Measuring the "Risk Perception Index?? of individuals could provide a step change from the current plateau in HSE performance. By taking into account each individuals ability to detect, assess and react to hazardous situations and their knowledge and willingness to follow rules and procedures we may more effectively select personnel requiring non-technical skills training, then test its effectiveness and gauge the necessity for and effectiveness of existing hazard controls.
In this study "Risk Perception Index?? was measured in a computer virtual reality simulation of the working environment. Seventy-two participants were immersed into a realistic scenario where they focussed on completing a task. Risk stimuli were initially presented in subtle ways, then more apparently, to detect the participant's degree of risk perception each participant's reaction to the stimuli was recorded and scored. 6% of the participants demonstrated excellent risk perception by "stopping the job?? when they were uncertain. 33% of the participants demonstrated good risk perception by following rules. 38% of the participants initially demonstrated good risk perception then broke rules when put under additional time pressure but interpreted cues and went back to following rules. 23% of the participants broke rules, then failed to respond to cues and endangered themselves.
It is expected that a knowledge of "Risk Perception Index?? will assist in the reduction of incidents and accidents where root causes include 'poor risk assessment'.
Shell companies have a systematic approach to health, safety, security and environmental management in order
to achieve continuous performance improvement. To this end, Shell companies manage these matters as critical business activities, set standards and targets for improvement, and measure, appraise and report performance externally. We continually look for ways to reduce the environmental impact of our operations, products and services.
Shell has, over the years, built up a comprehensive suite of Health, Safety, Security and Environment (HSSE) courses for its employees and contractors. These are mainly classroom courses, managed and delivered by Shell specialists. With the introduction of a new Shell-wide Competence Based Development framework in 2004, the opportunity was taken to rejuvenate the complete HSSE learning portfolio, using the latest learning methods and distribution systems.
Two forces drove the design philosophy -
To make relevant HSSE training available at the right time in the right place at the right cost
To facilitate "real learning?? which takes place when the theory is applied in practice. This happens at the workplace
Advances in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and telematics application were applied to the design and delivery of the new HSSE training.
Basic HSSE awareness learning is supplied as a set of electronic newspapers, delivered daily by e-mail. They are written in simple language, and contain pictures, cartoons and puzzles. They have embedded links to slidepacks and websites. They have a common "red-thread?? case study, and there is a test at the end of each module. These were launched at the start of 2005, and take up has been massive, with excellent feedback.
Advanced HSSE knowledge learning is supplied by a blended learning event, which uses combinations of the most effective learning methodologies. The event is delivered through TeleTOP, an electronic course management system. The heart of each module is three assignments - one to prove understanding, one to show workplace application, and one to challenge and discuss. These assignments are assessed and marked by a facilitator. Networking and best practice sharing is stimulated and documented.
This paper describes the thinking process around and the outcome of the novel design and delivery of HSSE training at Shell.
Shell has, for some years used Tripod Beta in its investigation and analysis for serious incidents. Tripod Beta is a root cause analysis tool, which identifies the underlying causes of failed barriers that set the events in motion to result in the incident.
After reviewing many incident investigations within Shell, it was revealed that the lack of competence of employees at various layers in the organization was one of the major underlying causes of incidents. A comprehensive competence based development framework for all jobs that are critical to HSSE management was set up, and relevant learning modules were developed and implemented.
Shell has had a long history of classroom HSSE training in its exploration and production business, which has been taken up by all of the other businesses, and is well regarded. However these are vulnerable to the normal threats to learning uptake or participation - time, distance, budget and competing priorities. These issues have to be considered when designing new learning events. Bringing the Learner to the Learning was clearly not the answer, so the modules were designed to bring the Learning to the Learner.
These two drivers - the move to a formal HSSE competence development and assurance system and a wish to apply modern learning research and tools to HSSE learning, resulted in the new suite of HSSE learning events which are described in this paper.
This paper provides an overview of the approach used in the ExxonMobil Production Company (EMPC) to achieve an increased understanding of HSE management systems leading to consistent and more effective execution at the business unit and field operating levels.
A suite of standard management systems defined by EMPC specifies ‘what' needs to be done to meet Operations Integrity (i.e., HSE management system) objectives. The following suite of complimentary documents has been developed for each standard management system to increase the effectiveness of each system and to facilitate an understanding and consistent execution at the business unit and field operating levels:
System Summary: communicates system requirements at a high level to individuals other than those directly responsible for developing the system's procedures/tasks.
Business Unit Details: allows those positions directly responsible for the system implementation (i.e., system owner and administrator) to demonstrate how specific required procedures/tasks are being met and where the documentation resides within the organization.
Roles and Responsibilities Matrix: details the specific execution responsibilities of the various positions in the business unit. Sorting of this detailed information by position (e.g., Operations Manager, Site Supervisor, etc.) provides a "Quick Reference Guide?? of execution responsibilities for each position and a means for field level personnel to quickly understand their full range of HSE-related responsibilities.
Verification/Measurement Table and Feedback Plan: provides a format for capturing verifications and measurements related to system performance, and documents the system feedback activities, thereby completing the continuous improvement cycle.
Comprehensive documentation of HSE management systems is necessary but not sufficient for effective execution and sustained performance. Full acceptance and effective execution of HSE management systems at the field level requires additional tools where procedures and tasks are clearly defined, roles and responsibilities are communicated, personnel are adequately trained, performance is measured, and adjustments/improvements are made.
For approximately 15 years the oil and gas industry has developed HSE management systems to mitigate the risk of a major incident. Over the years volumes of written materials in the form of process and procedure manuals have been created to give management some degree of comfort that everything needed to manage the HSE aspects of the business were clearly defined and documented through a series of written process stages or procedure steps that, if followed, would reduce the risk of a catastrophic event.
Once the HSE management system process and procedure manuals were developed, implementation followed which typically consisted of training presentations given in the field locations to explain to the employees (i.e., end users) what they needed to know to do their job with respect to HSE requirements. The management systems were then considered rolled-out and everybody headed back to work. It would be nice if it were that simple. However, by the time this process was duplicated for all of the required management systems and processes/procedures, the end user was inundated with thousands of pages of manuals which tended to gather dust on the shelves. This process can make an HSE management system approach seem overly complex and can actually jeopardize a company's risk reduction efforts.
The oil and gas industry recognises the important role it plays around the world in fuelling economic development and social progress. It also understands the need to respond to stakeholder concerns, including those related to sustainability, which are of ever-increasing significance. Many oil and gas companies have begun to communicate how these concerns are being addressed by issuing sustainability reports. Given the organisational diversity, scale and complexity of many oil and gas companies, providing report content which is relevant, complete and accurate is a difficult challenge as is choosing performance indicators which allow for consistent and transparent presentation of information. To assist companies across the industry, IPIECA and API have produced oil and gas industry guidance on voluntary sustainability reporting. This paper summarises and describes the guidance, outlining its benefits and flexibility as well as the nature of the challenge which lies ahead.
Oil and gas companies face increasing pressure world-wide related to sustainable development and corporate governance. Stakeholders are increasingly demanding clear and consistent disclosure from the industry on how its most significant risks and issues are being managed.
The oil and gas industry is not alone in facing these challenges. A number of other sectors, from financial services to retailers, face similar pressures. But even though drivers for sustainability reporting are acknowledged by many different sectors, they are acutely felt in the oil and gas industry, due to the economic importance of its products, its links to governments, its activities in developing countries, and its environmental and safety obligations. A host of factors such as these make transparency a particularly important strategic consideration for the industry.
Voluntary reporting has emerged as one important tool in the way companies respond to meet this demand. It has been argued that reporting can enhance business value by building investor confidence and demonstrating risk management, and can improve internal company operations by increasing understanding of these issues and aiding decision-making. From an external perspective, reporting helps strengthen relationships with stakeholders and provides a useful accountability mechanism for disclosing commitments and communicating performance.
The growing interest in sustainability or non-financial indicator reporting, which derives both from this perception of potential benefits as well as the need to respond to stakeholder concerns, is reflected in the emergence of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The GRI provides an international framework that is designed to give generic guidance on voluntary reporting, applicable across different sectors.
Interest in sustainability reporting in the oil and gas industry is evolving, but has its roots in the corporate environmental reporting of the past two decades. A large number of oil and gas companies are now issuing sustainability, corporate citizenship, or social responsibility reports. Research published by the joint International Petroleum Industry Conservation Association (IPIECA) / American Petroleum Institute (API) Corporate Reporting Task Force in 2003, stated that 75% of the companies surveyed (representing 90% of the total market capitalisation of publicly traded oil and gas companies worldwide) issued external reports that included measurements of environmental and safety performance. The research also found that reporting on social issues was growing. It also found that one of the primary concerns of non-governmental organisations in relation to the oil and gas industry is the transparency and consistency of sustainability performance reporting.
The Indoor Emergency Training (INDOOR) is an emergency simulation methodology, consisting of a role-playing game, supported by a mathematical modeling of the accident scenario, associated with visual resources in three dimensions. The INDOOR exercise permits close similarity to the real live emergency simulation with its associated benefits at lower costs.
When water is scarce, its value increases. Produced water is the largest byproduct in oil and gas production and as a field matures, the ratio of water to oil produced increases. Excess produced water is the main reason for abandoning wells, and declaring fields uneconomic. The challenge of produced water is further compounded by water being a valuable resource especially in arid oil producing regions of the world. In dry climates, where easily accessible sources of freshwater are limited, large volumes of freshwater are being used for non-potable uses, such as by the agricultural and industrial sectors. This paper discusses the growing need for produced water reuse, highlights reuse options and gaps, and specifically presents Constructed Treatment Wetlands (CTW) as a technology for the treatment of produced water and the facilitation of water reuse. The Chevron/Cawelo water reuse project and demonstration CTW, located in California's San Joaquin Valley is presented in order to highlight the use of CTWs for the treatment and reuse of produced water. In this dry climate, where the agricultural and petroleum industries co-exist, Chevron provides approximately 450,000 bpd of produced water to supplement the local irrigation supply.
The paper describes a formal programme to assure the competence of engineers and operators working with explosives, radioactive sources and radiation generators.
The programme formalises minimum global competence standards for these safety critical operations and is aimed at ensuring that employees and contractors working with explosives and supervising operations involving radiation sources have the knowledge, skills, experience and personal qualities they need to work safely.
The paper discusses the development of competence standards which will deliver sustained improvements in health, safety and environmental performance. It describes the processes for assessment of a candidate's competence in the workplace and summarises the verification systems in place to ensure that assessment decisions are consistent and that finished portfolios are complete.
The issues which need to be considered when developing a programme of this type, and the problems to be overcome are identified and discussed.
Following the death from malaria of four of its expatriate employees while they were in nonmalarious countries, an oilfield service company developed a targeted, multi¬component malaria prevention program.
The program consists of two levels of malaria training, malaria arrival and departure quizzes, a Malaria Hot Line, and a curative malaria kit (CMK). The cornerstone of the program is the CMK, which contains a diagnostic test that employees can use to diagnose malaria in minutes and standby (emergency) curative medication. Completing training in malaria prevention and using the CMK are mandatory for all employees and dependents living or working in or transiting through any malarious area, even if for only a few hours. The complementary 24/7 Malaria Hot Line was set up by the company to assist employees with questions or problems.
This paper presents the preliminary analysis of employees' responses to a Web-based questionnaire to review the effectiveness of the company-mandated training, CMK, and Malaria Hot Line in preventing illnesses and deaths from falciparum malaria.
Every year, malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects 300 to 500 million people and kills between one and two million, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South America and Southeast Asia.
Among the expatriate population working or living in these malarious areas of the world, malaria is a major occupational illness, responsible for numerous lost days and several deaths within the oil and gas industry every year.
In nonimmune individuals falciparum malaria can kill within a few days if not immediately treated.
Because the symptoms of malaria are not unique—fever, shivering, joint pain, and headache—and they do not occur until 7 to 60 days after infection, malaria is easily misdiagnosed or not properly treated. Most of the expatriate deaths occur not in the malarious country where the disease was transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito but in nonmalarious countries where the infected expatriates have traveled to for work or days off.
In the past, the oilfield service company had at least one death from malaria and numerous near fatalities almost every year.
Four employees died of malaria between 2000 and 2002. All deaths took place outside of the malarious locations where the disease was contracted and in countries where the fatal form of malaria is not endemic. Following these deaths a task force was created within the company with the aim of obtaining and maintaining the goal of zero malaria deaths. The result was development of a malaria prevention program based on the company's comprehensive QHSE Management System. The program provides processes and tools to fulfill the requirements of each of the system's eight elements. Components of the program are two levels of malaria training, malaria arrival and departure quizzes, a set of auditable malaria prevention program guidelines, and two innovative tools not previously used in oilfield malaria prevention: a Malaria Hot Line and a curative malaria kit (CMK).
The malaria prevention program was distributed by the oilfield service company to its international employees and their dependents and to its contractors working in high-malaria-risk areas. Since the prevention program began in early 2003, the service company has not reported a single malaria death within its employee and contractor population.
Obesity is the number one threat to workers' health in the 21st century. It is a contributing factor in many types of cancer and its sequelae make it the top culprit of employee disability. This paper offers medical research findings on appropriate diet and exercise regimens to ameliorate obesity and maintain appropriate body weight on a long-term basis.
A critical driver for business success and a strategic intent of Chevron is operational excellence (OE). OE is defined as "the systematic management of safety, health, environment, reliability, and efficiency to achieve world-class performance??. The Operational Excellence Management System (OEMS) is Chevron's standard approach for achieving this goal. The OEMS consists of three parts: Leadership Accountability, Management System process, and OE expectations.
Chevron is using a process approach to implement OE. For processes to be effective and sustainable, they must be documented and incorporate in their design and operation the following five components:
Purpose, Scope, and Objectives
Resources, Roles, and Responsibilities
Measurement and Verification
The rigor with which each OE process is designed and implemented is based on the organization's risk for that work. In brief, there is a common OE framework (i.e., a set of OE processes each with five components) but the contents of each process are specific to each organization.
Chevron's Corporate OE Review process plays an integral role in OEMS implementation. OE Reviews are designed to assess an organization's ability to meet Chevron's requirements for operational excellence including Leadership Accountability, the Management System process, and OE expectations. The Reviews assess both the design and effectiveness of the processes a unit has in place to meet the OEMS requirements. The key shift in direction is that the OE Reviews now focus on performance (results) and not on compliance.
This paper will describe the process approach methodology used by Chevron to assess OEMS implementation and effectiveness within its operations. Benefits of the process approach compared to traditional conformity auditing will be reviewed. A focus of the discussion will be on the challenges faced by the organization in moving to a process-based management system, including redirection of the internal Corporate OE Reviews. The paper will also illustrate the use of third-party verification to confirm the process meets the intent of both ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 expectations.
In 2002, Chevron took the opportunity of a major merger to reassess the existing HES Management System auditing process. Chevron had recently expanded its HES management model to incorporate the areas of reliability and efficiency. The new process, entitled Operational Excellence (OE) is defined as the systematic management of safety, health, environment, reliability, and efficiency to achieve world-class performance. The Operational Excellence Management System (OEMS) is Chevron's standard framework for achieving this goal. The OEMS provides a common methodology for Chevron's businesses to set expectations, assess their performance against world-class standards and corporate expectations, create and implement plans to improve performance, and monitor and review progress toward achieving objectives.
OEMS consists of three parts: Leadership Accountability, Management System process, and OE expectations. The OE expectations, detailed under 13 elements, are met through processes and procedures put in place by local management. Many expectations are supported by corporate standard OE processes. The OEMS identifies the OE processes that support core processes of the business. The means of achieving the expectations are left up to the individual business units. The goal is to align the management system to the work processes.