Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
Lost circulation is a unique challenge unlike other factors contributing to non-productive time (NPT). Due to the variability in the nature and type of lost circulation prone formations; there is no universal solution to this challenge. This publication presents a new approach to guide the decision-making process of which and when to apply a certain treatment as compared to another. If implemented correctly, a significant reduction in NPT related to lost circulation can be expected. Also, the cost of each treatment, as well as the NPT that is associated with the treatment, were examined in this study. Lost circulation events for three formations which are the Dammam, Hartha, and Shuaiba were gathered from over 1000 wells drilled in Basra oil fields, Iraq using various sources and reports; the treatments were classified by scenario –partial, severe, and complete losses – as well as cost, efficiency, and formation types. This paper is developed based on probabilities, expected monetary value (EMV), and decision tree analysis (DTA) to recommend the best-lost circulation strategy for each type of losses.
This paper utilizes probability and economics in the decision-making process. This is the first study that considers a detailed probability and cost to treat the lost circulation problem. Thousands of treatment scenarios for each type of losses are conducted, and the EMVs for all scenarios are calculated. For each type of losses, the lowest EMV treatment strategy- that is practically applicable in the field and makes sense- is selected to be used to treat each type of losses to minimize NPT and cost. If the losses didn't stop after utilizing the proposed treatment strategies, it is recommended to use liner hanger to isolate the losses zone and then continue drilling. A change in well design is also suggested to help to minimize NPT and cost. In addition, a formalized methodology for responding to losses in the Dammam, Hartha, and Shuaiba formations is established and provided as means of assisting drilling personnel to work through the lost circulation problem in a systematic way.
One challenge in drilling wells in Basra oil fields is the inconsistency of approaches to the lost circulation problem. Therefore, the result of this data analysis provides a path forward for the Basra area lost circulation events and suggests probable methods that can be used in similar formations globally. Additionally, the methodology can be adapted to studying other types of formations and drilling challenges have the same geological properties in any major oil field.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The rate of penetration (ROP) plays a major role in reducing drilling costs, making it an important area of investigation. There are various controllable and uncontrollable factors that affect the ROP, and the variation in these variables affecting the ROP made it a very pivotal drilling parameter that has a significant effect on non-productive time. In this work, sensitivity and statistical analysis were carried out using data from over 1000 wells in Basra oil fields, Iraq. The scope of this work is to determine the effect of rheological properties on ROP, to provide a method for estimating the recommended range for drilling fluid properties based on data mining techniques.
In this work, huge real field data from over 1000 wells drilled in Basra oil fields, Iraq were gathered and analyzed to better understand the characteristics of a drilling fluid that enhance ROP and quantify the impact of each drilling fluid rheological properties on ROP. The data used in this study were collected from mud logging data, daily drilling reports (DDR), and geological information. Statistical and sensitivity analyses were performed in order to identify the relationship between ROP and drilling fluid rheological properties. The correlation coefficient (CC) was utilized to understand the effect of solid content (SC), yield point (Yp), and plastic viscosity (PV) on ROP. The results showed that SC is the most influential rheological property on ROP, then PV and finally Yp. In addition, this work demonstrates how bit hydraulics can be improved by means of modifying the rheological properties rather than adjusting the flow rate or nozzle size.
Large-scale collection and interpretation of field data or in other words "data mining" can be considered as a strong tool in understanding the impact of different parameters on the ROP in order to estimate the recommended range of rheological properties, which will result in improving the ROP.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids)
Oil/gas exploration, drilling, production, and reservoir management are challenging these days since most oil and gas conventional sources are already discovered and have been producing for many years. That is why petroleum engineers are trying to use advanced tools such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) to help to make the decision to reduce nonproductive time and cost. A good number of papers about the applications of ANNs in the petroleum literature were reviewed and summarized in tables. The applications were classified into four groups; applications of ANNs in explorations, drilling, production, and reservoir engineering. A good number of applications in the literature of petroleum engineering were tabulated. Also, a formalized methodology to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application was presented and accomplished by a flowchart that can serve as a practical reference to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application. The method was broken down into steps that can be followed easily. The availability of huge data sets in the petroleum industry gives the opportunity to use these data to make better decisions and predict future outcomes. This paper will provide a review of applications of ANNs in petroleum engineering as well as a clear methodology on how to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids)
As oil prices are fluctuating, decision makers are challenged to make the "best" decisions for field's developments. Decision Tree Analysis (DTA) can help decision makers to make the "best" decisions. DTA focuses on managerial decisions, such as whether to do workover or not, whether the additional information will be valuable or not. The aim of this work is to review the applications of DTA in petroleum engineering and provide a clear methodology on how to apply DTA for any petroleum engineering application.
The combination of Expected Monetary Value (EMV) and DTA is one of the most common methods used in the decision-making process. If EMV is positive, the decision is considered to be feasible. However, that doesn't mean the decision will be successful at all times. It simply means that if a similar decision is made for a larger number of cases, the decision will be successful. DTA will account for the uncertainty in the probability. A good number of papers about the applications of DTA in petroleum engineering were read and summarized into three categories. Also, a clear methodology on how to apply the DTA for any petroleum engineering application was established.
After reading and summarizing a good number of papers and case histories about the applications of DTA in petroleum engineering, it was concluded that the applications can be classified into three main categories; applications of DTA and EMV for the whole oil and gas prospect projects, applications of DTA and EMV for a specific operation or development, applications of DTA, EMV, Monte Carlo simulations, and other methods to assess the value of information. These applications were summarized into tables.
In addition, a clear methodology accomplished by a flowchart that explains how to successfully apply the EMV and DTA for any petroleum engineering application was provided. The method consists of three main steps: 1) how many scenarios need to be considered and what are they 2) collection of the required data 3) use the visual tool (DTA) or programming to find EMV. Each of the previous steps has its own challenges, thus these challenges were addressed and the solutions to overcome the challenges were provided. Finally, practical guidelines have were developed that when used with the accompanying flow chart will serve as a quick reference to apply the DTA for any petroleum engineering application.
As the petroleum engineering applications becoming more complicated nowadays, accomplished by the oil prices fluctuations, the decision-making processes becoming more difficult. The DTA is a very important tool for the decision makers to make the "best" decision. This paper provides a clear methodology on how to successfully apply the DTA which can serve as a reference for any future DTA applications in petroleum engineering.
Alfarge, Dheiaa (Iraqi Ministry of Oil, Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait) | Wei, Mingzhen (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Bai, Baojun (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Over the last decade, Unconventional Liquids Rich Reservoirs (ULR) have become the main target for oil and gas investors as conventional formations started to deplete and diminish in numbers. These unconventional plays have a huge oil reserve; however, the primary oil recovery factor is predicted to be less than 10%. Unconventional Improved Oil Recovery (UIOR) techniques are still a new concept in the oil industry since there is no commercial project reported for any IOR technique yet. Miscible gas based EOR technique might be the most potential strategy to improve oil recovery in such complex plays.
In this study, a comprehensive and critical review has been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of miscible gas based EOR technique in ULR. The reports and studies from three different approaches (lab, simulation and pilot tests) were summarized and combined to provide in-depth insights and lessons learned from the applicability of miscible gas based EOR in ULR. Firstly, the main problems in the previous lab and simulation approaches, which were used to investigate the viability of different EOR methods, have been diagnosed. Secondly, the performance of injecting different miscible gases to enhance oil recovery in the pilot tests conducted in ULR has been extensively discussed. Thirdly, the physical and chemical reasoning behind the performance gap for the injected gases in the lab scale versus the field scale of ULR been diagnosed.
This study reported that most of the previous lab and simulation approaches suffered from significant lacks and drawbacks, which created a clear gap in the performance of the injected gases in the lab scale versus the field scale. This research clearly found that the performance of Natural Gas (NG) injection is significantly better than the performance of CO2 injection in terms of enhancing oil recovery in the field pilots. This study also found that the production response of unconventional reservoirs to the injected NGs is much faster than that for the injected CO2. Combining the pilot tests data and simulation studies showed that the number of cycles in huff-n-puff operations has a negative impact on CO2-EOR while it has a positive impact on NGs-EOR. Finally, this research provided deep insights on what the operators can expect from the EOR performance by injecting different miscible gases in the lab scale versus the field scale of ULR.
Alshammari, Awadh T. (Petrofac, CCC – Consortium - Kuwait) | Alajmi, Haifaa M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Marquez, Sharoh G. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Farhart, James L. (Worley Parsons Kuwait) | Al-Otaibi, Faisal S. (Kuwait Oil Company)
The cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and injection process is a thermal recovery process consisting of three main stages: steam injection, steam soak and production of the heated oil. Before a stimulated well is put into production, a soak period is required to allow the injected steam to heat the oil around the wellbore and reduce its viscosity so that it will become more susceptible to flow. In actual operations, the soak period could vary from days to weeks, or even months. Prolonged soak period causes the well productivity to decline because of the continuous heat loss to the formation. On the other hand, insufficient soak period prevents effective transfer of the heat from the wet steam into the formation. For this reason, it is desirable to determine the optimal soak period that will maximize oil production and net profit during cyclic steam injection. The injection period at the beginning of the cycle, as well as its ensuing production period is also investigated to verify which stage in the CSS process is most influential in assuring higher recovery.
In this study, a thermal, numerical reservoir oil simulator is utilized to evaluate the effect of varying the injection volume, soak period and production period with a view to improving crude oil recovery in Ratqa-North Kuwait Lower Fars Heavy Oil (LFHO) reservoir. Further economic studies are then pursued to determine the effectiveness of cyclic steam injection operations whilst maintaining a safe operational environment ensuring cap-rock integrity and also avoiding localized pockets of higher pressure and temperature (heaving).
The key findings from this study was that the maximum injection period (60 days), minimum soak period (5 days) and minimum production period (90 days) are required for every cycle, in order to maximize recovery and optimize the cost.
Al Dushaishi, Mohammed (Texas A&M International University) | Hellvik, Svein (National Oilwell Varco) | Aladasani, Ahmad (Consultant) | Alsaba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait) | Okasha, Qutaiba (Kuwait Oil Company)
Data mining and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodologies are underdeveloped in the oil and gas industry, despite the need to improve drilling performance and remain globally competitive in all capital-intensive projects.
Drilling companies allocate significant resources to improve well planning, drilling schedules and rig management. Well planning comprises of two main elements; drilling performance and the reduction of drill stem vibrations. Therefore, modeling methodologies such as drill string statics, dynamic tools and rate of penetration modeling are applied to determine the optimum bottom hole assembly (BHA) components and drill bit design. However, more attention is required on drill stem fatigue, non-productive time (NPT) and their impacts on drilling operations.
In this paper, Data Analytics (DA) is applied to drilling logs taken from three wells that recorded vibration readings from different geological stratification. In turn, the work in this paper establishes a relationship between drill stem vibrations and various measurement and logging data while drilling. Statistical regression and multivariate analysis were used to examine correlations of drilling parameters, including BHA assembly, to vibration data. Therefore, the results include a composite vibration model that describes the drilling stem vibration behavior as a function of drilling parameters, and geological formations.
Results of the vibration models built in this study indicate that the drill stem lateral vibration behaves parabolically as a function of the drill pipe length, length of drill collar, gamma ray (GR) response, and weight on bit (WOB). The analysis of drill stem vibration effect on the mechanical specific energy (MSE) was inconclusive for depths below 1350 meters. However, for depths above 1350 meters a strong correlation was observed to ROP.
The selection of the best EOR option for optimizing the recovery in a field development plan is probably one of the most difficult decisions, as many parameters and options, as well as uncertainties play a role difficult to rank and characterize. This work presents the application of a new methodology, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), aimed to select the best EOR option, illustrating its practical application to a heavy oil field development case. In order to rank efficiently prospects opportunities and exploitation scenarios the most common approach is the evaluation based on economical parameters. However, technical parameters like well-types options, facilities configurations, transport options, operability, and reliability, are not strictly, nor solely economical parameters, hence, not easily considered during the screening and selection phases of the FEL (Front-End- Loading) process. When the number of options and parameters becomes very large, the human judgement must be supported by some kind of logical methodology or Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methodology. One of these methodologies is the FAHP (Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process) which is a modification of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) tested previously for the development of a heavy oil field in the pre-FEL stage aiming to improve the decision-making process, including technical elements in addition to the conventional economic parameters. The application of the FAHP technique is analyzed in this work, deriving conclusions of interest when dealing in field development decisions that require decisions from a group of experts.
Alsaba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait) | Al Mejadi, Mohammed (Kuwait Gulf Oil Company) | Fahmy, Mohamed (Australian College of Kuwait) | Aldarakh, Yousef (Kuwait Energy) | Farhat, Ali (Australian College of Kuwait) | Majli, Jaber (Al-Meer Technical Services)
Drilling fluid severe losses through highly fractured or highly permeable formations is considered as one of the most critical problems while drilling through these problematic zones, which can result in a costly non-productive time (NPT), and might lead to catastrophic well control issue in worst-case scenarios. The effectiveness of LCM treatments is often evaluated in the lab prior to field application. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of an in-house testing apparatus that simulates and evaluate the effectiveness of a proprietary LCM pill in curing losses through highly permeable formation.
A testing apparatus was developed in-house to simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of a proprietary LCM pill in curing losses through highly permeable formation. The apparatus consists of a transparent testing cell, which simulates the filtration medium, to visualize the losses profile through a gravel bed with porosity up to 40%. Four different blends at different concentrations (between 9 – 17 lb/bbl) were mixed in a 7% bentonite mud and evaluated at 100 psi using the newly developed apparatus. The depths of fluid invasion, the fluid loss, and the filter cake thickness were measured accordingly to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed LCM pill.
The testing apparatus was successfully built, pressure tested up to 150 psi, and used to evaluate the developed LCM pills. The results showed that the developed blends were able to plug and seal the highly permeable filtration medium effectively. The evaluated LCM pills resulted in a depth of invasion ranging between 44 – 96 % of the total length of the filtration medium and a filtrate volume of less than 5 ml/30 min depending on the concentration of the additives used. The filter cake thicknesses ranged between 0.16 – 1.37 inches, where the best blend resulted in the thickest filter cake.
Based on the results, the blends showed a superior performance in terms of curing the losses in a short period of time, which in turns will contribute towards reducing the associated NPT and further unwanted consequences.
Drilling deviated wells is a frequently used approach in the oil and gas industry to increase the productivity of wells in reservoirs with a small thickness. Drilling these wells has been a challenge due to the low rate of penetration (ROP) and severe wellbore instability issues. The objective of this research is to reach a better drilling performance by reducing drilling time and increasing wellbore stability.
In this work, the first step was to develop a model that predicts the ROP for deviated wells by applying Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In the modeling, azimuth (AZI) and inclination (INC) of the wellbore trajectory, controllable drilling parameters, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), formation pore pressure, and in-situ stresses of the studied area were included as inputs. The second step was by optimizing the process using a genetic algorithm (GA), as a class of optimizing methods for complex functions, to obtain the maximum ROP along with the related wellbore trajectory (AZI and INC). Finally, the suggested azimuth (AZI) and inclination (INC) are premeditated by considering the results of wellbore stability analysis using wireline logging measurements, core and drilling data from the offset wells.
The results showed that the optimized wellbore trajectory based on wellbore stability analysis was compatible with the results of the genetic algorithm (GA) that used to reach higher ROP. The recommended orientation that leads to maximum ROP and maintains the stability of drilling deviated wells (i.e., inclination ranged between 40°—50°) is parallel to (140°—150°) direction. The present study emphasizes that the proposed methodology can be applied as a cost-effective tool to optimize the wellbore trajectory and to calculate approximately the drilling time for future highly deviated wells.