history of classroom HSSE training in its exploration and production business, which has been taken up by all of the other businesses, and is well regarded. However these are vulnerable to the normal threats to learning uptake or participation - time, distance, budget and competing priorities. These issues have to be considered when designing new learning events. Bringing the Learner to the Learning was clearly not the answer, so the modules were designed to bring the Learning to the Learner.
These two drivers - the move to a formal HSSE competence development and assurance system and a wish to apply modern learning research and tools to HSSE learning, resulted in the new suite of HSSE learning events which are described in this paper.
This paper provides an overview of the approach used in the ExxonMobil Production Company (EMPC) to achieve an increased understanding of HSE management systems leading to consistent and more effective execution at the business unit and field operating levels.
A suite of standard management systems defined by EMPC specifies ‘what' needs to be done to meet Operations Integrity (i.e., HSE management system) objectives. The following suite of complimentary documents has been developed for each standard management system to increase the effectiveness of each system and to facilitate an understanding and consistent execution at the business unit and field operating levels:
System Summary: communicates system requirements at a high level to individuals other than those directly responsible for developing the system's procedures/tasks.
Business Unit Details: allows those positions directly responsible for the system implementation (i.e., system owner and administrator) to demonstrate how specific required procedures/tasks are being met and where the documentation resides within the organization.
Roles and Responsibilities Matrix: details the specific execution responsibilities of the various positions in the business unit. Sorting of this detailed information by position (e.g., Operations Manager, Site Supervisor, etc.) provides a "Quick Reference Guide?? of execution responsibilities for each position and a means for field level personnel to quickly understand their full range of HSE-related responsibilities.
Verification/Measurement Table and Feedback Plan: provides a format for capturing verifications and measurements related to system performance, and documents the system feedback activities, thereby completing the continuous improvement cycle.
Comprehensive documentation of HSE management systems is necessary but not sufficient for effective execution and sustained performance. Full acceptance and effective execution of HSE management systems at the field level requires additional tools where procedures and tasks are clearly defined, roles and responsibilities are communicated, personnel are adequately trained, performance is measured, and adjustments/improvements are made.
For approximately 15 years the oil and gas industry has developed HSE management systems to mitigate the risk of a major incident. Over the years volumes of written materials in the form of process and procedure manuals have been created to give management some degree of comfort that everything needed to manage the HSE aspects of the business were clearly defined and documented through a series of written process stages or procedure steps that, if followed, would reduce the risk of a catastrophic event.
Once the HSE management system process and procedure manuals were developed, implementation followed which typically consisted of training presentations given in the field locations to explain to the employees (i.e., end users) what they needed to know to do their job with respect to HSE requirements. The management systems were then considered rolled-out and everybody headed back to work. It would be nice if it were that simple. However, by the time this process was duplicated for all of the required management systems and processes/procedures, the end user was inundated with thousands of pages of manuals which tended to gather dust on the shelves. This process can make an HSE management system approach seem overly complex and can actually jeopardize a company's risk reduction efforts.
When the ambition of a zero discharge of harmful components policy was introduced for the offshore oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and the subsequent regulatory demand in Norway for monitoring the marine environment, the need for better monitoring methods and risk assessment tools emerged. Biological marine monitoring and risk assessment require sufficient information on the toxico-kinetic properties of the chemicals and their mechanism of action in the targeted organisms. In addition it is essential to establish quantitative relationships between external dose, internal dose and adverse effects to understand the meaning of the biomarker response. To meet these challenges TOTAL E&P NORGE AS (TOTAL) initiated a research program on biological markers (biomarkers) in 1995 to evaluate their potential to assess and monitor environmental risk associated to offshore E&P discharges. Priority was given to investigate the potential effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in dispersed oil present in produced water discharges as PAH are known to be harmful to organisms.
Biomarkers have been developed for marine crustaceans and fish in different environmental conditions: temperate, tropical and arctic conditions. Both laboratory and field validation studies have been carried out to ensure that operational tools suitable for E&P activities were developed. This allows data analysis and development of more relevant and cost efficient biological marine monitoring programs. The main outcome of these research studies to date is the definition of a set of biomarkers and a methodology suitable to detect and monitor potential effects linked to E&P activities. Ongoing research activities focus upon further refinement of the interpretation of biomarker responses and possible impact on population level as well as using biomarkers as environmental indicators for the general health condition of the ecosystem.
Since the first monitoring was carried out in 1978 thousands of sediment samples have been collected, identifying millions of benthic organisms. This paper summarise and discuss the general practice of the environmental monitoring on the Norwegian, focussing on trend analyses and factors that strengthen the analysis. Examples of trend analysis from Gullfaks and Ekofisk are discussed. The MOD database and requirements to accreditation are powerful tools that strengthen the quality, comparability and trend analyses.
The contribution of subcontractors to oilfield service operations in Mexico has almost doubled over the last five years. Historically, the role of subcontractors was mainly limited to logistical or peripheral activities, but with the growth of integrated projects, they contribute directly to oilfield service operations, including well construction activities. In order to continue overall performance improvements in health, safety, environment, and service quality areas, it is critical to proactively manage interactions with our subcontractors so that risks are systematically identified and adequately controlled.
This paper gives an overview of a subcontractor management initiative, implemented in Mexico during 2004 and 2005 that enhanced the interfaces between a service company and its subcontractors. The initiative defined risk-based subcontractor selection and classification criteria, established clear roles and responsibilities, formalized performance and compliance expectations contractually, and implemented systematic monitoring processes to ensure compliance and evaluate performance. Similarly, specific efforts were made to develop the maturity of quality, health, safety, and environmental (QHSE) systems and the cultures of certain subcontractors by providing assistance, including training and coaching.
Exposures and Impact
Contracting services and buying products have always been strategic components of oil and gas company operations because of the direct and critical impact on project technical performance and economics. Until recently, this dimension has not represented the same criticality for oilfield service companies like Schlumberger who are accustomed to working as contractors. This was largely due to a more limited exposure and a natural tendency to give absolute priority to the commercial and technical relationship with their clients, without necessarily realizing how much their own performance can be influenced by that of their subcontractors.
However, over the last 15 years, a clear tendency to outsource activities has also taken shape in service companies for multiple reasons, such as the focus on core business activities and chain of value, needs for specialized equipment or particular expertise not necessarily available in house, short term needs or increasing flexibility requirements, cost effectiveness, clients or legal requirements, and access to local knowledge. In addition, with the development of integrated projects and turnkey contracts in which oilfield service companies are directly managing the well construction process for their clients, subcontracting part of the contributing activities, the exposure has increased to levels never experienced before.
As an example, 3.2 million work-hours were out sourced by Schlumberger Mexico in 2004 corresponding to 34% of the total work-hours for the same period. For an oilfield service company, typical sub-contracted services include
Logistics: transport of personnel, equipment, products (land, air, water), craning, and lifting
Well construction: drilling, fluids, casing, rig moves, civil works
Consulting, training, expertise, inspection, certification
Construction: bases, workshops, offices
Maintenance and repairs: bases, offices, and vehicles.
Labor: workforce, consultants
Communications: radios, frequency rental
Medical support: doctors, nurses, ambulances
Waste management: transport, treatment, disposal
Rental: bases, houses, equipment and tools, vehicles
The implementation of a global HSE data gathering system has many benefits. Oversight of data quality and and harmonized collection methods must be implemented before full visibility of performance can be realized.
Evaluation of the data can bring insight into relationships such as between years of service and incident frequency and how employees are being injured and what part of the body is most susceptible. All of this information is fairly standard and will help a company improve safety performance. The question then can be asked, "What more can we learn so we can target our interventions???
But many times no hidden special relationships are readily apparent. Is there still value to be realized in the resource of a vast amount of HSE data? Thanks to the inquisitiveness of a senior manager in one of our product service lines (PSL), the answer is yes.
History of HSE Data Collection
As one of the elements of the Y2K problem, Halliburton deployed an enterprise-wide software solution for capturing incident information. This system now contains thousands of incident reports with associated details. The system is also being used, where appropriate, to capture information on incident investigations, as well as behavior-based safety and hazard observations. However, some of the data types are different enough that compiling for correlation is not easy.
While there have been some local efforts to compare data sets, until this project there had not been a regional attempt to bring in and evaluate HSE data from multiple sources.
Problem and Scope of Intervention
The complexity of solutions typically increases as safety performance improves. Within the Cementing PSL, injury rates have declined 68% since 2000 (Fig. 1). Specific programs have been developed and delivered to areas targeting back injuries in an effort to further the progress toward zero incidents.
After evaluating current performance to determine targeted areas for intervention, the Cementing PSL decided to hold HSE workshops with all of the direct and indirect reports at nine locations across the United States and Canada. The global operations manager for cementing asked the Global HSE Information Management Systems group for ideas on what data for the PSL would be useful. The first idea was to simply categorize all of the injuries that could be presented at the workshops. However, there was also a desire to cover other aspects of risk management processes such as near-miss reporting. The ideas for the type of data to cover evolved as the plan was worked out to include not only injury and near- miss data, but also hazard observations, behavior-based performance, and vehicle incidents.
The first obstacle was the abundance of data available for events that have resulted in a loss, relative to leading indicators such as behavior and hazard observations, and near- miss incidents. For example, after an injury occurs, the task the employee was undertaking and what part of the body was injured are determined. It was found that we had never investigated to find out if the efforts made toward upstream preventions were being targeted at the tasks and hazards that actually resulted in injuries.
Since the effects of exposure can only be estimated in these processes, we would have to look at each near miss, each hazard or behavior observation, to make a judgment about the potential effect of exposure if it were to occur. It was determined that 200 of each type of data for each location would be a large enough sample to be representative. This meant that 1,800 entries for each type of data would have to be categorized and analyzed. This led to the idea of letting the workshop participants analyze and categorize the data. As it turned out, this approach had greater benefits than just spreading out the work load.