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to

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to

GoAn analytical solution for the earthquake response of a rigid cylindrical offshore structure has been developed considering both hydrodynamic forces-structure and soil dynamic forces-structure interactions. The solution is useful for the practical water such as Honshyu-Shikoku suspension bridge. The radiation damping effect due to water compressibility on the earthquake response is more important than that due to ground motion.

A rigid gravity type concrete cylindrical structure is a typical main pier foundation constructed in deep water for suspension bridges such as Honshyu-Shikoku connecting bridges and newly planned Kitan Strait bridge. For the purpose of earthquake design for such kind of huge foundations, it is necessary that the swaying and rocking motions of the foundation settled on the soil ground should be taken account into the coupled both hydrodynamic and soil dynamic interactions. Quick and accurate prediction method of earthquake response for such a simple rigid cylindrical structure is required for parametric studies of earthquake performance to determine the geometrical configuration of the foundation and the stiffness of the seabed soil ground. Tanaka and Hudspeth (1988) have developed the analytical solution using eigenfunction expansions to investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between a flexible cylindrical structure and the surrounding compressible fluid and demonstrated the importance of the relative contribution on the fluid compressibility to the dynamic response for the flexible squatty cylinders. Kiokawa (1984,1985) have been investigated the hydrodynamic restoring forces on the axis-symmetric and plane-symmetric rigid bodies using the boundary element method. A new Green''s function to satisfy the three-dimensional Helmholtz equation and boundary conditions has been derived by Nakamura and Tanaka (1994) to simulate the dynamic response of the arbitrary shaped three-dimensional flexible structures to earthquake excitation. Hitherto, the generation of the free surface waves and interaction between the structure motions and the ground deformations have not been considered.

ISOPE-I-97-461

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

analytical solution, coefficient, condition, Earthquake, Earthquake Response, effect, equation, frequency, function, ground, interaction, mode, radiation, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, Response, seismic processing and interpretation, soil dynamic, structure, Upstream Oil & Gas, water compressibility, Wave

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.68)

The present stage of shelf development is characterized by the increase of involvement of its resources in economic use, by expansion of areas of oil and gas production and offshore geological exploration, by strengthening of impact of industrial activity onto the environment. The severe climate conditions and some other factors increase the probability of pollution of offshore environment and distributions of polluting substances to the regions, favorable for reproduction and a fishing of valuable biological objects. From the point of view of ecological safety by development of offshore oil and gas fields it is possible to mark out the following aspects: - Possibility of coexistence of fishing and oil and gas industries; - The ability of offshore hydro technical structured and facilities to resist the severe weather conditions; - Technical and financial possibilities of the Operator to ensure the effective implementation of works on elimination of accidental spills of oil and other polluting substances The establishment of complex operative information of control during the solution of problems of observation over a stare of environment in areas of development of Sakhalin offshore fields will enable to create a new system of ecological monitoring, which would allow: - to constantly trace the data on a change of quality of environmental components; - to create the ecological data bank within a short period of time; - to make various kinds of forecasts with a high degree of reliability; - quickly to respond in case of appearance of negative changes of environment or abnormal parameters of nature impacts. **INTRODUCTION**

The recent stage in the offshore development is characterized by large scales of employment of resources, expansion of petroleum (oil/gas) production and offshore exploration works, by the increase of the industrial influence on the environment. This situation is of great importance for offshore Sakhalin. Severe climatic conditions and a lot of other nature features increase the probability of contamination of sea water and distribution of contaminant substances within regions, which are considered to be favorable for the reproduction and development of biological objects.

ISOPE-I-97-007

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

compressed natural gas (cng), development, environment, environment protection, environmental safety, exploration, field, gas monetization, health safety security environment and social responsibility, Influence, Offshore, oil gas field offshore, pollutant substance, process, production, Sakhalin, substance, Upstream Oil & Gas

An explicit computational method is developed in order to investigate the coupled motion of a rigid body-spring system and a viscous incompressible fluid. An arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) formulation is employed to incorporate the interface conditions between the body and the fluid. The numerical formulation is a Galerkin finite element method, and a velocity correction projection method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The equation of motion of the cylinder is solved by a 4th-order Runge-Kutta method at every time step. The method is applied to predict the vortex-induced oscillations of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers.

Understanding vortex-induced vibrations is of great importance in the design of a variety of offshore engineering structures such as marine risers, mooring lines, and sub-surface pipelines. When the frequency of vortex shedding is close to one of the natural frequencies of the structure, the well-known lock-in phenomenon, or the synchronization between the vortex shedding and vibration frequency, can occur and the structure can exhibit amplified vibrations since energy is fed into the cylinder vibrations at small amplitudes of motion. For larger amplitudes and outside the lock-in region, energy is dissipated by fluid damping. The ability to predict the fluid forces on these structures with good accuracy and reliability is one of the key issues in design of such structures, especially when concerning deep-water oil fields. It is required to deal with the viscous Navier-Stokes equations to develop a computational procedure for this class of fluid-structure interaction problems. When the deformation of the structure itself is negligible in comparison with its displacement, the structure is often idealized as a rigid body mounted on linear elastic springs. This paper presents a computational procedure for problems where a viscous incompressible fluid interacts with a rigid spring supported body.

ISOPE-I-97-357

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

algorithm, Anagnostopoulo, Artificial Intelligence, Bearman, condition, cylinder, domain, equation, experiment, field, frequency, method, oscillation, problem, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, rigid body, spatial domain, structure, Upstream Oil & Gas, vibration, vortex-excited cylinder

SPE Disciplines:

The concept of bounding surface plasticity was first applied to cohesionless soils by Aboim et. al. (1982) and Bardet (1983). This paper presents the experimental observations to compare with the predictions made by the stress-strength theory developed by Bardet (1983). A series of static drained triaxial tests and cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on standard Ottawa sand. It was found that the predictions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental laboratory tests. However. the material constant, Aspect ratio of ellipse in contracting domain, is mainly effected with the relative density., the mathematical relationship of the material constant, to the relative density has been developed in this paper.

Boundary. Surface Simulation of Cyclic Triaxial Compression Test

A typical material response during a triaxial loading-unloading cycle, which includes any soil behavior, is schematically shown in Fig. l(a). At removing the elastic strain, it is represented by the vertical line of Fig. l(b). If the stress is further increased, the stress-strain curve approaches and merges with the bound represented by the straight line XX''. The slope of response curve at an3'' point is taken as a function of the distance AA''. denoted by between the stress state and the bound XX''. The point a" on the bounding line XX'' is called the image point. During plastic loading from A to B it moves to a new position B''. Static Triaxial Compression Tests The test specimens had dimensions of 100 mm. in height and 50 mm. in diameter, Its were prepared directly on triaxial cell pedestal. For preparing a specimen, a pre-weighed amount of air-dried sand mixed with about 8% of water contents at an appropriately density was poured into a membrane lined mold in five equal layers with zero height of drop.

ISOPE-I-97-095

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines:

- Reservoir Description and Dynamics (0.69)
- Well Drilling (0.48)

Glumov, Ivan F. (Russian Committee of Geology) | Tikhonov, Vadim S. (Central Research Institute of Geological Prospecting for Base and Precious Metal) | Safronov, Alexander I. (NTC "Energocosmos") | Semyonov, Yuri P. (Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy") | Lyubinsky, Valery E. (Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy")

Development of efficient technologies for deep ocean mining of hard minerals is still an acute problem, though an interest to exploration of ocean fields is not as strong as it was before. This work studied the dynamics of an absolutely new cable-container system (CCS) of hard minerals lifting from the ocean floor so as to validate its capacity and serviceability. We have obtained 3-D nonlinear dynamic motion equations for the CCS basic elements namely two cables, a container and a platform. These equations form a system of three interconnected nonlinear boundary-value problems. A transformation of independent coordinates allowing to perform finite difference discretization of equations on a grid with a constant step on length was used for numerical approximation of equations of cables as variable length bodies. The CCS dynamics was studied in a time domain, with the Newmark method used for integration of transient processes. The analysis of container run operations shows that all worries about possible entanglement of cables, which can influence badly a normal use of a system are groundless. **INTRODUCTION**

In 1990, comparative studies with various deep ocean mining system designs were conducted by the USSR Ministry. of Geolog), in cooperation with the Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy". In the course of the studies the CCS deep ocean mining set was designed and recommended for further constructing. The operation of the above set is described below (Lyubinsky, Semyonov et al, 1993). The platform 3 being the basic unit of the set is suspended from the mining ship 4 at altitude of 10-15 m from the seafloor by means of an umbilical 1, reinforced by a synthetic fiber. The umbilical, while affording the linkage between the mining ship and the platform (as a simple cable), also provides for power supply, control and transmission of telemetry and TV information.

ISOPE-I-97-025

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

angle, Artificial Intelligence, boundary condition, cable, center, coefficient, container, deep ocean mining, equation, expression, longitudinal, management and information, mining, operation, platform, point, reservoir description and dynamics, reservoir simulation, respect, Run, solution, subsea system, Upstream Oil & Gas, vector, winch

SPE Disciplines:

Technology:

In this paper, an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the one-dimensional consolidation behavior of natural sensitive clay deposits. In order to describe the yielding behavior of sensitive clays the proposed model is derived being based on the theory of two-fractions mixture and the concept of damage. The applicability of the model is examined by comparing calculated results With laboratory and in-situ behavior of natural sensitive days, and it is confirmed that the catastrophic yielding of sensitive clays including strain-softening can be expressed by the proposed elastoviscoplastic two-fractions mixture model.

Sensitive clays are encountered mostly in the coastal regions of many countries. Increased use of coastal lands for urbanization and industrialization has posed special problems of settlement and stability for sensitive clay deposits. However, the prediction methods for settlement and stability of sensitive clays has not been established yet, because most of sensitive clays have complicated compressibility characteristics including time-dependency and sudden yielding behavior. Therefore, it is very important to model the compression property of sensitive clays and to predict the settlement and stability of sensitive clay deposits. The yield stress is an effect of the clay structure, that is, internal bonding, therefore, yielding behavior of sensitive clays can be explained in terms of the deterioration of internal bonding or the collapse of clay structure. The yielding behavior in zone-lI is dependent on the degradation rate of clay structure. In zone-HL where the clay structure is completely broken, the behavior of sensitive days is similar to that of remolded clays. In the following sections, first, the one-dimensional elastoviscoplastic model for sensitive clays is proposed being based on the above-mentioned conceptual model. The theory of two-fractions mixture and the concept of damage are employed for numerical modeling.

ISOPE-I-97-094

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

analysis, Artificial Intelligence, Behavior, compression, consolidation, consolidation analysis, damage variable, elasto-viscoplastic two-fractions mixture model, machine learning, management and information, OLGA, pore water, reservoir description and dynamics, sensitive clay, settlement, strain, stress, structure, test, Upstream Oil & Gas

SPE Disciplines:

Data sources have always been a common concern for engineers requiring metocean parameters for their studies. The Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture professions have been asking for improvement and extension of the available data sources in all their committees and workgroups [2, 13]. However, the main bulk of engineers are still not sufficiently aware of the specificities of satellite obtention of metocean data to be in a position to utilize them efficiently. The EU sponsored success project (Satellite Uses: a Common Course for Engineering and Sea conditions Studies) gathers some Universities and Engineering Schools of eight countries of the European Union, Ifremer and two small metocean services companies. It stems from the fact that, due to the novelty of the subject, professors need some material to help them include it _into their regular teaching. The project is aimed at setting up a teaching package to be used in Engineering Schools and Universities of Technology throughout the European Union. It will provide all the "hardware" in the form of textbook, exercises, videos, and other graphical aids, that a professor should wish to use in order to deliver the course. The following of this paper describes the foreseen usage of videos in this package, in order to: • Provide a "portable animated blackboard". • Relate the actual metocean phenomena to their mathematical and statistical descriptions and measurements. • Show how metocean parameters axe used in industrial applications. It should however be noted that the paper does not present significant scientific results but rather focuses on an initiative to integrate swiftly advances in measuring and processing techniques into the current practice by addressing the training of future practitioners.

A review of available references on this subject will soon be available in the ISSC 97 report [3].

ISOPE-I-97-262

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

A numerical wave tank is considered in which the interaction between waves, current and a structure is simulated by a 3D Boundary Element Model in the time domain. Through a perturbation expansion the model is formulated to second order in wave steepness and to first order in current speed. The boundary value problem is separated into a known incident wave field and an unknown scattered wave field. Active wave absorbers are applied numerically at the radiation boundaries. The present paper concern the wave runup on a bottom mounted vertical circular cylinder. The numerical results show good agreement with previous analytical and numerical solutions for second-order wave diffraction without a current and ~''t-order wave diffraction with a colinear current. The second order wave runup with a current is illustrated by numerical examples. It is shown that the second order terms can be of significant importance when calculating wave runup on a body in a current.

Numerical modeling of the interaction of waves and a current with fixed or floating bodies is of significant interest in engineering applications. These include the computation of added resistance on ships, slow drift oscillations of floating production platforms, runup on tixed off-shore structures and high frequency forces in the mooring lines of floating oil production systems. Although linear models are commonly used in the design and analysis of these structures many of the important effects are of higher order, which can only be accounted for by nonlinear models. Within the framework of potential theory a numerical method widely used for simulating non-linear wave-structure interaction is the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) which is applied numerically as a Boundary Element Model (BEM). Romate (1989) followed by Broeze (1993) and van Daalen (1993), developed developed a 3D BEM for simulation of waves in a numerical wave tank.

ISOPE-I-97-264

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Artificial Intelligence, body, boundary, condition, cylinder, domain, elevation, equation, free surface, function, incident, incident wave, management and information, method, model, problem, reservoir description and dynamics, runup, series, skourup, solution, subsea system, Upstream Oil & Gas, vertical circular cylinder, Wave

SPE Disciplines:

Blaisdell, George L. (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) | Richmond, Paul W. (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) | Kaiser, Fred C. (Caterpillar, Inc. Mossville) | Alger, Russell G. (Michigan Technological University)

An integrated, interdisciplinary study was completed to assess the feasibility of an oversnow route from McMurdo to the South Pole. Currently the only means of supplying the South Pole Station is by specialized aircraft. Air photo and satellite imagery were used extensively, along with ground-penetrating impulse radar (deployed from a helicopter) to make preliminary determinations of the suitability of glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains for heavy tractor access from the Ross Ice Shelf to the polar plateau. These were followed by ground reconnaissance and data gathering. Modern traverse equipment was also developed and tested as part of this study. Tractor performance and terrain information were used to compare two potential traverse routes and to calculate delivered payload, fuel consumption, and travel time.

Aircraft are currently the only means of delivering large volumes of material to Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Cargo and fuel arrive in McMurdo, the main U. S. station in Antarctica, by conventional aircraft and ship. Supplies needed at the South Pole are moved with specialized ski-wheel Hercules (LC-130) aircraft, landing on a groomed natural snow surface. Alternatively, airdrop from C- 141 Starlifters is sometimes used. Either method is generally expensive (more than US$6 per kilogram from McMurdo) and limiting (size and weight). Six-hundred to 1000 hours of flight time by the limited LC-130 fleet is currently consumed in delivering fuel alone to South Pole during its 100-day season of flight accessibility. Reliance on air delivery of all cargo has a strong impact on research and other logistics needs, and on aircraft availability for search and rescue missions. Preliminary calculations suggest that an oversnow heavy traverse capability could provide considerable cost savings in the delivery of supplies to South Pole. Development of modem traverse technology could also make accessible new areas of the continent for scientific study.

ISOPE-I-97-234

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

This paper summarizes some key points about the Morison formula, its background and some experiences on its application. An attempt is made to categorize the different types of flows-pile combinations for which the Morison formula applies. For irregular, high Reynolds number flows it is attempted to identify the parameters that characterize a specific flow case, and how to define these parameters. Some new analyzes are presented. The most important feature of this paper may be in the area of directional waves where an extremely simple method, the so-called ''principal flow approach'', is shown to model the directionality of the waves so that the unidirectional results can be used to predict the actual wave force. This approach proved to be extremely accurate in the range tested, namely for Keulegan-Carpenter numbers up to 35.

The Morison formula for prediction of the forces on a long circular cylinder was originally proposed by Morison et A1 (1950) on an ad hoc basis by considering two limiting cases. The first case was one in which the fluid motion was small relative to body dimensions, so that the flow remained unseparated, and potential theory was valid, yielding a force equal to twice the displaced mass. (Provided the cylinder diameter is short compared to the spatial variation of the flow). In the other limiting case the fluid motion in each direction was very large, so that the flow could be considered as piecewise steady and the force was given empirically as a so-called form drag force. Denoting cylinder radius, water density and velocity and acceleration as R, ρ, u, and ù respectively the

ISOPE-I-97-315

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Artificial Intelligence, case, coefficient, component, cylinder, direction, drag, experiment, flow in porous media, Fluid Dynamics, formula, high reynold, inertia, management and information, method, moe, Morison, Morison formula, particle, reservoir description and dynamics, Sarpkaya, situation, technology, transverse, Upstream Oil & Gas, Wave

Country:

- North America > United States (0.68)
- Europe (0.46)

SPE Disciplines:

Thank you!