ABB is running a joint project with Equinor, Total and Chevron to develop technologies for subsea power transmission, distribution and conversion. The output will form a critical part of future advanced subsea field developments. As such an undertaking has never been achieved before, it is a journey with considerable learnings to be shared not only upon completion (anticipated by the end of 2019) but also en route.
The paper will describe steps taken to build confidence along the way that the proposed solution will be fit for purpose when fully launched. Readers will gain insights into the key steps of this cutting-edge project. These include modifying prototypes of the equipment based on rounds of simulations, laboratory assessments (eg accelerated aging, vibration and shock testing) and water testing. Insight will be provided on tedious testing and qualification effort required to achieve the technology readiness level (TRL) required.
Readers will learn from the challenges experienced in this ground-breaking project and how they were overcome. Insight will be given into the overall challenge of both research/development and qualification of the novel technology developed in the JIP. Findings from testing, including extensive lab testing against industry standards, and the impact on subsequent development will be presented. The paper will eventually share results from extensive joint research work between the partners and ABB. The results are ground breaking and will by the end of the day introduce completely new opportunities for development of subsea fields.
As a first-of-kind-project, the results gained, and the subsequent technology developed will be of considerable interest to the industry. By the end of the day, the results from this project will be a key enabler for the subsea factory vision envisioned by the industry.
This paper presents a novel electrical propulsion method, and a decentralized control system implementation, inclusive of hardware and software (algorithm), for LNG-fueled ice-breakers. The customer value of the method is the avoidance of switch-over of the prime movers on-board from LNG to Diesel on propeller stall-out due to heavy ice-breaking conditions. The paper describes an implementation running on the ice-breaking LNG carriers Christophe de Margerie and Eduard Toll. In addition to previous published work, this paper presents analyses of the installation of energy storage for the absorption and peak-shaving of generation-side over-production of electrical power in the event of intermittent propeller stall-outs when ice-milling.
Marine vessels and offshore structures functioning in Earth's frigid zones require ice management to continue their routine operations. Icebreakers are the most influential vessel in assisting marine operations in Polar Regions. The present study is set to analyze the clearance area of level ice using Azimuthing propeller jet in bollard condition, by means of full-scale and model scale experiments. Moreover channel widening and heeling test is performed to analyze the escorting ability of an icebreaker with only using propeller jets. Scope of the current investigation can be incorporated in designing new icebreakers and maintaining desired channel width based on propeller jets effect.
Propeller jets can be used to break level ice, when the ship is stationary or moving, where the amount and capacity of breaking or clearing the ice are based on the thrust of the propeller, angle between the propeller jet axis and free surface, and thickness of the ice as well as propeller running time. This paper presents a comparison between full-scale experiments data (carry out in the Gulf of Bothnia, March 2017) and model scale trials performed in Aker Arctic testing facility on the level ice sheet. These experiments were based on image data from external camera and propeller flow parameters, where the area, as well as coordinate calculation, were within 3% of the accuracy from the acquired images. Full-scale ice thicknesses utilized in the experiments were selected and confirmed from surveillance videos. Model-scale images were corrected using Hugin software while ImageJ was used to calculate ice clearance parameters.
Propeller thrust and area analysis show 10-22 % of the variation in the results of the model and full-scale experiments for 16 mm thick model ice. 16 mm thick model ice results are much closer to full-scale trials than 25 mm thick model ice. Test results at 30° and 90° pod angles could be extrapolated to design a prototype vessel.
Channel widening shows worthy outcome, with the use of Azipods at a speed of 8 kn channel width of 36 m can be attain by positioning the stern Azipods at 30° puller configuration. Changing the pod inclination by 30% will increase the channel width to 20%. In the widening of new level ice channel, 30° pod angle is the most suitable.
Icebreakers as such have been sailing for some 120 years. At first they were just a bit stronger than ordinary commercial vessels. Propulsion solution was steam engines connected to propeller. During the first decades not much development took place. As the marine diesel engines started to replace the steam engines and advances in electric devices took place, first diesel-electric icebreakers were built in the 1930ies. During the next 40 years this solution became more or less a standard for such ships. Next step was the development of the electric drive itself. New smaller AC-motors gave room for new thinking and podded drives came into the picture in the early 1990ies. Simultaneously there were also development exercises on mechanical devices like CP-propellers and Z-drives during 1970ies and −80ies. Today we have available and most commonly used; traditional fixed pitch propellers with conventional shaft lines, mechanical Z-drives and podded drives, all driven by electric motors. The operational profile and mission of the vessel will dictate how the icebreaker will be furbished. This paper discusses the development history of icebreaker propulsion.
Recently there have been delivered and designed new icebreakers, icebreaking shuttle tankers and LNG carriers. Many of these vessel concepts are relying on podded propulsion system. AZIPOD propulsion has been selected to many of these vessels as it provides excellent ice performance for the vessel, good torque characteristics for the propeller and there already exists proven track record of ice operations. This paper will outline important design considerations when developing diesel-electric podded propulsion system.
Peregrino Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) is the first heavy oil production facility moored in the Campos Basin 85 km offshore Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The field is currently one of the largest producing offshore oil fields in Brazil with a daily production capacity of 100,000 bbl of oil, 350,000 bbl of water, and 7.3 MMcf of gas.
The development of Peregrino field, operated by Statoil, provided many development challenges, namely 14°API heavy oil and high water production rates with tight dynamic connection between production streams and produced water circulation requiring specific design and operations. The first phase of the development included two drilling and wellhead platforms linked to the FPSO with two parallel production trains.
Company relied on dynamic simulation and the Life Cycle Simulator (LCS) to master the integrated field layout. The LCS was used throughout the design phase as well as for operator training and verification of Safety and Automation System (SAS).
This paper gives an outline of the Peregrino LCS and highlights the benefits of using this powerful tool for this project. The simulator model is a comprehensive and high fidelity dynamic virtual plant that includes subsea facilities (wells, electrical submersible pumps and flow lines), two wellhead platforms and FPSO topsides process and utility facilities.
In the first phase dynamic studies were performed to validate design options on wellhead platforms and safety systems. Then the dynamic simulator was interfaced with external controller software from the SAS supplier and used to commission the SAS. It was subjected to complete shut-down and start-up tests as well as equipment and instrument malfunctions thus testing SAS in all range of operation and providing a robust operator training tool.
The simulator project has provided an increased understanding of the operational challenges prior to start-up, and helped Company in the development of the Standard Operational Procedures. First production from the field was achieved in April 2011 and is expected to continue until 2040.
Keywords: Life Cycle Simulator, Operator Training Simulator, Dynamic Simulation, FPSO, heavy oil
Legg, Corbett (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Kirkman, Matthew (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co.) | Al Gaith, Saud (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Ali, Kamal (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Tysseland, Trond (ABB) | Dalloul, Naseem (ABB)
ADMA-OPCO have maintained a consistent Operator Interface System (OIS) in the control rooms over recent decades. The need to move to a modern interface compliant with current industry best practice for three major new field projects was recognized in 2009 in the new projects specifications. This addresses both safety and efficiency while recognizing the increased level of instrumentation on the newer facilities and the expected diversity in our future workforce.
Developing a new OIS approach required working with vendors to ensure the ability to technically deliver the new design regardless of vendor. There was also a review of current practices by other international operators. The new design addresses past OIS deficiencies in the graphics imposed by limitations of older systems used to monitor, control, and respond to events in the process. Those deficiencies were in colour, content, layout, and difficulty in the maintenance of operational settings. Much time was spent in control rooms eliciting input from current operators, both experienced as well as recent hires.
The new specification utilizes pattern recognition techniques to easily verify a stable process state from massive amounts of data and addresses the appropriate use of colour and patterns to quickly direct attention to areas of concern. This OIS emphasizes a logical and consistent schematic layout based on process and operational divisions. The operator adjusts target values and alert limits allowing monitoring and maintaining the process in an optimal state before supervisory set alarm limits are reached.
Prior to implementation in the new fields, the OIS was implemented as a pilot in parallel with the existing system on a portion of the Das Island processing facility. This was to capture lessons and input from operators using the new system before finalising the new fields design with an alternate vendor. In parallel, a campaign was undertaken to eliminate nuisance alarms and to adjust instrument ranges and supervisory alarm limits to more appropriate levels.
The evolution of the operating design philosophy and the process for design, engagement, and implementation from those activities through the initial pilot system start up are discussed. The system described below is now formalized as an ADMA standard procedure, and will be implemented by the Main Automation Contractor on ADMA New Fields.
The tools and techniques used to defend the communication networks of financial institutions, other large corporations and federal government agencies from cyber-attacks can also secure process control and SCADA networks. This paper describes how enterprise security tools such as firewalls, IP Security (IPsec) virtual private networks (VPNs), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption and RADIUS authentication, in addition to techniques such as defense-in-depth and event log audits, can defend field process control and SCADA networks against cyber-attacks.
Modern process control and SCADA systems require two-way information flow to increase business and process interaction. Oil exploration, production and refining sites are turning to Internet Protocol (IP)-based wireless networks to monitor and control thousands of devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and SCADA endpoints. While IP networks provide substantial value, they come with fear of increased exposure to cyber-attacks.
However, IP networks also confer security advantages. The tools and techniques used to thwart cyber-attacks on IP networks have been honed for years by enterprises and are constantly updated to battle emerging threats. For over a decade, enterprises have faced, and have largely been successful in defending against, the security challenges that now confront IP-based process control and SCADA networks. Proven and time-tested tools and techniques are available to combat cyber-attacks. Enterprises with stringent security requirements have transitioned to IP while strengthening their security capabilities. Industry standard tools can provide cyber security for process control and SCADA networks that is comparable to that of the most mission-critical enterprise networks in the world.
IP-based process control and SCADA networks provide many advantages. By securing these networks using enterprise tools and techniques, oil exploration, production and refining companies can reap the benefits of IP networking while simultaneously enhancing cyber-security.
Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11-14 November 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited.
For over one hundred years, petroleum based mineral oil has been used in liquid filled transformers. Today, over a million tons of transformer oils are annually purchased worldwide. The popularity of mineral transformer oil has mainly been built on its availability and low cost. It has also been proven to be an excellent dielectric and cooling medium.
Escalation in power demands pushes often aging networks to their limits. In such situations, mineral oil has shown costly limitations. Mineral oil filled transformer explosions and fires causing heavy collateral damage have raised major safety concerns. These have given rise to a search for alternative dielectric insulating fluids. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in transformers as insulating fluids to solve the problem of flammability for installations in and near buildings from the early 1930's until the late 1970's when concern over their longevity and stability in the environment and their potential toxicity caused them to be banned from use in transformers. As their negative aspects began to be fully appreciated, other fluids such as silicone oil, high temperature hydrocarbons and tetrachloroethylene came to be used in transformers located in many of the locations where PCBs were formerly used. In more recent years, there has been an increased interest in using natural ester fluids in transformers due to their combined better fire safety and environmental performance.
Natural ester fluids may be used in new transformers or to retrofill existing transformers. In the latter case, upgrading with a new fluid is also an opportunity to improve transformers performance and reliability overall. Both applications require however knowledge and understanding of the unique characteristics of such liquids and their implications on transformer design, operation and performance.
The present paper gives a comprehensive review of natural ester based dielectric insulating fluids main properties and associated values with a special emphasis on its unique fire resistance characteristics.
Transformers are important components of the High Voltage electrical grid and electrical power installation in industrial plants such as the petroleum industry.
In case of an unexpected failure the possibility to reduce the outage time is usually of prime importance. It allows the plant manager to minimize financial impact due to loss of production.
In this paper we will describe transformer condition assessment methodologies as well as on-site repair solutions as means to increase both the reliability and availability of transformers.
Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in transformer life evaluation and monitoring. The main reason is that a large number of the transformers world population is approaching its expected end-of-life and the need increases for better methods to see whether the transformers are still fit for use or need to be retrofitted or replaced.
The diagnosis of the transformer condition is used to recommend maintenance actions and identify defects even before un-tanking the transformer. It allows therefore to reduce unexpected failures and anticipate to reduce repair time especially when transformers are repaired at site.
Repairing at site usually allows bringing transformers back in service within a shorter time by avoiding transportation from the site to the factory and return. Also it reduces costs and risks associated with heavy transport.
To date more than 400 transformers including utility, industrial, HVDC transformers and reactors have been successfully repaired on site. In many cases transformers were upgraded to provide an increased rating.