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Abstract Cementing a highly deviated production liner is associated with cement placement challenge that can compromise zonal isolation. A major operator in UAE, was facing a challenge to cement 4 ½ in slim production liner set at 5000 ft off-bottom. The corresponding 6 in. section was drilled with a relatively high mud weight in the range of 12 to 13 PPG. One of the main challenge was the risk of solids settling on the low side of the wellbore, making mud displacement difficult to achieve while cementing. Additionally, cementing off-bottom without an ECP in a highly deviated wellbore with multiple exposed production zones, further increased cement placement complexity. A holistic engineering approach was integrated to ensure successful zonal isolation. Wellbore parameters and fluid properties were critically evaluated. To overcome off-bottom cementing and prevent slurry fallback risks, a weighted high viscosity pill with high yield point was placed as a temporary basement to support the cement column and isolate the reservoir during 4 ½ in liner job. After placement of the pill, the wellbore was observed for flow checks to ensure stable downhole conditions prior to displacing the drilling fluid across the liner interval to brine within the same density. A centralization program was implemented to achieve more than 70% stand-off which required a minimum centralization pattern of two rigid centralizers per joint which helped minimize the presence of mud channels on the narrow side. Effective mud removal was ensured through implementation of a spacer train in front of the cement. The first spacer was pumped with same mud density to reduce ECD followed by another advanced low invasion loss circulation spacer to mitigate losses as well as provide a sustained downhole rheology. A resilient, expandable and gas tight cement slurry, was selected to target long-term zonal isolation. Multiple hydraulic simulations were performed to optimize ECDs and ensure safe margins during placement A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model was utilized to simulate hydraulics, expected mud removal and fluids inter-mixing especially during liner rotation. In addition, the model simulated high-calculated torques based on flow restrictions through liner hanger assembly. Lack of mechanical liner movement was compensated by additional pre-job circulation to fully condition the wellbore. The job was executed with no losses during cementing, and spacer and cement returns were received on the surface during reverse out. Utilizing the best engineering approach, practices, and techniques from this job is implemented in the future wells as the production of the well is directly affected by the cement quality. Post job cement integrity evaluation via a cement bond log confirmed excellent bonding of cement to the liner and reservoirs across the entire open-hole interval.
Abstract The success or failure of cement plugs are known to alter the timeline of an oil well; not to mention the additional costs and NPT associated with the rig activities. Unsuccessful cement plug costs oil companies considerable amount of capital both in extra rig time and service company expenses. Suggested procedures for placing cement plugs have been presented in number of papers - comprising of slurry design, spacer recommendations, laboratory testing and placement techniques. However, it is very easy to deviate from these standard practices due to over confidence, negligence or both. In Mexico, it was observed that the success rate of placing cement plugs dropped due to operational and engineering design shortcomings. Towards the end of 2018 there were several unsuccessful cement plug jobs that questioned the regular plug procedures. Careful analysis of the past mistakes led to the conclusion that an effective approach to alter the local plug placement practices was necessary. An updated cement plug placement software was used in conjunction with strict standard practices that turned around the trend and enabled consistent successful placement of cement plugs in the first attempt itself. A detailed yet simple approach towards cement plugs was adopted in both engineering design and operational execution. Additionally the updated plug placement software ensured accurate prediction of the cement plug top; that was confirmed by the actual tag of the plug. This paper will enlist the major analysis carried out on the unsuccessful plug jobs and highlight the different techniques that were adopted in the subsequent jobs to ensure successful placement and tagging of the cement plug. The paper will also focus on how the plug placement software's new additional features have made a significant contribution to this success story.
Kholaif, Yasser (NOSPCO) | Elmaghraby, Mahmoud (NOSPCO) | Nago, Annick (Baker Hughes) | Embry, Jean-Michel (Baker Hughes) | Basu, Pramit (Baker Hughes) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | El-Said, Mohamed M. (Baker Hughes) | ElMenshawy, Ali (Baker Hughes) | Baghdadi, Ahmed (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Drilling challenges in offshore Nile Delta have been largely documented in the literature. Operators are often confronted with drilling problems related to shale swelling, cavings, tight holes in combination with increased risks of lost circulation in some of the highly depleted formations. The Kafr El Sheikh shale in particular, has been linked to many instances of wellbore instability, due to its mineralogical composition (estimated to be mostly smectite, >70%). From offset well drilling experience, it could also be noticed that insufficient mud weight was often used to drill through the Kafr El Sheikh Shale, causing wellbore failure in shear due to lack of support of the wellbore wall. In the past, multiple mud weight designs have been implemented relying solely on pore pressure as lower bound of the mud window. With the increased use of geomechanics, it has been demonstrated that the lower bound should be taken as the maximum of the pore pressure and borehole collapse pressure, thus accounting for the effects of formation pressure, horizontal and vertical stresses, rock properties as well as wellbore trajectory. It has been proven that slight overpressure is often encountered halfway through the Kafr El Sheikh formation, which would typically result in slightly higher borehole collapse pressures. In the study fields, the operator expressed interest in drilling highly deviated wells (> 60-70 degrees). This raised concerns for increased drilling challenges, especially in the Kafr El Sheikh. A comprehensive and systematic risk assessment, design of a fit-for-purpose solution and its implementation during drilling took place in the fields of interest. Offset well data analytics from the subject fields supported a holistic evaluation of drilling risks associated with the Kafr El Sheikh, providing good understanding of stress sensitivity on deviation, azimuth and lithology. Upon building a robust geomechanical model, calibrated against offset well drilling experience, pre-drill mud weight and drilling practices recommendations were provided to optimize the drilling program. Near real-time geomechanical monitoring was implemented which helped to manage the model uncertainties. The implementation of a holistic risk assessment, including geomechanical recommendations and near real-time geomechanical monitoring, was effective to lead the drilling campaign successfully. As a result, three high angle wells (> 60-70 degrees) were drilled through the challenging Kafr El Sheikh formation without any hole instability. An integrated risk assessment of hole instability, managed in stages (pre-drill and during drilling), has helped to understand and simulate the behaviors of the formation. Proactive decisions have established a controlled drilling environment for successful operations.
Samuel, Orient Balbir (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Chandrakant, Ashvin Avalani (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Salleh, Fairus Azwardy (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Jamil, Ahsan (Baker Hughes) | Ibrahim, Zulkifli (Baker Hughes) | Ivey, Alan (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Field D is a mature offshore field located in East Malaysia. A geologically complex field having multiple-stacked reservoirs with lateral and vertical faulted compartments & uncertainty in reservoir connectivity posed a great challenge to improve recovery from the field. Severe pressure depletion below bubble point and unconstrained production from gas cap had contributed to premature shut-ins of more than 50% of strings. As of Dec 2019, the field has produced at a RF less than 20%. Initial wells design consisted of conventional dual strings & straddle packers with sliding sleeves (SSD). Field development team was challenged for a revamp on completion design to enhance economic life of the depleting field. In 2015, as part of Phase-1 development campaign, nine wells including four water injectors were completed initiating secondary recovery through water flood. An approach of Smart completion comprising of permanent downhole monitoring system (PDHMS) and hydraulic controlled downhole chokes or commonly known as flow control valve (FCV) was adopted in all the wells in order to optimize recovery from the field and step towards intervention-less solutions. Seeing the benefits of intelligent completion in Phase-1, Phase-2, drilled and completed in 2019 – 2020 has been equipped with new technology "All-electric Intelligent Completion System" in 4 out of 8 oil producers. The new design addresses the reservoir complexity, formation pressure and production challenges and substantial cost optimization, phasing out the load of high OPEX to CAPEX. Installation of "All-electric Intelligent Completion System" has proven to be an efficient system compared to hydraulic smart completions system. It requires 50% to 75% less installation time per zone and downhole FCV shifting time is less than five minutes compared to several hours full cycle for hydraulic system. The new system has capability to complete up to 27 zones per well with single cable. It gave more options and flexibility in order to selectively complete more zones compared to hydraulic FCVs which requires individual control line for each zone. Future behind casing opportunities (BCO) have been addressed upfront, saving millions of future investment on rig-less intervention. In addition to that, non-associated gas (NAG) zones have been completed to initiate in-situ gaslift as and when required avoiding the dependency on aging gaslift facility. The scope of the paper is to show case the well design evolution during Field D development and highlight on how smart completion has evolved from original dual completion to hydraulic smart and recently to electric smart system, how it has contributed to cost and production optimization during installation and production life and also support the gradual digitalization of the Field D. In the end it demonstrates the optimized completion design to enhance the overall economic life of the depleting field.
Gao, Xiang (Southwest Oil and Gas Field Company of CNPC) | Zeng, Jiaxin (Sichuan Changning Natural Gas Development Co., Ltd) | Xie, Jiajun (Sichuan Changning Natural Gas Development Co., Ltd) | Tang, Liang (Sichuan Changning Natural Gas Development Co., Ltd) | Li, Wenzhe (Sichuan Changning Natural Gas Development Co., Ltd) | Gui, Feng (Baker Hughes) | Ghosh, Amitava (Baker Hughes) | Ong, See Hong (Baker Hughes) | Huang, Xingning (Baker Hughes) | Deng, Lichuan (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Horizontal well drilling contribute to a dramatic increase of shale gas production in unconventional reservoirs. However, the drilling is also risky and challenging with different types of drilling problems often encountered including stuck pipes, inflows, losses and pack-offs, etc. To reduce shale-gas development costs, shale gas operators are faced with finding effective solutions to minimize drilling risks and improve drilling efficiency. A holistic workflow, which can be divided into three steps: pre-drilled modelling and assessment, real-time monitoring, and post-drilled validation, is proposed. Based on the pre-drilled geomechanical modeling, mud weights, mud formulations and casing setting depths are optimized to ensure wellbore stability during the drilling process. Real-time operations involve monitoring drilling parameters and cavings characteristics (shape and volume), and providing updated recommendations for field drilling engineers to mitigate and reduce borehole instability related problems. During the post-drilled stage, the updated geomechanical model will be used for optimizing the drilling designs of upcoming wells. With geomechanics as foundation, a systematic workflow was developed to provide integrated solutions by using multiple technologies and services to reduce serious wellbore instability caused by abnormal formation pressures, wellbore collapse and other complex drilling problems. The implementation of the systematic and holistic workflow has proven to be extremely successful in supporting the drilling of shale gas wells in China. The integrated approach, which was applied in a Changning shale gas block in Sichuan Basin for the first time in March 2019, recorded an improvement in ROP by 111.2% and a reduction in mud losses by 89.9% compared with an offset well without the risk mitigation strategy applied in the same pad. The geomechanics-based approach provides a convenient and effective means to assist field engineers in mud weight optimization, drilling risk assessments, and horizontal well drilling performance evaluation. The approach can also be extended to reduce potential drilling risks and improve wellbore stability, all of which contributes to reducing drilling costs and optimizing subsequent massive hydraulic fracturing jobs.
Abstract A deviated newly drilled gas well in Western Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan, with a flowing water reservoir pressure of 17,500-psi and a flowing gas reservoir pressure of 12,200-psi was unable to regain flow after an unsuccessful attempt to bullhead produced water back into the well. During the bullheading operation, there was a peak registered pumping pressure of 12,933-psi without admission of fluid into formation. Producing interval was 5880mTVD with a MASP of 9,700-psi for gas reservoir. Coiled Tubing was the most viable option to identify the problem, to solve it and to regain access to the lower completion and then proceed with interval abandonment program. This being an unconventional well in multiple aspects, presented serious challenges accentuated in Safety, Well Integrity Control, Obstruction Removal, and Well Conditioning Plan Forward. Integrity of completion was believed to be compromised by the high pumping pressures applied during bullheading and a confirmed communication between production tubing and "A annulus". After performing 2 rig site visits, an action plan was issued to adjust the platform for a Coiled Tubing intervention for the first time. Points to be developed in the plan were HSE, Structural Analysis and modifications required for proper equipment accommodation. For well integrity control, it was imperative to evaluate the potential scenarios which could have led to the problematic well status. Completion history and specifications were reviewed to assure each of the potential operating scenarios could be controlled without compromising well integrity. On obstruction removal, simulation software was used to design procedure with optimum string, chemicals, rates and fluids to be used for the operation and which contingency fluids considered to be available offshore. It is challenging to perform effective cleanouts in completions with 2 different sizes of tubings (IDs 3.74" & 2.2") combined with restrictions (1.92" nipple), the success is a function of overcoming limited fluid pumping rates, slow annular velocities, particle sizes, cleaning speeds, among others. Well conditioning for future completion operations was planned depending on successful achievements of the coiled tubing intervention. A total of 14 runs with coiled tubing using different BHA configurations were performed to complete the scope. Well was safely and successfully cleaned from a starting depth of 2,512mMD to a target depth of 5,864mMD (5,610mTVD) by removing mud deposits, consolidated sand bridges and completion restrictions. Throughout the cleanout operation, best practices discussed on planning stage were applied to remove multiple obstructions encountered and dealing with potential corkscrewed casing. By accomplishing the well delivery, it is evident that the methodology followed during the planning stage and execution, was crucial to save the well from being lost or abandoned. There was an uncertainty whether the completion integrity was compromised by the high pressures used during the bullheading operation. Novelty in this intervention was the methodology for the risk assessment for an unconventional live well intervention with a 17,500-psi BHP, unseen pressure in the region. Thorough structural analysis was performed to assure the coiled tubing equipment could be placed safely on the platform to condition the well to regain production
Lynn, Stephen (Baker Hughes) | Manoharan, Sumith (Baker Hughes) | Barkat, Souhaibe (Baker Hughes) | Al-Ruzeiqi, Saleh (Baker Hughes) | Terras, Yan (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Kindi, Ahmed (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Khaldi, Saud (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Sibani, Ahmed (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Ajmi, Hussain (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Ruqaishi, Abdullah (Petroleum Development of Oman)
Abstract With the large amount of tight gas reserves remaining in Oman, new innovative techniques and methods to unlock these reserves have become imperative for the future economic success and stability of the country. Among the various technologies considered, the concept of underbalanced coiled tubing drilling (UBCTD) was introduced. In order to address the harsh downhole challenges such as high temperatures, deep burial depths, under pressured reservoirs, abrasive and hard sands and logistical constraints; a fully integrated well delivery solution was developed jointly by the operator and energy service company. In accordance with this strategy, best in class downhole drilling tools, a state-of-the-art fully automated coiled tubing drilling unit together with technical and project management experts were deployed. Application specific solutions to the challenging subsurface conditions included utilization of underbalanced drilling (UBD) techniques, deployment of high temperature drilling assemblies, fit-for-purpose bit drive mechanism and a robust integrated management system. All of the above was achieved whilst ensuring the safety of all personnel during the project and reducing carbon emissions through a flare minimization strategy and diesel consumption reduction initiatives. Over the course of the pilot campaign, reservoir exposure per well was doubled, average penetration rate compared to conventional rotary drilling was more than tripled and incremental production improvements of up to 230% were observed. This paper discusses the challenges faced and the solutions implemented during this three well pilot campaign.
Bhimpalli, Sarah (ONGC) | Shinde, Ashok (Baker Hughes) | Rao, Bayye L (ONGC) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | Panchakarla, Anjana (Baker Hughes) | Chakrabarti, Prajit (Baker Hughes) | Saha, Sankhajit (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Geomechanics has an important role in assessing formation integrity during well construction and completion. It also has its effect when the wellbore is in production mode. Geomechanical study evaluate the impact of the present day in-situ stress and related mechanical processes on reservoir management. The study field ‘K' belongs to Plio-Pleistocene sequence of deep-water environment with hydrocarbon prospects. This belongs to Post-Rift tectonic stage of evolution with hydrocarbon occurring in structurally controlled traps. As a part of exploration activity, four offset oil wells were drilled earlier which were considered for the geomechanical model construction. Field (K) development plan comprising of six hydrocarbon producers and four water injectors was prepared. Considering the thick water column (300m-650m) in this deep water area of offshore and young unconsolidated sedimentary sequence in the sub-surface, expected pore-pressures can be high whereas the fracture gradient can be low. As a result, the safe drilling mud window can be narrow. Upon successful drilling of a well in such challenging environment without NPT (Non-Productive time), completing the well with best possible technologies suitable to the reservoir's mechanical behavior is utmost important for maximizing the production and minimizing the risk. To mitigate these problems in developing this field, an integrated reservoir geomechanics approach is adopted to optimize the drilling plan and reservoir completion parameters for the planned well. This paper covers the geomechanical study of four wells namely W, X, Y & Z drilled in the field ‘K'. The principal constituents of the geomechanical model are in-situ stresses, pore pressure and the rock mechanical properties. Geomechanical model for the field ‘K' was built utilizing the available data by integrating drilling, geology, petrophysics and reservoir data. Methodology adopted in this paper also highlights how a reliable geomechanical model can be built for a field, which is having data constraints. Constraining of stress magnitudes, orientation and anisotropy added value for efficient well planning in deep waters reservoirs. Calculating well specific reservoir rock mechanical properties, it made possible to identify the most optimal completion strategy. Approach contributed knowledge of geomechanical parameters based on the data of four offset wells has been used for successfully drilling and completion of all the subsequent wells without major challenges. Overall, geomechanical modeling has played a major role in drillability and deliverability of the reservoir. Integrated approach adopted in this paper can be used for well planning and drilling of future wells in East Coast of India with similar geological set up.
Abstract The objective of this paper is to provide a context for strategic use of fluid sampling while drilling (FSWD) in the deep-water environment. Our work is based on data collected from Gulf of Mexico wells over the last 7 years and we incorporate both operator and service company experience. In this paper we review the current FSWD technology and the quality of the fluid samples. We provide practical guidelines for executing the FSWD operation and review types of wells where FSWD has been most effective. We also discuss the role FSWD plays in the business of efficient well construction (drilling, evaluating, and completing). Strategic use of FSWD can provide time savings and operational risk mitigation. FSWD has proven to provide high quality data and fluid samples, however, an awareness of the differences between conventional fluid sampling (wireline) and sampling while-drilling is important for maximizing benefits. Additionally, long term strategic commitment to FSWD is likely to provide the largest benefits to operators. FSWD has been around for about 10 years, but how, and where, to apply the technology has not been clear to many operators. The broader industry can benefit by learning from experiences accumulated through consistent and extensive FSWD use in deep-water wells showing how the technology has progressed, and how it is used to achieve business benefits.
Abstract The necessity of knowing formation pressure is crucial to classifying pressure regimes for better understanding in well planning and to de-risk potential abnormal pressure conditions before any future field development wells are drilled, consequently minimizing operational cost. Wireline formation pressure testing has been a useful and reliable technology, that has evolved to confront the challenge of ultra-low permeable reservoir conditions by innovating and improving pump capability, accuracy in pressure measurements, automated control and the implantation of Formation Rate Analysis (FRA) intertwined with an Artificial Intelligent tool. In any pressure testing, the key factor is to be able to withdraw volume from the formation to generate a disturbance on formation pore pressure that a pressure gauge can measure. In the past this has been a difficult task in ultra-low permeable zones. The new generation of wireline tools are capable of withdrawing volume from ultra-low permeable reservoirs, with mobilities lower than 0.01mD/cP. This has been made possible by utilizing control of the pump speed down to 0.0003cc/s which then gives the operator the ability to test ultra-tight formations without the need for inflatable packers. By pulling down the pressure at an extremely low rate and using Artificial Intelligence to control the rate by knowing the formation rate, a proportional amount of volume can be extracted without calling it a tight test. During the operation by observing the rate, and making sure the pump is not oscillating, which indicates the formation rate is lower than the lowest rate the pump can withdraw, the test can be validated for formation flow and the pressure transient of the build – up can be analysed to confirm that at least spherical flow is observed. Once reservoir communication has been confirmed and by analysing drawdown and build-up pressure versus volume withdrawn and implementing the FRA equation, the reservoir pressure can be back calculated by considering isothermal compressibility and FRA slope. This paper highlights the best technical approach to quality check and quality control these tests, showing examples of various wells, where the technique has been used to predict a formation pressure, which can be used for further use for field development, drilling optimisation and production profiles. These pressures would never have been possible using static rates and volume.