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to

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to

GoPrediction of fatigue and fracture performance is subject to significant uncertainties, implying a large scatter between predicted and observed behaviour. Inspection, maintenance and repair, are therefore necessary means for controlling crack growth in steel structures. Detected cracks are to be evaluated with respect to their criticality, to ensure that sufficient and adequate actions are taken. Available tools for evaluation of damage tolerance were, to a large extent, originally developed for pressure vessels and piping. The obvious failure criterion for piping and pressure vessels is the through-thickness crack. This is however not necessarily the case for hulls. Hulls may experience crack growth far beyond the through-thickness stage, still maintaining structural integrity. This paper describes the application of available failure assessment methods to some historical examples of long fatigue cracks in merchant ships, to illustrate the need for further research in the field of damage assessment of fatigue cracks in hulls.

Fatigue cracks in merchant ships is a well-known problem within the industry. The amount of cracks in new hulls is expected to decrease as a result of improved means and methods for fatigue load and capacity prediction. Fatigue cracks will, however, not cease to occur, for several reasons:

- Existing vessels, designed according to less appropriate rules and guidelines may stay in service for decades ·

- Fabrication defects may pass the NDE fabrication control ·

- A ship structure consists of a large number of structural details. The probability of failure in a large population becomes large even though the probability of individual failures is small. In conventional ship technology it is assumed that a major part of the cracks will never have the potential to threaten the integrity of the vessel.

ISOPE-I-04-098

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

Recently there are some oil/gas fields which are being developed in the North-Eastern part of Sakhalin Island where ice drift velocity achieves 1.5 m/sec. High dynamics of ice cover and its considerable thickness cause higher requirements to reliability of offshore ice-resistant platforms (IRP). Problem of how to estimate design reliability of means designed to develop off-shore fields in the northern seas is connected with development of methods of how to determine ice effects and how to implement dynamic design calculation of structures for ice load effects, with investigation of marine ice as substance, and with mechanism of creation of ice regime and of structure loading regime. Authors suggested a model of mechanical interaction between ice and IRP. The model is based on numerical simulation of the process when ice cover affects the structure. The suggested model may determine following parameters of mechanical interaction between ice cover and a structure: quantity of load cycles, time of penetration, depth of penetration, and regime of ice load to structure.

Ice loads on marine ice-resistant platforms (IRP) depend on a plenty of factors, are random and, hence, it is expedient to describe them by methods of probability theory and the theory of stochastic functions. To define probable characteristics of such process it is expedient to assess its parameters in various time scales. In long-term or seasonal scales variability of ice loading is defined by variability of ice mode parameters in water areas. In scale, which is commensurable to the period of IRP variations, variability of ice loading is defined by complex interaction between ice cover and IRP. Thus, to describe ice loading it is necessary to consider variability of ice mode parameters and process of ice destruction (when interacting with IRP) at the same time.

ISOPE-I-04-007

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

Luo, Michael Y.H. (Floating Systems Engineering Department, Technip Offshore, Inc.) | Zhang, Bob (Floating Systems Engineering Department, Technip Offshore, Inc.) | Harwood, Michael (Floating Systems Engineering Department, Technip Offshore, Inc.) | Maher, Jim (Floating Systems Engineering Department, Technip Offshore, Inc.)

**ABSTRACT**

Spar platforms have become one of the most attractive development concepts as the industry moves toward deep and ultra-deep water for oil and gas field development. In general Spar platforms are characterized by limited Topsides footprint i.e. a limited distance between Topsides’ supports on top of the Hull. Due to significant pitch/roll motions, therefore, the structural design for Spar Topsides-to-Hull connections is very challenging. Fatigue strength at the Topsides-to-Hull connections has been a determining factor for the configuration of the Topsides for almost every spar. Nearly all spar platforms built to date have used a welded connection utilizing a casting between Topsides and Hull in order to avoid possible fatigue failure at this connection. In this paper, the connection design of existing Spars are first evaluated and welded Topsides-to-Hull connections are then compared with grouted Topsides-to-Hull connections from various aspects such as fabrication, installation and cost. **INTRODUCTION**

The Spar floating production platform has become a standard solution for deep-water production systems in the Gulf of Mexico. Spar platform technology has evolved from the first generation Classic Spar design to the second generation Truss Spar design and the third generation Cell Spar design. The first Classic Spar was the Oryx (now Kerr McGee) Neptune Classic Spar installed in 1996 [Vardeman, 1997]. The first truss spars, Nansen and Boomvang of Kerr-McGee, were installed in 2001 [Thibodeaux et al, 2002]. The first cell spar, Kerr-McGee’s Red Hawk, was recently installed in the Gulf of Mexico in 5300 feet water. Total thirteen production spars, (three classic Spars, nine truss Spars and one cell Spar), have been installed in the Gulf of Mexico. Fig. 1 shows 10 Spars, which have been delivered by Technip. The Cell Spar concept has been developed for relatively small depth water platforms.

ISOPE-I-04-047

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems > Floating production systems (1.00)

Alves, Marco A.A. (Instituto superior Técnico) | Sarmento, António. J.N.A. (Instituto superior Técnico) | Lara, Javier L. (E.T.S.I. de Caminos, Canales y Puertos) | Losada, Iñigo J. (E.T.S.I. de Caminos, Canales y Puertos)

The work to be presented concerns the preliminary hydrodynamic simulation of an overtopping wave energy converter formed by a permeable ramp that discharges to a reservoir. The water free surface of this reservoir is about 3 m above the sea level and discharges to the sea through a low-head hydraulic turbine. As a first approach to model this device, an isolated inclined ramp with varying permeability is used. The numerical model is based on the two-dimensional RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations and uses the VOF technique to describe the free surface. An experimental validation of the code is presented using experimental data on wave transformation at vertical and inclined (impermeable and perforated) walls by Muttray and Oumeraci (2001). Predictions of wave transmission, reflection, breaking and wave energy dissipation are presented. The validated model is then applied to several structure configurations in order to analyze the influence of relevant geometric parameters in potential energy accumulation and energy production.

An overtopping wave energy converter is either a bottom standing or a floating offshore wave energy converter formed, basically, by a permeable ramp, a reservoir and low-head hydraulic turbines. The waves run up the ramp and fall into the reservoir, placed approximately 3 m above the sea level. The resulting pressure height is utilised for power production discharging to the sea through a number of low-head hydraulic turbine. A system of valves avoids the water to flow from the reservoir to the sea trough the permeable ramp. This work is a preliminary numerical study using a model named Cobras. This code is a two-dimensional numerical model that solves the Reynoulds Avereged Navier Stokes (RANS) 2DV equations, with threedimensional k-ε turbulence model and uses the VOF technique to describe the free surface.

ISOPE-I-04-093

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

Application of AC direct electrical heating (DEH) on subsea pipelines requires a special design of the corrosion protection system. The first electrically heated pipelines in the North Sea were supplied with anodes banks at the ends for AC current transfer in addition to single anodes distributed along the heated pipeline according to CP-design requirements from standards and class societies. Anodes were also installed at pipejoints where pipes sections with different magnetic properties are connected, as current transfer between pipe and seawater will occur at these locations. In case of buried pipelines high temperatures for the anodes implies reduced cathodic protection. For these installations modified solutions for cathodic protection are required. Measurements have been made on a scale test installation without distributed anodes in a project initiated by an oil company. In this case the anode banks at the ends must be designed both for cathodic protection and AC current transfer to seawater. For Cr13 (13% Chromium content) pipelines welding of the anode connections should be avoided related to hydrogen embrittlement. A design with clad steel carbon pipes for the current transfer zones at the ends where anodes are connected has been chosen to solve this problem. For economical and practical reasons, the length of the clad steel sections should be as short as possible. This is especially true for a reeled installation method. It has been verified by tests that the minimum length of the clad steel section depends on the material characteristics of both the clad steel carbon pipe and Cr13 pipes. When the magnetic and electrical properties of Cr13 pipes are known, carbon steel pipes can be selected to obtain a minimum current transfer length. These material data are not available from the manufacturer and must be determined by measurements.

ISOPE-I-04-151

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers > Offshore pipelines (1.00)

Contribution of severe seas to fatigue life prediction of FPSOs must include the springing and whipping contributions. The paper presents theoretical and numerical developments included in the time domain sea-keeping tool DiodoreTM to model the springing and whipping response. A first part describes the wave loads modeling : added mass of the hydro-elastic modes from the diffraction/radiation calculations in frequency domain, non-linear hydrostatic and in-coming waves components deduced from pressure integration on the instantaneous wetted area of the hull, slamming force based on a simplified model applied using the local relative velocity. Some difficulty arises to derive a relative normal velocity including both hull and wave velocities at the predicted impact point. A second part will described the hydro-elastic modeling of the hull based on a specific beam model including bending / torsion coupling modes. Particular attention has been paid to the formulation of the hydrostatic restoring loads which is the main difficulty. The 6 rigid body motions + n hydro-elastic modes are solved in time domain in irregular waves. Distribution of vibration amplitudes, shear loads and bending moments are deduced. Model tests on a hydro-elastic floating box have been carried out by the GIS-Hydro in the BGO First facilities. Both regular and irregular waves with varying headings were tested. Further extensions of the development are planned to take into account forward speed influence (ships application) and complex wave spectrum (multi-peaks, directionality).

FPSO''s can be located in area with harsh environmental conditions, which induce significant stress on the hull and fatigue life reduction due to two phenomenon: springing which consists in the hull girder vibration due to the 1st order wave loads and whipping which is the hull vibration due to slamming.

ISOPE-I-04-119

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems > Floating production systems (0.82)

This study presents an evaluation of the nonlinear response of concrete plugs embedded in the steel tubular piles subjected to an axial pull-out force. An axisymmetric finite element model was developed for this purpose. Evidence of non-linearity and deviation from the classical linear elastic theory led to a more complex numerical solution to simulate the experimental behavior. The software DIANA was used for the nonlinear finite element analysis. The elasto-plastic model of the concrete plug was based on Drucker-Prager yield criterion. The finite element model was then calibrated against the experimental results. Satisfactory agreement was achieved between the recorded (test results) and computed (numerical analysis) load-slip responses, ultimate pull-out strength and longitudinal and hoop strain distributions along the steel tube.

Many offshore platforms, coastal structures and bridges are founded on tubular steel piles through reinforced concrete pile caps. Wave, wind and earthquake loads tend to induce compressive and uplift forces in the legs that in turn subject the piles to compression and tension. The bond strength is a function of both chemical adhesion of the steel-concrete interface and mechanical interlock between the concrete core and the steel surface. To overcome mechanical interlock a small dilation of the tube occurs as it rides over the asperities of the interface, generating radial contact pressure, which enhances frictional resistance. In push-out, dilation of the concrete plug at the top of the connection due to the Poisson’s effect, where the compression in the concrete is high, and in the steel small enhances radial pressure and therefore frictional resistance. At the base, contact pressure between concrete and the steel is reduced, due to the Poisson’s effect, and effective bond is therefore reduced at this location.

ISOPE-I-04-437

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Industry:

- Materials > Construction Materials (0.50)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.48)

In this study, the microanalyses for thin sections of specimens were presented. It is shown that the orientation of particle long axis of specimens prepared by hydraulic transportation tends to be in the horizontal direction, while the result in wet tamping specimen is quite different. Besides, the fabric property is close to that of in situ specimen. The variation of apparent dip angle in vertical section increases slightly after shearing. However, the major dip angle of the particle long axis maintains in horizontal direction during shearing. The technique and the methodology used in this study can be useful in explaining the mechanical behavior of the hydraulic filled sand.

This study describes the fabric characteristics of hydraulic filled sand. Specimens were prepared using a simulated hydraulic transportation device. The sand used in this study was obtained from the seabed of Yunlin Shiann in Taiwan. The particle shape of the sand generally was flat, with the following properties: Elongation Ratio (b/a) = 0.682 ± 0.101 Flatness Ratio (c/b) = 0.272 ± 0.125 Sphericity [(bc/a

ISOPE-I-04-234

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

angle, apparent dip angle, axial compression, axis, compression, diagram, direction, drilling operation, fabric, Horizontal, HY specimen, hydraulic fracturing, occupation percentage, particle, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, sand, specimen, structural geology, Upstream Oil & Gas, variation, well completion, WT specimen

SPE Disciplines:

This paper gives an overview of the many developments in offshore wind energy in the last two years, since the 12th ISOPE conference in Kitakyushu, Japan in 2002, in terms of the technology of the support structure and wind turbine, the construction of new projects and the development of the legal framework. Notwithstanding some delays and difficulties experienced in construction and operation of wind farms, overall progress has been remarkably rapid and successful, due to positive collaboration between government and industry. All in all, offshore wind energy is bound to fulfill its potential for success.

At the end of 2001 offshore wind energy was just emerging from a pioneering phase, with six pilot projects and three multi-megawatt projects in place. Experience with the first wind farms, and the projected market potential of offshore wind energy, appeared so positive that a special topic conference on offshore wind energy, organized by EWEA in December 2001, attracted over 500 participants, most of whom were new to the field and eager to participate in the expected rapid growth. At that time, plans were presented for the construction of over 800 MW of wind farms by the end of 2003. That only half of this has been realized on time is nonetheless an impressive achievement, increasing the capacity of offshore wind energy by a factor of four in two years (See Fig. 1 and Table 1). By far the largest impact, both in terms of numbers and as a representation of the new era, has been made by the Horns Rev wind farm off the west coast of Denmark, which came into operation at the end of 2002. With 80 Vestas 2 MW turbines at an exposed offshore site, the project has focused the attention of the industry.

ISOPE-I-04-002

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

company, concept, construction, Denmark, development, farm, health safety security environment and social responsibility, Industry, installation, management and information, monopile, Offshore, Offshore Wind, Offshore Wind Energy, offshore wind farm, project, renewable energy, subsea system, turbine, water, wind, wind energy, wind farm, wind turbine

Elastomeric bearings such as rubber bearings frequently used as isolators for bridges deteriorate gradually when they are exposed to radiation or at elevated temperatures. Meanwhile, elastomeric bearings could be damaged by the failure mechanisms of creep and fatigue when they are subjected to external loads. The dynamic resistance of elastomeric bearings is thus reduced due to the changes of their molecular structure caused by environmental or mechanical attacks. As a result, the damping efficiency of isolators made from elastomeric bearings might be dramatically decreased when they are under a cyclic loading of earthquake. This paper mainly aims at investigating the deterioration of dynamic behavior of rubber bearings under variously environmental attacks such as cyclic loads and elevated temperatures. Effects of fatigue and thermal aging on the dynamic behavior of rubber bearings are discussed and presented.

Fatigue is a typical failure mechanism for rubber bearings when they are subjected to cyclic loads in practical engineering application. The fatigue failure of rubber bearings will be accelerated if their side surfaces are not perfectly bonded or some interior defects pre-exist due to manufacturing. When rubber bearings are under cyclic compression, their side surfaces will expand and the pre-existing defects might propagate after some cycles of loading. As a result, the damping efficiency of rubber bearings used as isolators in bridges or buildings is significantly reduced. Hence, the design goal for rubber bearings to prevent seismic damage will not be achieved. In addition, rubber bearings in service are frequently subjected to various environmental attacks such as elevated temperature, high moisture and radiation. Presumably, the molecular structure of rubbers will be changed, resulting in the deterioration of the mechanical properties and damping efficiency of rubber bearings.

ISOPE-I-04-449

The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

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