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**Industry**

**Oilfield Places**

**Technology**

This research performed undrained cyclic shear tests on remolded specimens of Taipei sand by a hollow cylindrical torsional shear apparatus to obtained their liquefaction resistance. The maximum shear moduli were obtained by resonant column tests. RemoIded samples with different fines contents were prepared. The influences of fines content on the relationship between maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance were studied. To obtain a unique relationship between maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance, the maximum shear modulus is to be normalized by the effective confining pressure and a fabric factor. Under the conditions of same maximum shear modulus, liquefaction resistance decreases with increasing fines content.

Liquefaction generally includes all phenomena involving excessive deformations as a result of transient or repeated disturbance of saturated granular soils. Initial liquefaction indicates a condition where, during the course of cyclic stress applications, the residual pore water pressure on completion of any full stress cycle becomes equal to the applied confining pressure. Cyclic mobility represents a condition in which cyclic stress applications develop a peak cyclic pore pressure ratio of 100% and subsequent cyclic stress applications cause limited strains to develop because the soil dilates during the deformation. In this paper liquefaction resistance is defined as the cyclic stress ratio required to cause soil to reach initial liquefaction at a certain number of cyclic loading. The first approach is to assume that the factors of stress history and density, which control liquefaction resistance, also affect penetration resistance. The blow count obtained by the standard penetration test or the cone tip resistance is related to the liquefaction resistance of the deposit by means of empirical equations based on penetrometer measurements at sites that did (or did not) liquefy, supplemented by the results of large-scale liquefaction tests.

ISOPE-I-97-103

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

In this paper, the flow around v-shaped plates placed in a uniform horizontal current is simulated by using a finite volume method and compared with the flow field visualized by a dye injection method. The flow properties are investigated particularly in viewpoints of the rising height of vortex head and the strength of the vertical convection, which varies with the configuration of the plate. The flow patterns are examined by varying the dihedral angle(Θ) and the inclination angle(Ø) and the optimum configuration which induces the strongest vertical convection flow is determined.

1. INTRODUCTION

Recently, various structures such as floating plant and artificial harbour have been constructed in coastal region with a wide range of purposes. Such a facility disturbs the flow patterns around and may cause stagnant flow locally, which results in eutrophication and stratification of sea. It is therefore necessary to utilize an appropriate device to control the flow in favorable manner and to make the quality of seawater better. Sea flow control device usually needs successive energy supply, which makes it necessary to design the system to use natural energy such as current and wave. Some kinds of a simple structure, installed in sea may play an affirmative role by recirculating polluted seawater and refreshing it. In this paper, a v-shaped plate is focused as a seawater recirculating system. Hunt et. a1.(1980) revealed some flow phenomena of stratified fluid over three dimensional hill by a visualization technique. Takashi et. a1.(1990) experimentally investigated the upwelling flow artificially induced by v-shaped plate, which mixes the stratified stagnant flow. And it can be applied to mitigate eutrophication and stratification of sea in the vicinity of the offshore structure.

ISOPE-I-97-386

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

The equivalence between the free-surface pressure distribution and the floating body motion forms a new kind of inverse problems. For the radiation and diffraction problems of large diameter piles, corresponding free-surface pressure distribution solutions are obtained in the present paper. The study shows that a first kind Fredholm integral equation with a complex kernel can still be formed for the present inverse problem and the regularization method may be effectively used to obtain a stable unique solution. The effects of the parameters, such as water depth, vibration or incident frequencies etc., on the free-surface pressure distribution are also discussed in the paper in detail.

Free surface pressure distribution solutions for the radiation and diffraction problems of floating bodies denote such free surface pressure distributions by which the fluid response (outside the region occupied by the body) agrees completely with the one caused by the body with a given motion. The equivalence between the free-surface pressure distribution and the floating body motion forms a new kind of inverse problems. The research on the equivalence problem is of importance in many aspects. In order to give an insight into the mechanism of body motion effects on the fluid response, the motion characteristics of fluid fields caused by free surface pressure distributions have been investigated by several researchers( Ertekin, Webster and Wehausen, 1986 ) since in some cases the body surface boundary condition may be troublesome in the fluid computation. However, the treatment method comes mainly from instinct. A series of important questions in the formulation of the corresponding inverse problems, for example, whether or not an equivalent free surface pressure distribution is uniquely existing, what is the explicit relationship between the free surface pressure distribution and the body motion etc., haven''t been systematically investigated yet.

ISOPE-I-97-314

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Formation Evaluation & Management > Drillstem/well testing (1.00)

SUMMARY

Literature on breaking waves is reviewed in the context of offshore structure design. Particular attention is paid to deep and intermediate water. The effects of three-dimensionality and randomness on the water particle kinematics are considered. Recommendations are made for alteration of the design wave elevation/height ratio and deep water steepness limits.**INTRODUCTION**

The study of breaking waves has proceeded on a wide range of fronts: analytical, numerical, experimental, and full scale research from shore and ship-based to satellite photography. The investigators approach the problem from a wide range of backgrounds: mathematicians, engineers, physicists and oceanographers have all contributed to furthering our knowledge of wave breaking. Additionally, these investigators have often been looking at particular aspects of breaking with a specific purpose in mind. The transfer of knowledge between, say, the oceanographer and the engineer is limited, and often negligible, as the list of references appended to learned papers in these two fields demonstrates. To bring together all of the research on wave breaking has become an almost impossible task, so this study will concentrate on breaking wave probability and breaking wave limits and wave kinematics in the context of offshore wave loading. A fuller review of forces and shallow water effects is published in Easson (1996). Banner and Peregrine (1993) provide a more general introduction to deep water breaking waves, covering experimental and theoretical developments for probability and kinematics. The breaking wave is only one example of the limiting wave and for this reason both large non-breaking and breaking waves are considered. Small breaking waves are of limited interest to a design engineer calculating extreme loading and, as the following sections demonstrate, large non-breaking waves are more frequent than large breaking waves.

BREAKING CONDITIONS

Regular wave limits

ISOPE-I-97-286

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

The nonlinear response of a coupled ISSC-TLP system in a design sea state is simulated by TIOSTAMU. The low-, wave- and high-frequency responses are systematically investigated and statistical analyses of the TLP response are performed. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of numerically simulated and experimentally measured forces on the nonlinear responses including both springing and ringing. The present study reveals that springing is due to weak asymmetric waves while ringing due to strong asymmetric waves. **INTRODUCTION**

The TLP system is one of the best designs for oil production in deep water, since the construction cost does not increase dramatically with increasing depth of water, and the resonant motions are detuned from the frequencies of dominant wave energy spectra. However the lowand high-frequency forces excite the low- and high-frequency resonant motions, while the mean forces create the offset and setdown. These are associated with the key design parameters, i.e. air gap, tether fatigue and extreme loading. Therefore we need to develop reliable and sound techniques for the dynamic analysis of TLPs. The waves, wind and current are the important environmental elements to yield the loads on the TLP system. However the present investigation considers only the wave loads in order to compare the effects of theoretical and experimental wave loads. The low- and high-frequency wave forces are clue to the nonlinear interactions of the linear responses. The second-order diffraction theory (Molin, 1979: Kim and Yue, 1989, 1990; Chau and Eatock Taylor, 1992) gives the interaction terms up to the second-order. Third-order diffraction theory has recently been proposed by Faltinsen et al (FNV, 1995) and Malenica and Molin (MM, 1995) to compute ringing wave loads. Rainey (1995) argues that the FNV assumption of wave amplitude and cylinder radius being of the same order could lead to divergence of the Stokes'' expansion.

ISOPE-I-97-031

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Based on the strip theory, a method for predicting the nonlinear wave loads of a ship advancing in large oblique waves is proposed in the paper. With the previous well progress in the hydrodynamics, the hydrodynamic coefficients and forces can be well estimated. Therefore in the study, the authors consider the ship as a free-free beam and use the simple beam theory to estimate the corresponding sea loads along the ship hull, e.g. wave bending moment, shear force and torsion moment at any ship section. The numerical solutions for the linear analysis in frequency domain are firstly made and the accuracy has been verified by comparing with the existing experimental data and theory done by others. With the well developed linear theory, the analytical model of the nonlinear wave loads for a ship in large oblique waves are further developed. The time domain analyses including the instant grid generation technique (IGGT) for the corresponding sea loads are made. Besides, to avoid the numerical drift phenomena in the sway and yaw mode motion, the Artificial Restoring Force Technique(ARFT) and Digital Filter Technique(DFT) are applied to solve five coupled equations of motions. A series of analyses are made in the paper and some valuable suggestions are also submitted, which will be helpful for the researchers to do the related works. The calculation procedures developed here may be considered as a useful analytical tool for predicting the ship motions and wave induced loads.

Predicting the ship motions and the dynamic wave loads is an important basis for the sea keeping researches. Before the tool for dynamic analysis is well developed, the naval architect had been forced to use the ship''s effective power performance in calm water and the ship''s maximum bending moment in the static "One-over-twenty" wave as his main design criteria.

ISOPE-I-97-337

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

The European Union called for proposals for "the assessment of any possible risk likely to affect the marine environment in association with research, monitoring and surveying in marine sciences and technologies". An assessment was made by a small group of deepsea ecologists, stating that normal scale research would impact the environment to a negligible extent. Future requirements for ecological deep-ocean research related to the use of the deep for waste disposal and mining of metalrich ores were also presented. Experimental large-scale research for commercial-scale impact assessment as well as pre-commercial pilot operations are discussed. It is concluded that studies of this type are still of an order of magnitude that is acceptable and unlikely to cause significant impacts. **INTRODUCTION**

Serious research in the open ocean began in the 1870s with the circumnavigation of the British naval surveying vessel HMS Challenger. The sample and data gathering techniques used at that time were, of course, very different from those used today. But the scale of sampling and the broad approach adopted during the Challenger Expedition were not dramatically different from those of the late twentieth century. Admittedly, the spatial sampling regime during the Challenger and many subsequent research cruises, in which individual sampling localities were separated by tens or even hundreds of kilometres, is not typical of modem cruises. In the last thirty or forty years, the increasing realisation that the deep ocean is much more variable, physically, chemically, geologically and biologically, and at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, has led to multiple sampling within restricted areas and repeated visits to the same locality at different times. Nevertheless, because of the small size of individual samples in relation to the size of the environment studied, the environmental impact of this conventional research must be trivial. For example, the total area of seafloor sampled "destructively" by all the gears used by oceanographers in the 125 years since the Challenger, trawls, dredges, corers and grabs, amounts to no more than a few square kilometres, a tiny fraction of one percent of the more than 300 million square kilometres of the deep ocean.

ISOPE-I-97-064

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Industry:

- Water & Waste Management > Water Management (0.50)
- Energy > Oil & Gas (0.47)
- Water & Waste Management > Solid Waste Management (0.35)

SPE Disciplines: Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Social Responsibility > Environment > Waste management (0.35)

In order to improve a prediction method of crack initiation and failure fife, it is needed to acquire knowledge about microscopic deformation mechanisms of materials under cyclic loading conditions. For this reason, crystal-plastic FEM analysis for cyclic plastic deformation of f.c.c, polycrystalline aggregate is performed. Some microscopic hardening rules which can derive actual macroscopic stress-strain relations under cyclic loading conditions are obtained based on the analysis. There is a tendency that the local plastic deformation on free surface is larger than that within the model.

1. Introduction

The deformation behavior of metallic materials during fatigue process is described as cyclic plastic behavior. Micro mechanisms of the cyclic plastic behavior can be related to failure. Polycrystalline aggregate deforms non-uniformly, and the concentration of local plastic deformation is observed on free surface of aggregates. Since fatigue cracks usually start from free surfaces, it can be assumed that such concentration is related to crack initiation. Therefore, it is needed to acquire knowledge about the microscopic deformation mechanisms under cyclic loading conditions in order to improve a prediction method of the crack initiation and failure life. Up to now, the models of dislocation movement under cyclic loading conditions have been proposed, but it is very difficult to decide the propriety of proposed models only by observing directly dislocation on free surface. For the judgment of propriety, it is useful method to compare the simulated macroscopic deformation behavior derived from the dislocation models with stress-strain relation of actual materials obtained from fatigue tests. For the simulation of both macroscopic and microscopic behaviors, crystalline FEM analysis is useful. However, there is no established way to determine the microscopic hardening rule based on dislocation model to analyze macroscopic cyclic plastic deformation.

ISOPE-I-97-495

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)
- Government > Regional Government > North America Government > US Government (0.61)

Most offshore structures have been installed with assistance of derrick crane vessels. However as the size of offshore structure increases, the barge mounting method (sometime called as IFO technique but it will be called as BM method m this paper for convenience) has been introduced and applied. And this method has proved that without heavy crane vessel s , large offshore structures can be installed safely and economically. The key of the BM method is the control of barge motion during docking and mating operations. Also to absorb impact loads and to help with load transfer during mating between substructure and deck, several damping mechanisms have been developed in the past. This method is being planned for the application of a bridge installation in Korea because it is found that the BM technique is not Only attractive to heavy offshore structures but also can be effectively applied to the bridge installation: The most critical area of concern is the safe docking and mating operation of the bridge being mounted on high level piers. To overcome these difficulties, a strand jacking system is applied and introduced for the installation of bridges on piers. Docking can be assisted by tug boats and mooring lines secured to the existing substructures. Mating will be achieved by a jacking system together with a ballasting of transportation barge. Since the motion of barge is also very" critical in this operation, the acceptable sea states and time are to be carefully investigated. This paper describes the technical considerations and installation procedures illustrating detail sequence from docking ''to mating operation of a 4,500 ton bridge construction m Busan, Korea and also introduces the engineering analysis of the BM method for the specified bridge installation.

ISOPE-I-97-056

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.49)
- Transportation > Marine (0.36)
- Transportation > Infrastructure & Services (0.36)

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems > Mooring systems (0.70)

The BCDP, patented by the Environmental Protection Agency/National Risk Management Research Laboratory (EPA/NRMRL) in Cincinnati Ohio is a cost-effective treatment process for removal/detoxification of PCBs and other halogenated compounds in a contaminated medium, either liquid or soils/sediments. The BCDP is a catalytic transfer hydrogenation reaction, by which, the chlorine or other halogen atoms on chlorinated/halogenated molecules, such PCBs, are removed and replaced with hydrogen atoms under a low-temperature environment and in the presence of a metal catalyst and a hydrogen donor. A BCDP system of i-2 ton per hour capacity was developed, designed, fabricated, and demonstrated at the U. S. Navy Public Works Center (PWC) in Guam. The system was then modified (mainly on Air Pollution Control System (APCS) components) and used at the same site to cleanup 10,000 tons of PCB contaminated soils. The soil originally contained an average of 2.500 parts per million (ppm) PCBs that was successfully reduced down to a maximum of 2 ppm per PCB congener, which has met regulator''s cleanup standard.

The Navy along with Army Air Force and Defense Logistics Agency and DOE and EPA have identified thousands of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated sites in the United States and overseas military bases that require remediation. These remediation requirements are based on the implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability, Act (CERCLA), and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). and the Resource Conservation and Recover)'' Act (RCRA). Removal and safe disposal of the PCB contaminated substances are thus enforced by the laws ( as cited above ) and it has constituted as one of the top priority tasks in environmental cleanup program.

ISOPE-I-97-084

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

air emission, baghouse, BCDP, BCDP system, carbon, concentration, cyclone, decomposition, operation, particulate, PCB, process, reactor, residue, RKR, SOIL, STR, system, technology, ton, treatment

Industry:

- Materials > Chemicals (1.00)
- Law > Environmental Law (1.00)
- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (0.95)
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