The present stage of shelf development is characterized by the increase of involvement of its resources in economic use, by expansion of areas of oil and gas production and offshore geological exploration, by strengthening of impact of industrial activity onto the environment. The severe climate conditions and some other factors increase the probability of pollution of offshore environment and distributions of polluting substances to the regions, favorable for reproduction and a fishing of valuable biological objects. From the point of view of ecological safety by development of offshore oil and gas fields it is possible to mark out the following aspects: - Possibility of coexistence of fishing and oil and gas industries; - The ability of offshore hydro technical structured and facilities to resist the severe weather conditions; - Technical and financial possibilities of the Operator to ensure the effective implementation of works on elimination of accidental spills of oil and other polluting substances The establishment of complex operative information of control during the solution of problems of observation over a stare of environment in areas of development of Sakhalin offshore fields will enable to create a new system of ecological monitoring, which would allow: - to constantly trace the data on a change of quality of environmental components; - to create the ecological data bank within a short period of time; - to make various kinds of forecasts with a high degree of reliability; - quickly to respond in case of appearance of negative changes of environment or abnormal parameters of nature impacts.
The recent stage in the offshore development is characterized by large scales of employment of resources, expansion of petroleum (oil/gas) production and offshore exploration works, by the increase of the industrial influence on the environment. This situation is of great importance for offshore Sakhalin. Severe climatic conditions and a lot of other nature features increase the probability of contamination of sea water and distribution of contaminant substances within regions, which are considered to be favorable for the reproduction and development of biological objects.
Glumov, Ivan F. (Russian Committee of Geology) | Tikhonov, Vadim S. (Central Research Institute of Geological Prospecting for Base and Precious Metal) | Safronov, Alexander I. (NTC "Energocosmos") | Semyonov, Yuri P. (Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy") | Lyubinsky, Valery E. (Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy")
Development of efficient technologies for deep ocean mining of hard minerals is still an acute problem, though an interest to exploration of ocean fields is not as strong as it was before. This work studied the dynamics of an absolutely new cable-container system (CCS) of hard minerals lifting from the ocean floor so as to validate its capacity and serviceability. We have obtained 3-D nonlinear dynamic motion equations for the CCS basic elements namely two cables, a container and a platform. These equations form a system of three interconnected nonlinear boundary-value problems. A transformation of independent coordinates allowing to perform finite difference discretization of equations on a grid with a constant step on length was used for numerical approximation of equations of cables as variable length bodies. The CCS dynamics was studied in a time domain, with the Newmark method used for integration of transient processes. The analysis of container run operations shows that all worries about possible entanglement of cables, which can influence badly a normal use of a system are groundless.
In 1990, comparative studies with various deep ocean mining system designs were conducted by the USSR Ministry. of Geolog), in cooperation with the Rocket-Space Corporation "Energy". In the course of the studies the CCS deep ocean mining set was designed and recommended for further constructing. The operation of the above set is described below (Lyubinsky, Semyonov et al, 1993). The platform 3 being the basic unit of the set is suspended from the mining ship 4 at altitude of 10-15 m from the seafloor by means of an umbilical 1, reinforced by a synthetic fiber. The umbilical, while affording the linkage between the mining ship and the platform (as a simple cable), also provides for power supply, control and transmission of telemetry and TV information.
Blaisdell, George L. (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) | Richmond, Paul W. (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) | Kaiser, Fred C. (Caterpillar, Inc. Mossville) | Alger, Russell G. (Michigan Technological University)