Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Group) | Tran, Toan Van (Dialog Group) | Chin, Hon Voon (Dialog Group) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton) | Suggust, Alister Albert (PETRONAS) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS) | Zamzuri, Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS) | Abdussalam, Khomeini (PETRONAS) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS)
The first successful natural dump-flood in the Malaysian offshore environment provided numerous lessons learned to the operator. The minimal investment necessary for implementing the dump-flood coupled with the lack of recompletion opportunities in the subject wells suggested that direct execution without spending on expensive data gathering activity and extensive reservoir study makes more sense from a business point of view. A similar oil gain compared to a water injection project can be achieved at a significantly lower cost of USD 0.01 to 0.15 million in an offshore environment through dump-flooding.
The existing oil producers in the depleted reservoirs in Field B were originally completed and successfully drained oil from in a high-pressured watered-out reservoir below, making it an ideal dump-flood water source. The dump-flood was initiated by commingling the target and water source reservoir through zone change, allowing water to naturally cross-flow into the pressure depleted target reservoir. Once a memory production logging tool (MPLT) confirmed the cross-flow, the offtake well was monitored to determine the impact of the dump-flood and produce once the pressure was increased. Minimal investment was necessary because the operations were executed using slickline. The reservoir model will be calibrated once the positive impact of dump-flood is realized in the offtake well.
The first natural dump-flood in Reservoir X-2 has successfully produced 0.29 MMstb as of August 2018 with 600 BOPD incremental oil gain. The incremental recovery factor (RF) from the first dump-flood is predicted to be from 5 to 8%. Based on this success, it was decided to replicate the dump-flood project in other depleted reservoirs with Reservoir X-2 as an analog. Four reservoirs were subsequently identified, each with an estimated operational cost of approximately USD 0.01 million and potential incremental reserves of 0.10 to 0.20 MMstb per reservoir. The minimal investment necessary, the idle status of the wells and reservoirs, and the potential incremental reserves suggested that it is more appealing to proceed with implementing the dump-flood without undergoing an extensive and costly reservoir study. With reservoir connectivity being important to the success of dump-flooding, a more cost-effective approach would be to confirm the connectivity by monitoring the offtake well after the dump-flood is initiated. This approach provides more value because the cost of interference or pulse testing is significantly more expensive than the cost of the dump-flood itself while reservoir connectivity was already indicated as likely by geological data (map and seismic). Through a value driven approach, these dump-flood opportunities become more economically viable, allowing the operator to prolong the life of the assets and maximize the field profit.
This paper discusses using a value driven and business approach to implement the dump-flood in a mature field. Valuable insight into the business and technical considerations of implementing dump-floods are described, which are relevant to the industry, especially in today's low margin business climate.
Mogollón, J. L. (Halliburton) | Yomdo, S. (OIL India Limited) | Salazar, A. (Halliburton) | Dutta, R. (OIL India Limited) | Bobula, D. (Halliburton) | Dhodapkar, P. K. (OIL India Limited) | Lokandwala, T. (Halliburton) | Chandrasekar, V. (CMG)
The perception of better economics and less risk from infill drilling and recompletions are reasons well-focused remedies are preferred compared to reservoir-focused solutions, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, most literature does not discuss the economic and risk indicators driving this.
Using a real example, this work demonstrates that combining polymer flooding with infill drilling and recompletion substantially increases economic benefits with reasonable risk.
The reservoir considered is an Oligocene sandstone at a depth of 2700 m. The °API is 29.5 and permeability ranges from 50 to 500 mD. Current reservoir pressure is 43% of the original and it is below bubble point. A black oil model with a 133 × 56 × 128 grid was used. The model incorporated more than 50 years of matched primary and waterflooding production history and experimental polymer physico-chemical parameters. For the stochastic economic risks estimation, 1,000 iterations were run for each scenario considering uncertainties in injection-production, capital expenditures (CAPEX), operational expenditures (OPEX), and oil prices.
For a 20-year horizon, the injection-production-pressure profiles were numerically forecasted; economic results were calculated using a classic model and inputs from the forecast. The economic risk was determined stochastically. The redevelopment scenarios considered were as follows: Base: current waterflooding Existing wells interventions: workover, opening shut-in wells, and new perforations Infill drilling: vertical/horizontal infill drilling wells + existing wells operations Polymer flooding: using existing wells Combined Infill and polymer: vertical infill drilling wells and polymer flooding
Base: current waterflooding
Existing wells interventions: workover, opening shut-in wells, and new perforations
Infill drilling: vertical/horizontal infill drilling wells + existing wells operations
Polymer flooding: using existing wells
Combined Infill and polymer: vertical infill drilling wells and polymer flooding
P50 forecasts showed that interventions in existing wells in the base scenario increased oil production by 11% and net present value (NPV) by 71% with a risk index of 0.38.
A numerical optimizer was used to account for possible combinations of 14 potential drilling locations and vertical to horizontal well ratios. A scenario with three vertical wells was selected. Compared to the base case, this scenario showed an oil production increase of 23%, NPV increase of 178%, and a risk index of 0.41.
The injection rate of the polymer flood was optimized, resulting in a 17% increase in oil production and 95% increase in the NPV, with a risk index of 0.40. This justifies performing a polymer flood.
The most promising scenario is the combined infill drilling and polymer injection, which significantly improved the economic indicators—30% increase in oil production, 230% improvement of the NPV over the base scenario, with a risk index of only 0.41.
The results of this study demonstrate that the combination of EOR with different operational strategies results in significant benefits compared to the individual scenarios. Analysis of just oil production independent of economics and risk can be misleading. Infill drilling or flooding should no longer be the question. Instead, the question should be how they can be properly combined at various stages of asset life.
Inyang, Ubong (Halliburton) | Cortez-Montalvo, Janette (Halliburton) | Dusterhoft, Ron (Halliburton) | Apostolopoulou, Maria (University College London) | Striolo, Alberto (University College London) | Stamatakis, Michail (University College London)
Estimating the effective permeability and microfracture (MF) conductivity for unconventional reservoirs can be challenging; however, a new method for estimating using a stochastic approach is discussed. This new analysis method estimates matrix permeability and the unpropped and propped MF conductivities during laboratory testing where MFs were propped with ultrafine particles (UFPs).
Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations form the basis of the method used to estimate effective permeability of the core sample. First, the stochastic model was implemented to calculate effective matrix permeability of a small core taken from unfractured Eagle Ford and Marcellus formation samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and adsorption data to obtain the pore-size distribution (PSD) within the sample. The KMC approach then evaluated the effect of various parameters influencing the conductivity of laboratory-created MFs. Case studies considered for this work investigate the conductivity improvement of a manmade MF as a function of the UFPs used as proppants that maintain width under high stress, the UFP (proppant) concentration, and the UFP flow perpendicular into a secondary or adjacent MF zone (2ndMF) penetrating the face of an opened MF during flow testing under stress. The leakoff area widths considered were 1, 2, and 3 mm and can be propped or unpropped.
Results obtained for the unfractured Eagle Ford and Marcellus samples closely correlate with other computational and experimental data available. For the laboratory-prepared nonpropped and propped MF samples, the effective propped width was determined to have the greatest effect on the MF conductivity, which increased by two orders of magnitude in the presence of the UFPs. The remaining two factors—proppant concentration and length of 2ndMFs—helped improve the effective MF conductivity in a linear manner; the highest proppant concentration and the 2ndMF zone resulted in the highest fracture conductivity achieved. Insight obtained from this study can be used to optimize fracturing designs by including UFPs and to create strategies for maximizing hydrocarbon recovery during development of unconventional resources where MFs are opened during stimulation treatments.
Abdulhadi, Muhammad (Dialog Group Berhad) | Tran, Toan Van (Dialog Group Berhad) | Chin, Hon Voon (Dialog Group Berhad) | Jacobs, Steve (Halliburton) | Wahid, Muhammad Izad Abdul (PETRONAS) | Usop, Mohammad Zulfiqar (PETRONAS) | Zamzuri, Dzulfahmi (PETRONAS) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS) | Abdussalam, Khomeini (PETRONAS) | Munandai, Hasim (PETRONAS) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS)
Infill Well B-23, which was recently drilled in the CIII-2 reservoir located in the Balingian Province, experienced a rapid pressure and production decline. The production decreased from 2,200 to 600 BLPD within 1 year. Analysis of the permanent downhole gauge (PDG) data revealed that Well B-23 production was actually influenced by two other wells, B-20 and B-18, each located 2,000 ft away. This paper discusses the ensuing analysis and optimization efforts that helped reverse the Well B-23 pressure decline and restored its production to 2,200 BLPD.
Based on the typical causes of rapid production and pressure decline, operators initially believed Well B-23 was located in a small, separate compartment compared to Wells B-18 and B-20. Additionally, the Well B-23 behavior differed significantly from Wells B-18 and B-20. PDG data analysis provided clear evidence of well interference despite the significant distance between the well locations. Changes in the other wells immediately affected the Well B-23 pressure, thus leading to the conclusion that production from Wells B-20 and B-18 impeded the pressure support for Well B-23. To optimize Well B-23 production, Well B-20 was shut in while Well B-18 was produced at a reduced rate because of a mechanical issue.
The optimization initially resulted in more than 500 BOPD incremental oil from Well B-23. The well pressure decline was reversed, with PDG data showing a continuous increase of bottomhole pressure (BHP) despite an increase in the production rate. Subsequently, production was fully restored from 600 to 2,200 BLPD, and reservoir pressure returned to its predrill pressure. Going forward, the optimum withdrawal rate from the CIII-2 reservoir will be determined to ensure maximum oil recovery from both Wells B-18 and B-23. The case study proved the significant benefit of PDG data, which helped identify well interference as the actual cause of the rapid decline in Well B-23, instead of a reservoir or geological issue. Through in-depth analysis and thorough understanding of the reservoir, the operator restored what initially appeared to be a poor well to full production.
This case study shows the clear and strong effect of well interference and highlights how the subsequent results of the optimization effort were rapidly obtained. A comprehensive understanding of the reservoir behavior could not have been achieved at minimum cost without the pair of PDGs installed. The analysis and lessons learned from the Well B-23 PDG data provide valuable insight regarding the impact of well completions to the field of reservoir engineering.
Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a method where equivalent circulating density (ECD) is kept less than the effective pore pressure of the zone being drilled by 100 psi or more. Drilling in an underbalanced state provides a unique opportunity to gather real-time virgin reservoir data that would never be observed again after typical damaging effects from conventional overbalanced drilling. This condition allows formation fluid to flow into the wellbore during the drilling process, helping prevent drilling mud and associated contaminants from penetrating the producing formation, which protects the producing zone and minimizes the potential for formation damage. Proper instrumentation and drilling procedures allow acquisition of data that is then interpreted and analyzed to extract information about the reservoir. UBD benefits include: Increased rates of penetration by up to 50% Increased value by producing hydrocarbons while drilling Increased production rates mean quicker payouts Reduced formation damage Reduced lost circulation costs Reduced potential risks of differentially stuck pipe
Increased rates of penetration by up to 50%
Increased value by producing hydrocarbons while drilling
Increased production rates mean quicker payouts
Reduced formation damage
Reduced lost circulation costs
Reduced potential risks of differentially stuck pipe
An operator in India was truly the first to implement UBD technology within depleted reservoir sections of identified wells in an offshore asset. Three wells were planned as a part of the project. Project objectives, feasibility studies to determine applicability of the UBD technology to the selected field, an operational summary, and results of UBD operations on the first well are discussed.
Objectives for implementing UBD technology within the identified field included helping prevent reservoir damage, thereby enhancing oil production and recoverable reserves from the wells, and helping improve drilling performance within the reservoir section by eliminating mud losses, hence increasing lateral length and reservoir contact.
High viscosity friction reducers (HVFRs) are an important component of slickwater hydraulic fracturing applications. To continue to treat multiple clusters effectively within longer laterals, even for stages near the toe area, a high molecular weight HVFR polymer, such as polyacrylamide, is commonly used to overcome pipe friction at 1 gal/Mgal or lower. To carry proppant into fractures, it is commonly assumed that the higher viscosity the HVFR yields, the better the proppant transport, necessitating higher HVFR concentrations than 1 gal/Mgal. However, a field study within the Anadarko Basin demonstrates that viscosity is not necessarily the best indicator of how efficiently HVFRs carry proppant. Instead, HVFR elasticity might play a more important role during proppant transport. Secondly, HVFRs concentration of 1 gal/Mgal or higher could potentially plug the proppant pack or form a filter cake on the rock surface, causing formation damage. Although previous laboratory methods to determine potential formation damage exist, results are difficult to correlate with field applications; hence, the conclusions remain elusive. A relatively new analysis procedure yielding improved assessments of residual HVFR concentrations for both flowback and produced waters, which aid understanding potential formation damage after hydraulic fracturing, is discussed.
Seismic attributes play an important role during reservoir characterization and three-dimensional (3D) lithofacies modeling by providing indirect insight of the subsurface. Using seismic attributes for such studies has always been challenging because it is difficult to determine a realistic relationship between hard data points (i.e., well information) and a 3D volume of seismic attributes. However, a probability-based approach for 3D seismic attribute calibration with well data provides better results of lithofacies modeling and spatial distribution of reservoir properties. This paper presents a probability-based seismic attribute calibration technique that has been described for 3D lithofacies modeling and distribution. This approach helps in subsurface reservoir characterization and provides a realistic lithofacies distribution model. This approach also helps reduce uncertainty of lithofacies prediction compared to conventional methods of simply using geostatistical algorithms.
Monitoring and reevaluation of petrophysical attributes in a mature field under production for many decades is crucial for optimizing production and further development planning. In this case study, a multidisciplinary approach is deployed for formation evaluation and reservoir characterization using logging-while-drilling (LWD) sensors spanning formation volumetrics, fluid analysis, high-resolution image interpretation, and geomechanics to confirm remaining oil saturations and help identify recompletion intervals. LWD technologies were used in four wells in Sahmah field of Oman to provide an integrated petrophysical and geomechanical field study using a bottomhole assembly (BHA) including gamma ray, resistivity, formation bulk density, thermal neutron, acoustic, high-resolution imaging, and formation pressure testing sensors. A deterministic multimineral petrophysical model was used to derive formation volumetrics and fluid analysis. Geomechanical interpretation used high-resolution microresistivity imaging, acoustic slownesses, and formation pressure data to verify principal stress orientations and to quantify pore pressure and horizontal minimum and maximum stress magnitudes. These data were then correlated with historical data to evaluate sweep efficiency and residual fluid saturations. LWD sensors have proven to provide robust geological, petrophysical, and geomechanical data compared to previous traditional wireline data acquisition.
Brice Y. Kim and I. Yucel Akkutlu, Texas A&M University, and Vladimir Martysevich and Ronald G. Dusterhoft, Halliburton Summary The stress-dependent permeabilities of split shale core plugs from Eagle Ford, Bakken, and Barnett Formation samples are investigated in the presence of microproppants. An analytical permeability model is developed for the investigation, including the interactions between the fracture walls and monolayer microproppants under stress. The model is then used to analyze a series of pressure-pulsedecay measurements of the propped shale samples in the laboratory. The analysis provides the propped-fracture permeability of the samples and predicts a parameter related to the quality of the proppant areal distribution in the fracture. The proppant-placement quality can be used as a measure of success of the delivery of proppants into microfractures and to design stimulation experiments in the laboratory. Introduction Unconventional-oil/gas resources, such as tight gas/oil and resource shale, have low porosity and ultralow permeability. Creating a well-connected complex fracture network is a key component of increasing the permeability and accelerating production. The early era of hydraulic fracturing horizontal wells in unconventional formations was concerned with achieving long fractures with multistage treatments with large cluster spacing. However, recent trends in this type of well completion and stimulation involve fractures that are created in narrower clusters in much closer spacing, targeting larger surface areas. It is argued that the practice of hydraulic fracturing with narrow clusters in close spacing along a lateral wellbore creates fractures with significantly reduced sizes, but in a complex network (Rassenfoss 2017). The creation of a network of fractures includes major operational issues.
Five different variants of the acrylamidotertiary-butyl sulfonic acid (ATBS) / N,N-dimethylacrylamide (NNDMA) copolymer were examined and evaluated, comparing their mixability and fluid-loss performance. These were characterized using gel permeation chromatography equipped with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS) and viscometry to evaluate the effects of number average molecular weight (Mn), radius of gyration (Rg), dispersity (Đ), and viscosity values in water and cement. It was determined that there was an optimum Đ value at which the mixability performance of the cement slurry formulated with the fluid loss copolymer was achieved. Additionally, it was determined that an increase in Đ improved fluid loss performance for a given Mn and Rg. More interestingly, an increase in Rg at fixed Mn and Đ decreases fluid-loss performance, which is counterintuitive to the particle bridging mechanism. A quantitative relationship between the copolymer characteristics and its fluid-loss performance was determined. Understanding the relationship between structure and function of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid-NNDMA copolymers in a cement slurry is the first step toward designing fluid-loss additives with targeted properties.