Tian, Yinghui (Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems, the University of Western Australia) | Cassidy, Mark J. (Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems, the University of Western Australia) | Youssef, Bassem S. (Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems, the University of Western Australia)
Ma, Z.H. (The Manchester Metropolitan University) | Qian, L. (The Manchester Metropolitan University) | Causon, D.M. (The Manchester Metropolitan University) | Gu, H.B. (The Manchester Metropolitan University) | Mingham, C.G. (The Manchester Metropolitan University)
Wang, Ying (Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering) | Zhang, Guangyu (Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering) | Wang, Jiangnan (Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering) | Zhu, Yuxin (Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering)
The paper uses the research means of numerical simulation for the current environmental pollution problem of the ocean dumps from offshore industries, which is concerned by the coastal countries; it adopts ECOM 3D Porous Water Quality Model for the 900,000ton Pulp, 450,000ton packing boards and 450,000ton cultural paper of Stora Enso Guangxi Forest-Pulp-and-Paper Co., LTD; and it has carried out the simulation research on those projects’ influence on the environment of sea area, and reseached and confirmed the influence range of sewage point’s diffusion and the rationality of sewage point’s location.
OVERVIEW ON THE STUDY AREA
The sewage point B3 of Stora Enso Guangxi Forest-Pulp-and-Paper Co., LTD locates in Guangxi Tieshan Bay (see Figure 1-1. Tieshan Bay is a table-land and submerged-valley bay in the funnel shape with north-south orientation; it has over 40km water area from south to north and 4km east-west width, when the widest part from east to west is 10km; it is the depression structure drowned by the lifted sea level in the post frozen age, so it has 40km long (from the bay’s top to the shoal) and 3~4km narrow tidal channel(ZHAO et al., 2002). NUMERICAL MODEL 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulation The paper use the method of ECOM 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulation(WANG et al., 2008).Hydrodynamic equations include the continuity equation and momentum equation. Continuity Equation: ∇.⊽ + ∂W/∂Z = 0 (1) In which: ρ 0—the reference density; ρ —the in ditu dendity; P—the pressure; KM—the vertical eddy diffusivity of turbulent momentum mixing; f —Coriolis Coefficient; V v —Horizontal Velocity Vector; W—Vertical Velocity; U,V —Horizontal Components of Velocity corresponding to x, y Axes; t —Time Coordinate;z—At Searwater’s Surface，z=η(x,y,t), On seafloor ,z=-H(x,y);g—Acceleration of
Multiphase separation is an important step in the oil - gas gathering and transportation. How to reduce the geometrical sizes while improve their separating performances has always been the research subject. T-junction pipe, as a new kind of pipe - type separator, has been successfully applied in some onshore and offshore oilfields. Compared to those conventional separators, it possesses several advantages including relatively high separating efficiency, compact sizes, lower pressure drop, etc. The phase distribution in a T - junction joint has a great influence on the separating performances and the flow characteristics, which is still far away from been totally understood due to the inherent complexity of multiphase flow. For smooth stratified flow, the PLIC algorithm in VOF model is applied to reconstruct the oil / water interfaces in a T - junction joint. The simulations reconstruct the phenomena of stretching, breaking up and distortion of oil phase and agree well with the experiments. The lower inlet velocity helps to enhance the separating efficiency and the flux ratio is key to the liquid – liquid separation. The present work is valuable for the structural optimization and the field applications of this new kind of multiphase separator.
The produced liquid mainly comprises of crude oil, free water, sand particles and some other mechanical impurities. At the mid-late stage of oilfield development, the volume fraction of water in the produced liquid may be ranged from 70 to 80 percent, and in some cases even higher than 90 percent . The large quantity of free water would reduce the equipment utilization rate, and increase the consumption of the transportation energy and the fuel. Besides, the sulfide, cyanide and other chemicals often contained in the free water would pollute the surrounding environment severely.
Sogihara, Naoto (National Maritime Research Institute) | Ueno, Michio (National Maritime Research Institute) | Hoshino, Kunihiro (National Maritime Research Institute) | Tsujimoto, Masaru (National Maritime Research Institute) | Sasaki, Noriyuki (National Maritime Research Institute)