Since the devastating earthquake of 2010 in Haiti, significant efforts were devoted to estimating future seismic and tsunami hazard in Hispaniola. In 2013, the UNESCO commissioned initial modeling studies to assess tsunami hazard along the North shore of Hispaniola (NSOH), which is shared by the Republic of Haiti (RH) and the Dominican Republic (DR). This included detailed tsunami inundation for two selected sites, Cap Haitien in RH and Puerto Plata in DR. This work is reported here.
In similar work done for critical areas of the US east coast (under the auspice of the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program), the authors have modeled the most extreme far-field tsunami sources in the Atlantic Ocean basin. These included: (i) an hypothetical Mw 9 seismic event in the Puerto Rico Trench; (ii) a repeat of the historical 1755 Mw 9 earthquake in the Azores convergence zone; and (iii) a hypothetical 450 km3 flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Archipelago. Here, we perform tsunami hazard assessment along the NSOH for these 3 far-field sources, plus 2 additional near-field coseismic tsunami sources: (i) a Mw 8 earthquake in the western segments of the nearshore Septentrional fault, as a repeat of the 1842 event; and (ii) a Mw 8.7 earthquake occurring in selected segments of the North Hispaniola Thrust Fault (NHTF).
Based on each source parameters, the initial tsunami elevation is modeled and then propagated with FUNWAVE-TVD (a nonlinear and dispersive long wave Boussinesq model), in a series of increasingly fine resolution nested grids (from 1 arc-min to 200 m) based on a one-way coupling methodology. For the two selected sites, coastal inundation is computed with TELEMAC (a Nonlinear Shallow Water long wave model), in finer resolution (down to 30 m) unstructured nested grids. Although a number of earlier papers have dealt with each of the potential far-field tsunami sources, the modeling of their impact on the NSOH as well as that of the near-field sources, presented here as part of a comprehensive tsunami hazard assessment study, are novel.
International discussions on corporate responsibility for the respect of human rights has increased significantly over the past few years culminating in the publication of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Total has been an active contributor to these discussions and, in parallel, has developed internal guidance on human rights to complement existing policies on risk evaluation and Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA). A range of industry guidance has, and is, being developed on the integration of human rights into impact assessments, yet there remains discussion about whether an integrated, stand-alone or mixed approach can best address these issues. Total has identified the potential human rights risks and impacts of its exploration activities in a sub-saharan African country where the human rights context is particularly complex. A dual approach was taken: human rights issues were added to the scope of the ESIA, whilst in parallel a dedicated human rights impact assessment was commissioned. A number of issues have emerged: the relation between the potential impacts of a relatively small scale exploration activity in a context of high human rights risk; the need to address risks and impacts related to a specific operation versus those that go beyond a limited geographic zone; the'conflict' between confidentiality for both the company and those stakeholders consulted, and transparency. This paper presents a comparative assessment of the methodologies used to identify potential human rights risks and impacts, evaluate their severity, and to identify mitigation measures. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach in this particular context are evaluated. It is anticipated that the assessment will provide lessons and practical recommendations for the industry given: the history and current human rights context in the operational area; the two studies being carried out in parallel for the same exploration activity in the same area, the different skills and experience being provided by the two organizations.