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to

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to

GoThis research performed triaxial tests on remoided specimens of Mailiao silty sand by a lubricated-end-platen triaxial test apparatus. The influences of stress path, overconsolidation ratio, and fines content on the steady state lines are studied. Cyclic triaxial tests were performed to study the effects of overconsolidation ratio and fines content on the liquefaction resistance. Resonant column tests were also performed to study the effects of over-consolidation ratio on the maximum shear modulus. The relationships between maximum shear modulus, state parameter, and liquefaction resistance were established. According to the test results, stress paths and fines contents have prominent influences on the steady state line. Overconsolidation has no effects on the steady state line. Liquefaction resistance as well as maximum shear modulus increases with increasing overconsolidation ratio. The relationship between state parameter, normalized shear modulus, and liquefaction resistance is very good. The effects of overconsolidation ratio on liquefaction resistance and maximum shear modulus can be normalized by the square root of OCR.

Liquefaction resistance generally refers to the following definitions. Initial liquefaction indicates a condition where, during the course of cyclic stress applications, the residual pore water pressure on completion of any full stress cycle becomes equal to the applied confining pressure. Cyclic mobility represents a condition in which cyclic stress applications develop a peak cyclic pore pressure ratio of 100% and subsequent cyclic stress applications cause limited strains to develop because the soil dilates during the deformation. Therefore a parameter, which can incorporate the density and stress of soil, is needed to reflect the engineering behavior of sand. To establish a rational engineering approach to constructing structures on hydraulic sand fill, Been and Jefferies (1985) developed a state parameter concept to characterize the sand behavior. They found that significant engineering design parameters are dependent on the state parameter.

ISOPE-I-99-080

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

The Darrieus turbine was developed for wind mill at first. An example of its application to water turbine is found in the Darrieus turbine installed in duct for a low head power generation, but no example is known for application in natural water channel. The authors, therefore, have developed the Darrieus turbine and ocean experiments were conducted with the turbine incorporated in a power generator. Only a few reports are published on the characteristics analysis of Darrieus water turbine as compared with those on the wind mill. Many problems remain to be solved, including analysis of the solidity, number of blades, and starting torque, which are significant indicators for design of water turbine. When applied to the tidal power generation as water turbine, efforts should be also concentrated in clarification of the relationship between the solidity, torque and the output of water turbine, which has widely different Reynold''s number from that of wind mill. The authors of present paper have conducted measurement of characteristics of outputs, solidity, number of blades and starting torque from the above viewpoints and analyzed the results.

The Darrieus turbine used in the experiment has three blades arranged at a constant interval around the central axis as shown in Fig.1. As the water turbine is a lift type, the peripheral velocity of blades is faster than the velocity of tidal flow. As it has a feature that it rotates in one direction independently on the direction of water flow, it is suitable for the power generation from tidal flow, the direction of which changes from time to time. The Darrieus turbine used in the experiment has the shape as shown in Fig.2. The mean line between upper and lower surfaces of blade is called as the camber line.

ISOPE-I-99-019

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

The presence of water inside compartments (inside water) changes the attitude of a ship, its stability and motion characteristics. Roll motion experiments with inside water in a model in beam seas had been conducted and found that the motion characteristics were different from that of the model without inside water. In this paper, a method to simulate the roll motion of ships with inside water is described. Roll motion simulation is done for a ship, with and without water inside a deck compartment. The results of simulation are compared with the roll motion traces of similar model experiments.

INTRODUCTION

Damage survivability criteria, both in the deterministic (So192, 1992) and probabilistic (A.265 & MSC.19 (58)) rules, are based on the static stability curves of ships, for the condition after damage and equalization. These rules does not take into account the sea state or the changes in the stability and motion of ships, due to the presence of

ISOPE-I-99-305

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Fibre rope tether moorings offer many advantages for deepwater floating platforms. A moored system will probably be cheaper and more reliable than a dynamically positioned (DP) system and the high strength to weight ratio of synthetic fibres offers particular advantages over steel wire rope or chain. The low immersed weight of fibre ropes removes the conventional catenary shape of the mooring and replaces it with the taut leg configuration in which an understanding of the rope elongation properties are critical to a successful design. As a result the design methodologies conventionally adopted for steel wire and chain moorings must be modified. Fibre ropes also raise questions of abrasion resistance, sensitivity to compression and other characteristics that are different from steel components. Finally the experience base for synthetic fibre moorings is more limited. The authors describe some of the stages involved in such a deepwater mooring design with reference to the recently available guidance documents prepared for designers by Joint Industry Projects.

During the preparation of the recently published Engineers Design Guide to Deepwater Fibre Moorings (1999) the drafting team prepared a number of worked examples to illustrate some of the features of designing deepwater fibre moorings using synthetic fibre ropes. This design guide (referred to below as the "Guide") has been developed as a result of a Joint Industry Project sponsored by an international group (see Table 1). It followed the Joint Industry Project Fibre Tethers 2,000 (1995) which included a major fatigue testing programme of fibre ropes.

ISOPE-I-99-168

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems > Mooring systems (1.00)

ISOPE-I-99-036

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

agard conference proceedings, Artificial Intelligence, Conference, control, damage, environment, expert system, floating production system, machine learning, management and information, material, neural network, Offshore, polar engineering conference, proceedings, sensor, smart structure, smart technology, structure, subsea system, technology, Upstream Oil & Gas

Oilfield Places: Oceania > Australia > Western Australia > North West Shelf > Carnarvon Basin > Spar Gas Field (0.98)

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

The author has been an enthusiastic supporter of wave energy since the mid-1970s and has engaged in over 20 contracts relating to the development of wave energy technology. Early work involved testing the Salter Duck on Loch Ness in the late-1970s and led to the invention of the SEA Clam in the late-1970s. The SEA Clam featured well in the 1993 UK wave energy assessment and was considered the best offshore device. Lack of funding curtailed the development work on the Clam and the device awaits the attention of the next generation of wave energy enthusiasts. The 20 years of experience working in wave energy, together with the last 5 years as an interested observer, has given the author a unique insight into the challenges facing this fascinating technology. Taking a neutral perspective on the prospects of wave energy is not easy particularly since views expressed have to be based on both qualitative and quantitative judgements.

ISOPE-I-99-020

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

assessment, concept, design, development, device, device concept, electricity, energy, health safety security environment and social responsibility, maintenance, management and information, ocean energy, Offshore, onshore, prospect, renewable energy, resource, sea, SEA Clam, sustainability, technology, Wave, wave energy, wave energy prospect

SPE Disciplines:

Kato, Kazuyuki (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Ind. Co. Ltd.) | Kamesaki, Masahiko (NKK Corporation) | Akagawa, Satoshi (Shimizu Corporation) | Takeuchi, Takahiro (Hachinohe Institute of Technology) | Kawasaki, Tetsuro (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd) | Nakazawa, Naoki (Forest Works, Ltd.,) | Kurokawa, Akira (Japan Ocean Industries Association)

Japan Ocean Industries Association (hereafter JOIA) has been organizing the research project, "Study on Ice Load Acting on Marine Structures", since the fiscal year of 1993. It has been five years past since the project started. What the project has done and what the project has obtained from those studies are summarized in this report. And a future plan is also stated.

Japan Ocean Industries Association (hereafter JOIA) has been organizing the research project, "Study on Ice Load Acting on Marine Structures", since the fiscal year of 1993. The motivation behind the project was the national security of Japan which to secure steady and abundant energy resources for a long time period is one of vital needs for Japan. Cold regions, especially ice-covered waters were recognized as regions where could be important for future developments of natural energy resources. Therefore, JOIA planned the research project to obtain better understandings ice load on marine structures in order to design safe and economical structures for the future developments. It has been five years past since the project started. What the project has done and what the project has obtained from those studies are summarized in this report. And a future plan is also stated. Because of the page limitation, many details of the studies are not presented in the paper. The authors wish to see the references.

The project was originally planned as five years project with three task working groups. The Working Group (WG) on Technical Survey has summarized the current status of the related technology and fed them to the other working groups. The WG on Ice Tank Experiments has engaged to establish numerical codes to estimate ice loads on both vertical sided and conical structures through utilizing results from ice tank experiments.

ISOPE-I-99-190

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

ISOPE-I-99-075

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

ISOPE-I-99-240

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

An idealized model for the response of a compliant structure with a nonlinear mooring system is analyzed. The system is modeled as a single degree of freedom impact oscillator subject to harmonic wave excitation. The stiffness discontinuity arises from the collision between the vessel and a stiff fender. It is well established that these types of systems exhibit subharmonic and chaotic motions depending upon the various governing system parameters. Of particular interest is the chaotic motion for which Poincar6 maps exhibit distinctly fractal character. It is shown that the chaotic response of the system has boundaries in the Poincar6 sections and they are established by mapping the singular conditions for grazing impact. These singularities define the limits on the motion of the system and they are shown to define the fractal characteristics of the Poincar6 maps.

There has been a steady interest in the behavior of single degree of freedom systems and their application to the marine environment. This interest has arisen from the need to model the movements of floating moored structures subjected to periodic wave excitation. Various piecewise linear single degree of freedom systems have been used to accomplish this task. Thompson, Bokaian, and Ghaffari (1984) proposed the use of a bilinear oscillator to reflect the piecewise linear nature of the system. They further noted that due to the great difference in stiffness between the mooting line and the fender, an infinite stiffness could be assumed for the fender. Such a special case can be represented by an impact oscillator where the structure experiences a perfectly elastic reflection of its contact with the stiff fender. The impact oscillator is well known to exhibit chaotic motion and this response has been studied for various system parameters.

ISOPE-I-99-311

The Ninth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems > Mooring systems (0.68)

Thank you!