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to

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to

GoAppropriate estimation of ice-structure interaction is of great importance in the design of offshore structures in ice-infested regions. The present paper deals with numerical simulations of three-dimensional ice-structure models done under the research project ,"Study on Ice Loads acting on Marine Structures.", planned, by Japan Ocean Industries Association (JOIA) and funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In order to trace ice-failure process against a structure successively, distinct element methods(DEM) have been adapted, taking advantage of their tractability to non-continuous media over standard finite element methods, and PFC (Particle Flow Code) -3D by developed ITASCA, have been investigated. In applying PFC-3D to floating ice-structure interaction modeling, model has been newly added to the original one, the buoyant-spring model to take the variation of buoyancy into consideration. Then, some numerical results, including preliminary simulations of ice ride-up on upward and downward breaking conical structure model, are presented. In addition modified PFC has been tested and examined its applicability to the simulation of failure mode of ice sheet caused by structures and the estimation of ice load against them, con-paring with the results of ice tank test. The conclusion of this study is that the present distinct element code has promise as powerful working tools for ice-structure interaction investigations such as prediction of ice sheet ride-up or push-down to and ice load against sloping structures.

It is generally accepted that for ships and marine structures operating in ice-infested waters, sloping structures are effective in reducing the ice loading because the ride-up ice on their sloped walls breaks into failure under the action of bending moment due to its own weight. The ice loads acting on the sloping structures have so far been estimated mainly by continuum mechanics-based analysis and the principal result is the overall ice loads

ISOPE-I-98-161

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Applicability, Artificial Intelligence, central part simulation experiment, Crack pattern, direction, distinct element simulation, experiment, failure mode, global ice load, ice, ice sheet, ice-structure interaction, Industry, Load, management and information, model, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir simulation, Simulation

SPE Disciplines:

ISOPE-I-98-320

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

The amount of offshore pipeline construction work in Russia, in the Black, Baltic, Barents, Kara and Okhotsk. seas, will reach over 6,000 km, according to the predictions available. On Ag.1 - The Plan of transmission of pipelines through the Black Sea, on fig.2 - The structure of transmission of pipelines through the black Sea. Each of the above-mentioned projects has its own specific features. There are currently various options of the gas pipeline system construction from Russia to Turkey. One of the options is to lay the gas pipeline on the Black Sea bottom. The gas pipeline route crosses the Black Sea at depths reaching 2140 m. This option is characterized by the following specific features: large sea depth; complicated shore configuration, subject to seismic and landslide processes; a large amount of hydrogen sulfide (H_{2}S) in water starting with a depth of 200 m and many others. The main problem of laying pipeline in deep sea water is to avoid pipe buckling due to bending under external pressure and its propaga-tion along the pipeline at great distances. The paper is focussed on the problems of determining the required wall thickness of the offshore pipeline. It provides some data related to the design of pipelines and their stability under combined external pressure and bending in accordance with the methods described in the draft Russian standard for design and construction of offshore pipeline systems. Gas Pipeline Design In designing offshore pipelines capability of transporting larger volumes of the product, it is usual practice to elevate the internal pressure to become comparable to external hydrostatic pressure. The hydraulic calculation on the basis of initial data (pipeline system output: 16 billion cu.m., the offshore pipeline length: 386 km, the input pressure: 25 MPa, the output pressure: 5.4 MPa) has shown that it would be desirable to construct either one line with an internal diameter of 700 mm, or two lines with an internal diameter of 534 mm.

ISOPE-I-98-105

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers > Offshore pipelines (1.00)

For design of a slurred mineral waste retention pond which islocated near the sea-shore, west of Kaohusing fish harbor, Kaohusing city, Taiwan, its storage capacity is related to settling process of sediment which is known as quiescent consolidation which is highly influenced by buoyant force. The one-dimensional finite strain theory has been proved to be superior to conventional Terzaghi''s or Biots consolidation theories. However, comparison between analytical results of 1-D finite strain and field measurement by McVay et al. (1986) indicates that some discrepancies still exit. In this study, a two-dimensional plane strain extension of that consolidation theory is introduced. A governing equation of void ratio is derived and solved by a moving finite element method, in which the geometry is allowed to adjusted. For case study, succeeding theoretical results are verified against McVay''s field measurement and indicates more precise accuracy between them; thus, development of a 2-D plane strain assessment of quiescent consolidation processes is highlighted. INTRODUCTION The phosphate waste clay is the by-product of the benefaction process of the phosphate ore. This phosphate ore (termed "Matrix") occurs in a gravely, clayey sand and contains 113 phosphate, 113 granular materials (sand), and 113 clays. Merely the phosphate is needed as the primary source of phosphorous in inorganic fertilizers. The phosphate waste clay is pumped into large retention ponds and allowed to settle or consolidate (McVay, et aI., 1986). For designing the storage capacity and life cycle of the retention ponds, significant efforts had made to predict the rate of consolidation of the phosphate waste clay subjected to its self-weight and the final height of a retention pond. Proper description of the consolidation behavior would be one of the major abilities processed by the finite strain consolidation theory. It has been proved that the consolidation behavior of soft clays is more precisely descried by the finite strain consolidation theory

ISOPE-I-98-071

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

application, clay, consolidation, consolidation process, coordinate transformation, finite element method, finite element solution, finite strain consolidation theory, hydraulic conductivity, metals & mining, phosphate waste clay, phosphetic waste clay, pore water, reservoir description and dynamics, soil solid, somogyi

Industry:

- Materials > Chemicals (1.00)
- Materials > Metals & Mining > Phosphate (0.74)

This paper intends to show the effect of the water and the interaction of the hydrocraft with the free-surface. Numerical simulation is made to investigate the hydrodynamic effects of a 3-dimensional Wing in Ground Effect (WIG) which moves above the free-surface by means of finite difference techniques. The air flow field around WIG is analyzed by the Marker & Cell (MAC) based method, and the interactions between WIG and the free-surface are studied by showing pressure distributions above the free-surface. In the computations of the free-surface, waves are generated by the surface pressure distribution. The Navier''-Stokes (NS) solver has been employed, in which the nonlinearities in the free-surface conditions are included. For detailed discussion, pressure values (Cp) and lift/ drag ratio are carefully reviewed by changing the height/chord. In the present computations NACAOO12 with a span/chord ratio of 3.0 are treated. Those computations show that the effect of the free-surface is compared to the results in which the free surface is assumed to be a rigid wavy wall. According to (Kwag,1997), which established the background theory for this paper, and now this research postulates that theory and further extends those calculations.

As a potential candidate among high speed crafts, the wing in ground effect(WIG) demonstrates both features of the airplane and the ship. Because it gives us a newer concept of a highly efficient vessel operating over 100 knots. A wing operating 10 close proximity to the ground exhibits a reduction 10 induced drag, which increases the lift/drag ratio. For several decades, this phenomenon has been investigated since It complicates the takeoff and landll1g of an advancing wing craft near the ground (LipPlsch,I964, Lockeed, 19(2). During the 1970s, small experimental WIG vehicles were designed and tested in a coastal sea environment.

ISOPE-I-98-334

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

angle, attack, chord, Computation, condition, distribution, effect, free surface, free-surface case, gradient, Ground Effect, hydrodynamic effect, Japan, marine transportation, non free-surface, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, seismic processing and interpretation, ship, Simulation, surface, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wave, wing

Industry:

- Transportation > Marine (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.88)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.35)

Wave-free floating body forms in shallow water are studied using a wave-free singularity that is made by a source and vertical dipole combination to generate bulbous-shaped two- and three-dimensional bodies. The wave-free floating body is free from wave exciting vertical force in waves, which is equal to having zero radiation damping in heaving oscillation in calm water. Shallow water effects on the body form appear to make the body more slender as the water becomes shallower. Wave exciting forces of the thus obtained body are calculated by the singularity distribution method to verify the wave-free characteristics at the designed wave-number. Variations of body forms in water depths are presented graphically in two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. Experiments are conducted for the models obtained theoretically and the results are discussed in comparison with the theory. They generally agree with the theoretical predictions.

The "wave-free" characteristic of an offshore structure such as a column-footing type or a semi-submersible type is defined as that when the vertical wave exciting force acting on it becomes zero at a certain wave frequency. It is very useful and commonly used for designing an offshore structure having superior motion characteristics in waves. This characteristic was originally known as "the wave-free theory" by Bessho(1961). He obtained theoretical body forms using the wave-free singularities. Some practical bulbous forms are called "Motora form" proposed by Motora and Koyama(1961), and were confirmed through the model experiments. As an extension of Bessho''s theory, Kyozuka and Yoshida (1982) found body forms which become doubly or triply wavefree at a wave-free point. Yamashita(1982) found body forms which become wave-free at two wave frequencies and confirmed them in experiments. The approach using wave-free singularities has infinite variety because they can be linearly combined arbitrarily. They can be applied as one of the solution method of an "inverse problem".

ISOPE-I-98-258

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

In this study, the problem of waves propagating over poro-elastic seabed is studied. The fluid motion is described by the linear wave theory. The poro-elastic seabed is modeled by the Biot theory, and the governing equations of the sixth-order differential equations for the displacements, and the fourth-order differential equation for the pressure are used. The seabed is currently considered infinite. Interfacial boundary conditions at the seabed surface are dynamic pressure and kinematic velocity continuity. In the solution procedure, the fluid motion and the seabed response are assumed to be periodic. General solution forms for the wave motion and the poro-elastic seabed can be derived. The coefficients in the solutions can be determined from the boundary conditions, and a dispersion equation for water waves is also obtained. The present analytic model can be simplified to the ones developed by Hsu and Jeng (1994), and by Tsai (1995). The present analytic solutions compare favorably well with experimental results by Yamamoto et al (1978) for both fine and coarse sands. Using the present analytic solution, effects of the porosity and stiffness of the elastic seabed on the wavelength are studied. Energy dissipation of propagating waves over poro-elastic seabed, and pressure variation along the water depth, can be estimated. INTRODUCTION The study of waves propagating over porous seabed has quite of its tradition. So far, it can be at least classified into two categories. One represented by Chen, Huang and Song (I997) using general equations for the coupled waves and poro-elastic seabed, and the other represented by Seymour, Jeng and Hsu (1996) using higher order differential equations for soil displacements and porous pressure. The two approaches have their benefits and disadvantages, and are therefore worthy of describing them.

ISOPE-I-98-092

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Wave-structures interactions are controlled by complex hydrodynamic mechanisms, and their optimization is consequently complicated. In the case of shore protection breakwaters, the aim is mainly to reduce the reflection coefficient. These structures absorb a large part of the wave energy, which is dissipated by turbulent motion, and create a phase lag between incident wave and reflected wave. The present study relates to the analysis of turbulence characteristics and dissipated energy. Our objective is to optimize multi-layers rubble-mound structures. Our results highlight two important conclusions: 1-downstream typical disturbance sizes, determining distance between layers; 2-the importance of the ratio between turbulence scales and rubble size of different layers.

There is a similitude between rubble-mound breakwaters and vertical wall structures (JARLAN, ARC) in the energy dissipation mechanism: There are three basic components [1].

* one external perforated wall, plane and sharp for vertical walls, thick and rough for rubble-mound structures.

* a dissipation chamber, able to stock varying water volumes. - empty for vertical breakwaters - porous for rubble-mound structures (armor, underlayers ... )

* a water-proof wall for vertical structures, and a core for rubble-mound breakwaters.

Transmission-reflection problems, directly related to rubble-mound breakwaters hydraulic working, need to be integrated in studies on coastal environment. These works including flow in porous media, began in the early seventies [2]. Researches were performed after high in-situ measurements: transmission of 40 % recorded on Monterey harbour breakwater (California) by Calhoun in 1971 [3]. Studies on rubble-mound structures have mainly addressed rubble stability [4], rather than energy dissipation inside the breakwater. Velocity and turbulent fields around and inside a multi-layer structure are analysed in order to determine regulating energy dissipation parameters. Measurements are conduced in a wave flume and the velocity fields analysis are performed by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Particular turbulent quantities are computed to characterize the flow around the physical model.

ISOPE-I-98-278

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Artificial Intelligence, breakwater, coefficient, dissipation, energy dissipation, evolution, flow in porous media, Fluid Dynamics, jet, multi-layer breakwater optimization, optimization, profile, reservoir description and dynamics, scale, screen, structure, transmission, turbulence, turbulent kinetic energy, Upstream Oil & Gas, Visualization, Wave

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Fluid Dynamics > Flow in porous media (0.54)

All offshore platforms are designed with a specific design life in the Southeast Asia region, the design life is between 20 to 30 years. For operators in the Malaysian waters normally, the lease duration is between 20 to 25 years. The handover of these old platforms related to the superstructure (ageing equipment''s, vessels and other facilities), the Integrity of the substructure is the most Important factor in the safe operation of the platform. The RSR IS an indication of the platform''s integrity and depending on each operator, the minimum RSR value may vary Some operator might adopt a minimum RSR value of 2 0 while another might take a minimum value of 1.32. There is a growing need for reliable assessment method and in this paper a progressive collapse analysis is used to predict the existing platform''s actual capacity. No doubt that powerful computers are a prerequisite to perform this analysis. INTRODUCTION In the Malaysian territorial waters, offshore hydrocarbon producing platforms have been In existence Since the late 1960''s. These platforms were designed using codes and other requirements that was adequate In those days while most of them have updated "as- built" drawings, very few still have their original design documents intact. Although underwater Inspections were performed at specified intervals, not must more in terms of structural integrity is known. Therefore, a majority of operators are embarking on structural integrity assessment for their existing ageing offshore platform. The platforms that were found to be not in compliance with current established design codes and recommendations are considered for further analysis using advanced techniques. Determining a platform''s structural reserve strength ratio (RSR) is a method of assessing the structural Integrity of an existing offshore structure. This paper shall present the findings of testing model of a typical platform. The chosen platform No 1 is a 3-well tripod template jacket.

ISOPE-I-98-058

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

analysis, cap, cap program, collapse, condition, Conductor, direction, directional, floating production system, health safety security environment and social responsibility, Load, loading, operational safety, platform, program, radial, RSR, strength, structure, subsea system, true north, true rsr, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wave

In this paper a new numerical model on a set of nonlinear shallow water equation is developed to simulate the formation and evolution of tide in Qian-tang-jiang river. The advantages of this numerical scheme are discussed. For verification purpose, the method is applied .to prototype proplem with analytical solution or experimental data. A real simulation of the actual tide in Qian-tang-jiang river is then given. Numerical results show that this proposed method provides an accurate tide and current flow at the entrance of Qian-tang-jiang.

The Qian-tang-jiang river lies along the Hangzhou Gulf which faces the East Sea of China. It has been well known for its formation of high tide which marches into Qian-tangjiang river. The scene has become a famous sight-seeing point which attract thousands of tourists annually. It is, however, potentially hazardous to the residents living along the Qian-tang-jiang river. Many scientists have spent their time and effort. to find out the variational formulation of the tide and to understand its evolution process. Due to various difficulties in collecting real measured tide and current flow data, the studies on the tide of Qian-tang-jiang has far from completeness. Recently, the combined use of the numerical simulation technique and partially measured data provide a feasible approach to investigate the formation and evolution of the tide in Qian-tang-jiang (see [1]-[5)). This proposed scheme is efficient in ''catching'' the water jump (discontinuous water level) of the tide. In particular, the scheme performs well with the use of unstructured mesh, which is necessary for fitting the irregular boundaries. In Hangzhou Gulf, e.g. near Kampuff (see Fig.l) the water region is very wide and the waves move in different directions and speeds. The computational region has to be 2-dimensional for better description of the tide.

ISOPE-I-98-291

The Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

boundary condition, conservation, equation, evolution, Hangzhou, Hangzhou Gulf, Institute, management and information, numerical simulation, qian-tang-jiang river, qian-tang-jiang tide, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir simulation, river, scheme, slope, tide, University, unstructured grid, water, Wave

SPE Disciplines:

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