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to

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- amplitude (39)
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to

GoIn this paper, the flow around v-shaped plates placed in a uniform horizontal current is simulated by using a finite volume method and compared with the flow field visualized by a dye injection method. The flow properties are investigated particularly in viewpoints of the rising height of vortex head and the strength of the vertical convection, which varies with the configuration of the plate. The flow patterns are examined by varying the dihedral angle(Θ) and the inclination angle(Ø) and the optimum configuration which induces the strongest vertical convection flow is determined.

1. INTRODUCTION

Recently, various structures such as floating plant and artificial harbour have been constructed in coastal region with a wide range of purposes. Such a facility disturbs the flow patterns around and may cause stagnant flow locally, which results in eutrophication and stratification of sea. It is therefore necessary to utilize an appropriate device to control the flow in favorable manner and to make the quality of seawater better. Sea flow control device usually needs successive energy supply, which makes it necessary to design the system to use natural energy such as current and wave. Some kinds of a simple structure, installed in sea may play an affirmative role by recirculating polluted seawater and refreshing it. In this paper, a v-shaped plate is focused as a seawater recirculating system. Hunt et. a1.(1980) revealed some flow phenomena of stratified fluid over three dimensional hill by a visualization technique. Takashi et. a1.(1990) experimentally investigated the upwelling flow artificially induced by v-shaped plate, which mixes the stratified stagnant flow. And it can be applied to mitigate eutrophication and stratification of sea in the vicinity of the offshore structure.

ISOPE-I-97-386

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

angle, center, Completion Installation and Operations, computational, correction, dihedral angle, equation, experiment, inclination angle, management and information, numerical simulation, pattern, production control, production logging, production monitoring, reservoir description and dynamics, Reservoir Surveillance, Reynold, structure, Upstream Oil & Gas, upward, v-shaped plate, vertical convection, Visualization, vortex, vortex head, well completion

SPE Disciplines:

The equivalence between the free-surface pressure distribution and the floating body motion forms a new kind of inverse problems. For the radiation and diffraction problems of large diameter piles, corresponding free-surface pressure distribution solutions are obtained in the present paper. The study shows that a first kind Fredholm integral equation with a complex kernel can still be formed for the present inverse problem and the regularization method may be effectively used to obtain a stable unique solution. The effects of the parameters, such as water depth, vibration or incident frequencies etc., on the free-surface pressure distribution are also discussed in the paper in detail.

Free surface pressure distribution solutions for the radiation and diffraction problems of floating bodies denote such free surface pressure distributions by which the fluid response (outside the region occupied by the body) agrees completely with the one caused by the body with a given motion. The equivalence between the free-surface pressure distribution and the floating body motion forms a new kind of inverse problems. The research on the equivalence problem is of importance in many aspects. In order to give an insight into the mechanism of body motion effects on the fluid response, the motion characteristics of fluid fields caused by free surface pressure distributions have been investigated by several researchers( Ertekin, Webster and Wehausen, 1986 ) since in some cases the body surface boundary condition may be troublesome in the fluid computation. However, the treatment method comes mainly from instinct. A series of important questions in the formulation of the corresponding inverse problems, for example, whether or not an equivalent free surface pressure distribution is uniquely existing, what is the explicit relationship between the free surface pressure distribution and the body motion etc., haven''t been systematically investigated yet.

ISOPE-I-97-314

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

diffraction, diffraction problem, distribution, Drillstem Testing, drillstem/well testing, effect, equation, formation evaluation, free surface pressure distribution, free-surface pressure distribution, free-surface pressure distribution solution, frequency, inverse problem, large-diameter pile, method, problem, radiation, regularization, regularized solution, reservoir description and dynamics, solution, Upstream Oil & Gas, water

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Formation Evaluation & Management > Drillstem/well testing (1.00)

The brief description of titanium-magnetite placers in the shelf of the Far- Eastern Seas is adduced. The appraisal of world and home experience of mining marine deposits is made. A new technological scheme of titanium-magnetite sands mining excluding disturbances of the sea ground is offered. **INTRODUCTION**

The Far-Eastern seas shelf is rich in alluvial deposits. Titanium-magnetite iron, vanadium, gold, tin ores and other rare and precious metals are their components. The strict observance of ecological demands excluding negative influence of mining works on fauna and flora of water area is the main technological and technical and economic principal in working out of technological approach in the design of mining-marine enterprises carrying out ~ of marine deposits. **CONDITIONS OF TITANIUM-MAGNETITE SANDS** **OCCURENCE**

Examination of geological and economic study and comparative estimation of 1 metal content in placers of the Far-Eastern and Arctic shelf zones shows that those areas were weakly explored. Metal content of the deposits was determined in the process of search works in the beach and under-water shelf slopes of the Far-Eastern seas. The most prospective titanium-magnetite deposits are situated in Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, in western shelf of the Tartar strait, in Primorskiy territory. Productivity of under-water slope along that orebearing beach area of those deposits is different. Deposits of under-water slope propagate from the shore to the depth of 50m. Thickness of deposits varies from 4 to 16m. They are covered with overburden of 2-20m thick. New large deposit of marine vanadium titanium magnetite placers in the Tartar strait is particularly prospective. It was determined in the process of magmatic formations exploration in the middle part of the Eastern Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt by officials of the Academy of Sciences.

ISOPE-I-97-023

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

RELATED RESEARCH

ISOPE-I-97-507

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Introduction

The Norwegian continental shelf, which covers an area of more then 1 mill km^{3}, is subdivided into 3 separate petroleum provinces • The North Sea • The Norwegian Sea including the Jan Maven Ridge • The Barents Sea including the islands of Spitsbergen The geological characteristics, petroleum potential and teleological challenges vary within these areas. Exploration for hydrocarbons offshore Norway started in the North Sea 30 years ago and moved into areas in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea in 1980. New large areas were opened for exploration in deep waters (1000-2000m) in the Norwegian Sea in 1994. Exploration in these areas will start hi 1997 and industry interest is **high.** A total of 520 wildcat wells have been drilled and almost 200 discoveries have been made on the Norwegian continental shelf. This gives a very high success rate (40%), which is a direct consequence of efficient exploration strategies employed over time. important elements here are: * sound balance between high and low risk exploration (no discoveries made where probability of discovery is lower titan 10%) • Sequenced approach h~ tile drilling of new prospects • Liberal data exchange policies • Extensive technological and operational cooperation between oil Companies **Resources**

The total recoverable discovered and discovered and undiscovered Norwegian petroleum potential amount to approximately 12.5 billion Sm^{3 }o.e. with an upside potential of 16 billion Sm^{3} (fig. 2). only 15% (2 billion Sm^{3} o.e. ) of these resources are so far produced. Discovered resources amount to approximately 9 billion Sm^{3} oil equivalents, including a potential for the improved recovery of oil and gas of almost 2 billion Sm^{3}.

ISOPE-I-97-004

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Barent Sea, Challenge, development, discovery, enhanced recovery, exploration, field, gas resource, injection, management and information, Norway, Norwegian, norwegian continental, Perspective, petroleum, Petroleum Resource, production, Reservoir Characterization, reservoir description and dynamics, resource, tile, Upstream Oil & Gas

Oilfield Places:

- Europe > United Kingdom > North Sea Basin (0.99)
- Europe > Norway > North Sea Basin (0.99)
- Europe > Netherlands > North Sea Basin (0.99)
- (2 more...)

SPE Disciplines:

The failure of technical systems such as offshore platforms can generally be linked to some errors in design, construction or production. These errors, in turn, can often be related to features of t h e management or the organization. For example, time and budget constraints are unavoidable parts of industrial life, but the managers who set them are sometimes unaware of their actual implications. This is true because the technicians, operators and engineers that are subjected to these constraints generally try to satisfy them by taking shortcuts, sometimes without a clear idea of their long-term or short-term implications. Resource constraints thus have to be managed with care to avoid unanticipated catastrophic failures that can be the direct result of the shortcuts that people take to satisfy them. The objective of this study is to illustrate an analytical approach that allows improvement of the management of such constraints by anticipating their effects on the safety of marine systems. The framework is based on the SAM (system, actions, management) model that provides an analytical link between probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), human errors, and management and organizational factors. Its focus is on concrete platforms and on the problems that might occur in the maritime operations of the construction process. We present first a simple probabilistic risk analysis framework for a concrete structure. We then examine the towing process during construction to identify the major potential errors corresponding to each variable of the PRA model. Finally, we link those human decisions and actions to management features involving schedule and budget constraints.

ORGANIZATIONS, RESOURCE CONSTRAINS, AND SYSTEM FAILURES.

The failure of technical systems such as offshore platforms can generally be tracked back to errors in design, construction or production (Paté-Cornell and Bea, 1989; Paté-Cornell, 1990).

ISOPE-I-97-436

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

accident, accident type, analysis, Artificial Intelligence, constraint-based reasoning, construction, decision, effect, failure, Influence, management and information, model, Offshore, platform, probability, resource constraint, risk and uncertainty assessment, risk assessment, risk management, sequence, structure, system, Upstream Oil & Gas

Oilfield Places: Europe > Norway > North Sea > Central North Sea > Sleipner Gas and Condensate Field (0.99)

SPE Disciplines:

Technology: Information Technology > Artificial Intelligence > Representation & Reasoning > Constraint-Based Reasoning (0.62)

Physical modelling of drag anchor and chain systems plays a vital role in the development of new anchor designs. However, the large drag lengths required by these anchors to reach ultimate capacity, coupled with a natural scaling dissimilarity that exists between the anchor and the chain, make this modelling difficult to achieve in the laboratory or centrifuge. A new testing procedure has been developed that utilises a rigid loading arm and allows the model anchor to be tested without an anchor chain, thereby allowing a more detailed analysis of the geotechnicai forces acting on the anchor. A series of tests have been conducted using this new procedure, and the results show that the anchor capacity and inclination can be used, in combination with the shear strength of the soil, to determine fundamental resistance parameters of the anchor. The results also validate the assumption that the anchor flukes approach an approximately horizontal orientation as the anchor reaches its ultimate capacity.

The growing trend towards floating structures as the preferred method of offshore hydrocarbon extraction has focused greater attention on the anchoring systems used to moor such facilities. There are a variety of anchorage options available, including pile anchors and gravity anchors, but high capacity drag embedment anchors have proven to be the most economical and versatile mooring system. Current methods for drag anchor design are based largely on the results of field tests that have been used to develop empirical charts to predict anchor holding capacity as a ratio of the dry anchor weight. These design charts place little importance on the soil type or properties, classifying it broadly as "sand" or "clay". However, work by Taylor (1980) and Dunnavant and Kwan (1993) indicated that anchor behaviour is strongly dependant on the detailed seabed soil properties.

ISOPE-I-97-146

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

SPE Disciplines: Facilities Design, Construction and Operation > Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems (0.68)

A test program has been carried out to investigate the influence of non-uniform thickness on the flexural strength of ice. Over 250 cantilever beams were tested using model ice which had either uniform thickness, or non-uniform thickness. The results were analysed in two different, but complementary methods. In the first method, the flexural strength was calculated based on the maximum, minimum and average thickness of the beam. This was compared to the strength of the ice as determined in uniform ice. The second method computed the "effective" thickness of the non-uniform ice with a strength equal to the strength of the uniform ice. Both techniques clearly showed that the best correlation between the uniform and non-uniform ice was found by using the maximum thickness to characterise the non-uniform ice. An analysis of the data shows that a value of 95% of the maximum ice thickness provides the best representation of the thickness of non-uniform ice failing downwards in flexure. Introduction It is well known that ice thickness plays an extremely important role in the magnitude of the load that an ice sheet can exert on an offshore structure. Numerical and analytical models, which have been used to predict ice loads on sloping (or inclined) structures such as cones, usually have a functional dependence of ice load with a thickness-squared relationship for flexural ice failures (Edwards and Croasdale 1976; Croasdale 1980; Ralston 1977: Kato 1986; Hirayama and Obara 1986; Nevel 1992). For level ice conditions, these models can usually be used satisfactorily to determine the load that the ice sheet will exert on the structure. However, in most real situations, the ice thickness is not at all uniform - it can have a wide spatial variation.

ISOPE-I-97-214

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

ABSTRACT:

A series of centrifuge model tests are carried out to study the bearing behaviour of long flexible piles subjected to horizontal impact loads. The piles are modelled along with a fine grained sand. As model piles, aluminium pipes with an external diameter of 30 mm and a length of 695 mm are used. A free-head and a fixed-head supporting system for the pile head are considered. In these tests pile displacements at its top level, at the ground level and at its tip are measured. In addition, the applied load and the bending moment distribution along the embedded pile length as well as the wave propagation within the surrounding soil are recorded. In this paper the results of one free-head and one fixed-head pile test concerning the deflection and the bending moment distribution are presented. The time history response of both systems and the bearing behaviour of the pile-soil interface are found to be absolutely different.

1 INTRODUCTION

The design and the performance of pile foundations under extreme dynamic loadings has a major influence on the feasibility, design, cost and reliability of a construction. Foundation performance consists of the ability of a system to sustain imposed loadings and maintain deformations within tolerable limits. Large bored piles constructed for structures such as, berthing structures, harbour dolphins and bridge piers in the environs of traffic- or waterways will serve not only as a structural element for the portion projected over the ground surface but also as a foundation to the structure. Concerning such pile constructions, the loading case due to horizontal impact has to be taken into account for the determination of the bearing behaviour of the pile-soil interface (Figure 1). The current state-of-practice for the design of horizontal impact loaded piles is fundamentally empirical.

ISOPE-I-97-116

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

ISOPE-I-97-511

The Seventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Industry:

- Government > Regional Government > North America Government > US Government (1.00)
- Government > Military > Navy (1.00)

Technology:

- Information Technology > Architecture (0.55)
- Information Technology > Communications > Networks (0.34)

Thank you!