Al-saba, M. T. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Al Fadhli, A. (KNPC) | Marafi, A. (KPC) | Hussain, A. (KPC) | Bander, F. (Texas A&M International University) | Al Dushaishi, M. F. (Texas A&M International University)
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been recently used for different application in the oil and gas industry. Nanoparticles have proven their effectiveness for different applications including; drilling fluids, wellbore strengthening, and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).
In this paper, different types of nanoparticles including Aluminum Oxide, Copper Oxide, and Magnesium Oxide were evaluated at two different concentrations. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of adding nanoparticles on the rheological properties of water-based drilling fluid. A simple 7% bentonite water-based mud was used in this study as a reference point. The rheological properties including plastic viscosity, yield point, and gel strength were evaluated at both; standard test temperature of 120°F and room temperature to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties. In addition, the filtration characteristics were investigated using both; the standard API filter press at low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) as well as the high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) filter press at 500 psi and 250°F.
The results showed that plastic viscosity was reduced by 50% when NPs were added compared to the reference point. The yield point was improved by 84%, 121%, and 231% for 0.5%Vol Copper Oxide, Aluminum Oxide, and Magnesium Oxide, respectively. In addition, the 10 seconds gel strength was increased up to 95%. A reduction in the fluid loss up to 30% was observed at LPLT conditions. However, the filtration characteristics were negatively affected at HPHT.
Based on the results, there is a good potential for using the above-mentioned nanoparticles to improve the rheological properties, especially the low-end rheology while maintaining low plastic viscosities, which in turns results in a better hole cleaning and more control over the equivalent circulation density.
Nanoparticles (NPs), which can be defined as solid particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm, have been recently used for different application in the oil and gas industry, including enhanced oil recovery (Rodriguez Pin et al. 2009; Ogolo et al. 2012), shale stabilization (Sensoy et al. 2009; Hoxha et al. 2017), fluid loss reduction (Amanullah et al. 2011; Contreras et al. 2014a), wellbore strengthening and formation damage reduction (Nwaoji et al. 2013; Contreras et al. 2014b,c).
Al-saba, M. T. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Amadi, K. W. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Al-Hadramy, K. O. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Dushaishi, M. F. Al (Texas A&M International University) | Al-Hameedi, A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
With the increase in the environmental awareness across the oil and gas industry along with the strict environmental regulations related to drilling waste management, different practices have been applied to reduce the impact of drilling waste on the environment such as slim-hole drilling, effective solid control equipment, and environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. The main objective of these techniques is to reduce the volume of the disposed contaminated drill cuttings, therefore, reducing both impact on the environment and the cost related to drilling waste handling.
This paper investigates the feasibility of using bio-degradable waste as an environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. A comprehensive experimental evaluation of different bio-degradable waste materials has been carried out to investigate their effectiveness in improving the different properties of water-based drilling fluids. These waste materials, which were prepared in-house, include but not limited to grass, corncobs, sugar cane, pomegranate peel, soya bean peel, etc. The additives were evaluated at different concentrations and mixtures and the various drilling fluids properties were measured, such as filtration, pH, and rheological properties. The filtration properties were evaluated using the standard low pressure low temperature API filter press.
The results showed that some materials such as soya bean peel powder reduced the fluid loss up to 60% and improved the yield point and the gel strength up to 330 % and 640% with minor to no effect on the plastic viscosity, suggesting the applicability of using both additives as a rheology modifier and a filtration control agent. Other materials such as henna and tamarind gum outer reduced the pH dramatically, suggesting their applicability in being used as pH control agents, especially when drilling through cement.
These promising results showed a good potential for these environmental friendly drilling fluid additives (EFDFA) that were generated from waste material to be used as an alternative for some of the toxic materials currently used in the industry. Using these additives, will contribute towards reducing both; the impact on the environment as well as the overall cost of drilling fluids and drilling waste handling.
The Gulf-war (1991) resulted in one of the world's biggest environmental disasters, impacts of which are still to be assessed. The post war environmental impacts comprise of multiple dimensions among which only two dimensions have been investigated in this research. The first dimension was to assess the amount of present offshore oil slicks while the second approach was to assess the impacts on coastal areas along the Gulf in a-20-years period (1991-2011) using high resolution satellite imagery.
42 high resolution ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite images have been employed in this research in the TIR (thermal infrared) region of the EM (Electro Magnetic) spectrum to assess the impact of the spill on the coastal zones along the Gulf since 1991. In order to assess and monitor the trend of the oil slick movements during the last 20 years period offshore, thirty (30) Seasonal day time MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite images were employed. Following intensive processing and image classification procedures, color composite images of the TIR bands of the ASTER satellite and moderate resolution bands of MODIS were produced.
Fuzzy logic and variograms were employed throughout the processing procedures of the data analysis as powerful tools to reduce uncertainty prior to data analysis.
The processed MODIS images mapped the direction of the movements of slicks in the last 20 years offshore while the processed ASTER images were employed to monitor the gradual impact on the coastal zones along the Gulf during the same 20 years period.
Astonishing results were achieved. Some slicks are still present in the Gulf region and the magnitude of the environmental damage on the coastal areas along the Gulf hasn't decreased in accordance with the standard contingency plans.
Immediate response is demanding both to remove the existing slicks as well as the shoreline cleanup and restoration, the impacts of which have accumulated over the last 20 years.