This paper outlines methods to characterize hydraulic fracture geometry and optimize full-scale treatments using knowledge gained from Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests (DFITs) in settings where fracturing pressures are high.
Hydraulic fractures, whether created during a DFIT or larger scale treatment, are usually represented by vertical plane fracture models. These models work well in a relatively normal stress regime with homogeneous rock fabric where fracturing pressure is less than the Overburden (OB) pressure. However, many hydraulic fracture treatments are pumped above the OB pressure, which may be caused by near well friction or tortuosity but, may also result in more complex fractures in multiple planes.
Procedures are proposed for picking Farfield Fracture Extension Pressure (FFEP) in place of conventional ISIP estimates while distinguishing between storage, friction and tortuosity vs. fracture geometry indicators.
Analysis of FFEP and ETFRs identified in the DFIT PTA analysis method combined with the context of rock fabric and stress setting are useful for designing full-scale fracturing operations. A DFIT may help identify potentially problematic multi-plane fractures, predict high fracturing pressures or screen-outs. Fluid and completion system designs, well placement and orientation may be adjusted to mitigate some of these effects using the intelligence gained from the DFIT early warning system.
A flow simulation-driven time-lapse seismic feasibility study is performed for the Amberjack field that leverages existing multi-vintage 4D time-lapse seismic data. The focus is a field consisting of stacked shelf and deepwater reservoir sands situated in the Gulf of Mexico in Mississippi Canyon Block 109 in 1,030 ft of water. The solution leverages seismic interpretation, seismic inversion, earth modeling, and reservoir simulation [including embedded petro-elastic modeling (PEM) capabilities] to enable the reconciliation of data across multiple seismic vintages and forecast the optimal future seismic survey acquisition in a closed-loop. The overarching feasibility solution is integrated and simulation-driven involving multi-vintage seismic inversion, spatially constraining the petrophysical property model by seismic inversion, and performing reservoir simulation with the embedded PEM. The PEM is used to compute P-impedance and Vp/Vs dynamically, which enables tuning to both historical production and multi-vintage seismic data. The process considers a hybrid fine-scale 3D geocellular model in which the only upscaling of petrophysical properties occurs when the P-impedance from seismic inversion is blocked to the 3D geocellular grid. This process minimizes resampling errors and promotes direct tuning of the simulator response with registered seismic that has been blocked to a geocellular earth model grid. The results illustrate a three-part simulation-to-seismic calibration procedure that culminates with a prediction step which leads to a simulation-proposed time-lapse seismic acquisition timeline that is consistent with the calibrated reservoir simulation model. The first calibration tunes the model to historical production profiles. The second calibration reconciles the dynamic P-impedance estimate of the simulated shallow reservoir with that of the seismic inversion blocked to the 3D geocellular grid. The combination of these two steps outline a seismic-driven history matching process whereby the simulation model is not only consistent with production data but also the subsurface geologic and fluid saturation description. Large and short wavelength disparities in the P-impedance calibration existing between the simulator response and the time-lapse seismic data are attributed to resampling errors as a result of seismic inversion-derived P-impedance being blocked to the 3D geocelluar grid, as well as sparse well control in the earth model which leads to the obscuring of some asset-specific characteristics. The results of the third calibration step show how the time-lapse seismic feasibility solution accurately confirms prior seismic surveys undertaken in the asset. Given this confirmation, the solution achieves a suitable prediction of seismic-derived rock property response from the reservoir simulator as well as the optimal future time-lapse seismic acquisition time.
Swami, Vivek (CGG) | Tavares, Julio (CGG) | Pandey, Vishnu (CGG) | Nekrasova, Tatyana (CGG) | Cook, Dan (Bravo Natural Resources) | Moncayo, Jose (Bravo Natural Resources) | Yale, David (Yale Geomechanics Consulting)
In this study, a state-of-the-art seismic driven 3D geological model was built and calibrated to a petrophysical and geomechanical analysis, 1D-MEM (Mechanical Earth Model), on chosen wells within the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma. The well information utilized in this study included basic wireline logs and core analysis, including XRD (X-Ray diffraction) data. The traditional petrophysical analysis was augmented with advanced rock physics and statistical techniques to generate the necessary logs. Hydrostatic, overburden and pore pressures were calculated with a petrophysical evaluation model. The 1D-MEMs were based on the Eaton/Olson/Blanton approach with the HTI (Horizontal Transverse Anisotropy) assumption. The 1D-MEMs were calibrated to laboratory data (triaxial tests) and field observations (mud logs, wellbore failure, frac pressures). Therefore, a very good confidence was achieved on Biot's coefficient, tectonic components, anisotropy and dynamic to static conversion factors for Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio. Seismic inversions were performed in different time windows and merged to generate high resolution P- and S-Impedance attributes from surface down to the target interval after careful AVO compliant gather preconditioning. A density volume estimate was calibrated to well data, accounting for different geological formations, to decouple P- and S-Wave components as a 3D volume, as well as dynamic Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (PR). Dynamic E and PR were converted to static parameters using results from 1D-MEMs; and 3D models of Biot's coefficient (α) and tectonic components were built to compute 3D fracture pressure volumes calibrated to well data. The final products were seismic-driven 3D pore pressure and fracture pressure calibrated to 1D-MEMs. The correlation between measured/estimated well logs and corresponding seismic-derived pseudo logs was more than 80%, which indicates good quality of seismic inversion results and hence 3D-MEM. Also, stress barriers, anisotropy, and brittleness indices were calculated on well scale which would help to identify best zones to place hydraulic fractures. The 3D geological model will aid in identifying sweet-spots and optimizing hydraulic fractures.
Least-squares migration (LSM) has become an increasingly important imaging tool in the seismic industry. It can successfully address imaging issues related to insufficient illumination and mitigate both migration artifacts and noise. More recently, a number of case studies from around the world have shown that LSM provides greatly improved seismic imaging. However, only a few examples reveal its advantages in both imaging and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) inversion. For the amplitude aspect, compensating the effect of anelastic absorption and elastic scattering during propagation inside the earth has become increasingly popular over the past few years. The anelastic absorption and elastic scattering causes frequency-dependent amplitude decay, phase distortion, and resolution reduction. This is often quantified by the quality factor commonly called Q model. This effect can be largely compensated through Q prestack depth migration (QPSDM). Therefore, QPSDM has become an effective solution for seismic imaging in areas where strong absorption anomalies exist in the overburden. However, the excessive noise often resulting from QPSDM poses a big challenge to its application. In this paper, we propose a least-squares Q migration (LSQM) method that combines the benefits of both LSM and QPSDM to improve the amplitude fidelity and image resolution of seismic data. We also demonstrate that both seismic imaging and AVO inversions at wells can be significantly enhanced through image-domain single-iteration least-squares QPSDM Kirchhoff migration.
The anelastic effects of the earth can cause frequency dependent energy attenuation and phase distortion, especially when gas clouds are present. To correct these unwanted effects for proper imaging, both the velocity and quality factor (Q) models need to be accurately estimated. With FWI offering the capability to obtain higher-resolution models than tomography, visco-acoustic FWI (Q-FWI) is highly desirable for inverting both Q and velocity models together.
The visco-acoustic wave propagation in an anisotropic medium and the gradient computation for model parameters can be implemented in the framework of FWI. However, the similar radiation patterns between velocity and Q make the joint inversion non-trivial (
This paper will benefit engineers and geoscientists interested in creating representative hydraulic fracture simulation models and optimizing commercial-scale fracture treatments. The paper focuses on the emerging Duvernay shale formation in Alberta, Canada. Well fracturing pressures are often significantly higher than the Overburden (OB, lithostatic) pressure. Pressures above OB likely create horizontal (hz) bedding plane fracture components since sedimentary rocks are almost always weaker along bedding planes. Most fracture design simulators do not account for the simultaneous existence of multi-plane fractures (
DFIT analysis techniques and interpretation are hotly debated topics of late. The authors believe a portion of the gap in the understanding of how hydraulic fractures behave is a result of assuming fracture components are fully, or dominantly, vertical. Analysts often interpret high fracturing pressures as tortuosity or near-well friction. However, during the fall-off period after pumping a DFIT, pressures above OB can persist for up to 20 minutes after pump shut-down. Analysis of these tests often exhibit early-time radial flow signatures which are coincident with the OB gradient of ~22kPa/m (1psi/ft) also indicative of hz plane fractures. In
In the current paper DFIT PTA analysis is applied to two West Shale Basin Duvernay datasets. A physical model is presented (
Paul, Subhrankar (CGG) | Barajas, Carlos Manuel (CGG) | Gawron, Konrad Piotr (CGG) | Khakimov, Oleg (CGG) | Chatterjee, Shraddha (CGG) | Van Kleef, Franciscus (ADNOC Offshore) | Lecoq, Thierry Francis (ADNOC Offshore)
The 3D ocean bottom cable technique allows for acquiring long offset and wide azimuth seismic data. The use of simultaneous sources reduces the acquisition turn-around and HSE exposure. In shallow water environments, simultaneous source data are highly contaminated by surface waves and interference noise. Poor signal to noise ratio (S/N) affects velocity estimation, wavelet stability and overall image quality. This paper demonstrates the successful implementation of different processing and interpretation tools to deal with these challenges.
The initial velocity model was built by extrapolating checkshot corrected sonic velocities along the interpreted key horizons and was subsequently updated to achieve final PSTM velocity. Several passes of noise attenuation were applied. Volumetric curvature analysis was used to monitor and protect fault planes from smearing during the denoising process. Seismic to well ties were continuously monitored to quantify the improvement after each key process was applied and to QC the seismic wavelet through different processing steps.
A key factor to achieve a stable wavelet, at the end of the processing in the shallow water environment offshore Abu Dhabi, was the well driven horizon consistent velocity modeling. High seismic to well synthetic cross-correlation was observed on the final processed data due to the high S/N achieved by several passes of denoising, plus attenuation of strong multiple energy by velocity discrimination. High S/N, pickable geological events, and high resolution fault images are some of the key features of the final stacked image. In pre-stack data, long offset information is available to facilitate AVO and AVAz studies.
Incorporating geological knowledge in the interpretation of horizons and faults and using well data during the course of seismic processing proved to be effective in obtaining a high quality seismic dataset.
Drilling ultra-extended-reach (ultra-ERD) wellbores has redefined industry standards. Operators and service companies must fully assess the accompanying risks to maximize the overall productivity of an asset. New drilling technologies, such as improved drilling fluid design and geomechanics analyses, allow wellbores to be drilled to the lateral displacement of greater than 13 km. This requires improved absolute wellbore positioning, in conjunction with reduced uncertainties. When developing these drilling technologies, the economics must be considered so as not to exponentially increase the cost per barrel of oil. The increase in infill drilling of nearby offset wellbores requires developing improved methods that reduce wellbore position uncertainty when placing the wellbore in the reservoir, in addition to avoiding collisions.
The proposed geomagnetic referencing technique is suitable for the application to the Sakhalin-1 project in eastern Russia. Here there is a predominance of ultra-ERD wellbores coupled with considerable knowledge of the varying depth of the basement rock structure. This paper presents a process used for creating a geomagnetic crustal field model that can be updated to the actual survey location with the date and time for real-time application. This process can also be used in the reprocessing of legacy measurement-while-drilling (MWD) data. The application of this process significantly improves wellbore position accuracy. The ability to have a greater understanding of the overall geomagnetic field, along with enhanced techniques in multistation algorithm processing, removes the effects of drillstring and the cross-axial interference due to mud shielding effects. Additional benefits of this application include reduced wellbore tortuosity for planned wells, improved anticollision separation factors, and improved torque and drag profiles.
This new geomagnetic model, updated to the actual survey location, date, and time and incorporating realistic uncertainty determinations based on basement rock depth analysis, has resulted in a 50% improvement in the overall ellipse of uncertainty (EOU) when compared with previous definitive surveys, in addition to an accurate bottomhole location. Incorporating these advanced techniques reduces position uncertainty that improves overall 3D wellbore positioning. Other studies, such as a disturbance field study, evaluate the effects of the magnetospheric ring current, auroral electrojets, and secondary induced fields, and was conducted by analyzing the magnetic observatory data from the same magnetic latitude to quantify the maximum and minimum declination variations during a magnetic storm.
Analysis of mini-frac or, as commonly referred to in North America, Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests (DFITs), have traditionally been the sub-discipline of completion & hydraulic fracture stimulation engineers. Conducting such tests has direct and indirect costs resulting from the test itself and the extended time required for the pressure falloff, that delays the completion of the well. The benefits must therefore outweigh the costs if the test is to be justified. The value is evident as these tests are performed regularly around the world as it is one of only a few processes that can help quantify within the same test both geomechanical properties and reservoir performance drivers.
The authors will present examples and lessons learned from regions around the world. In addition, the availability of a large quantity of public, high-quality data from oil & gas operators in Western Canada operating in shale and ultra-tight formations enable an assessment of the successes and failures of wellbore completions, reservoir types, and operator procedures. This treasure-trove of data will help completion engineers regardless of their basin of operations to overcome one of industries challenging questions "did the test achieve its objectives."
The deblending of seismic data is highly data-dependent and can be particularly challenging when cross-talk noise is not sufficiently random. We modify the deblending approach to include both cascaded iterative signal estimation and random noise attenuation to make it more effective in this setting. Firstly we focus on retrieving the direct arrival and primary signals from shallow reflectors which are responsible for the majority of the cross-talk noise, following which we address weaker reflectors. In addition, each iteration of signal estimation is followed by three-dimensional joint low-rank and sparse inversion noise attenuation to ensure that minimal cross-talk noise enters the signal space. We illustrate the benefits of the approach on an OBN survey acquired offshore Indonesia.
Presentation Date: Tuesday, October 16, 2018
Start Time: 1:50:00 PM
Location: 211A (Anaheim Convention Center)
Presentation Type: Oral