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Abstract Drilling is probably the most critical, complex, and costly operation in the oil and gas industry and unfortunately, errors made during the activities related are very expensive. Therefore, inefficient drilling activities such as connection duration outside of optimal times can have a considerable financial impact, so there is always a need to improve drilling efficiency. It is for this fact, that the measure of different behaviors and the duration of the drilling activities represent a significant opportunity in order to maximize the cost saving per well or campaign. Reducing the cost impact and maximizing the drilling efficiency are defined by the way used to calculate the perfect well time by the technical limit, non-productive time (NPT), and invisible lost time (ILT), in an operating company drilling plan. Different approaches to measure the invisible lost time that could be present in the in slips activity on the drilling operation are compared. Results show the differences between multiple techniques applied in real environments coming from a cloud platform. The methodologies implemented are based on the following scenarios, the first one use a combination of a custom technical limit based on technical experience, the historical data limit using standard measures (mean, average, quartiles, standard deviation, etc.), and a depth range variable (phases) differentiation, initial, intermediate, and final hole sizes is used. A complexity comparison uses the rig stand and phase footage variables for base line (count and duration) definition per phase, the non-productive time activities exclusion and data replace techniques mixing with an out of standard time detection in slips behavior (motor assemblies, bit replacing, bottom hole assembly (BHA), etc.) using standard and machine learning mechanisms. A final methodology implements an in slip ILT by technical limit definition using machine learning. The results using the same data set (set of wells) and coming from the different methods has been evaluated according to the total invisible lost time calculated per phase, percentage of activities evaluated with invisible lost time per phase and the variation of ILT considering the activities defining the technical limit. Finally, the potential implementation by any operator can be evaluated for these methodologies according to their specific requirements. This analysis creates a guideline to operating companies about multiple techniques to calculate ILT, some using innovative procedures applied on machine learning models.
Penman, Andrew (Halliburton) | Wong, Siong Ming (Halliburton) | Cooper, Paul (Halliburton) | Fares, Wael (Halliburton) | Parker, Tim (Halliburton) | Goraya, Yassar (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Alfelasi, Ali Saeed (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Khemissa, Hocine (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Al Dhafari, Bader Mohamed (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Khaled, Islam (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Ashraf, Muhammad (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Al-Mutwali, Omar (ADNOC OFFSHORE) | Okuzawa, Takeru (ADNOC OFFSHORE)
Abstract A detailed visualization of borehole size and shape, both while drilling and prior to running casing, completions, or wireline logging equipment, is an essential requirement to minimize non-productive time (NPT) associated with poor borehole quality or wellbore stability issues. The required visualization is made possible using logging-while-drilling (LWD) high-resolution ultrasonic imaging technology, suitable for both water-based mud (WBM) and oil-based mud (OBM) systems. This paper provides borehole size and shape assessment from field deployments of a 4¾-in. ultrasonic calliper and imaging tool, illustrating the impact on borehole quality of various bottom-hole assembly (BHA) designs, including positive displacement mud motors (PDMs) and rotary steerable systems (RSS). The visualization of borehole quality enables features such as borehole spiralling and enlargement to be assessed and used as input into optimizing completions planning and formation-evaluation programs. In addition, the combination of high-resolution travel-time and reflection-amplitude images enables artefacts induced by drilling equipment, including RSS, to be identified and understood. High-resolution travel-time and reflection-amplitude images and 3D borehole profile plots are presented from multiple wells, showing how different drilling systems and logging parameters, including drillstring rotation and logging speeds, impact borehole quality. The relationship between the angular bend in the PDM and the impact it has on borehole spiralling is discussed. The LWD logs presented illustrate the factors that influence borehole quality and the methodology used to ensure that high-resolution images are available in both vertical and high-inclination wellbores, leading to the ability to reduce the NPT associated with wellbore stability issues. The observation and assessment of drilling artefacts and irregular borehole size and shape act as inputs into optimizing completion and logging programs, evaluating the optimal placement of packers and other completion equipment, and the design of the drill bit and BHA. The ability to collect high-resolution travel-time and reflection-amplitude ultrasonic images in both WBM and OBM, in wellbores ranging from 5¾ to 7¼-in., leads to significant improvements in the understanding of wellbore quality. Borehole size and shape can now be visualized in real time in either water or oil-based drilling fluids at a resolution capable of identifying all significant drilling-induced geometric artifacts. This allows the adjustment of drilling parameters to minimize NPT associated with common drilling hazards, the optimization of completion programs and wireline logging programs.
Saleh, Khaled (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Khudari, Abdulaziz Bader (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Najdi, Amer (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Azmi, Mejbel Saad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Otaibi, Fahad Barrak (Kuwait Oil Company) | Joshi, Girija Kumar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abdulkarim, Anar (Halliburton) | Farhi, Nadir (Halliburton) | Nouh, Walid (Halliburton) | Clarion, Benjamin (Halliburton)
Abstract Traditionally, 12.25-in. hole sections in the Jurassic formations were planned to be drilled with mud weight (MW) of 20 ppg and solids content of 45%. The planned drilling would use a rotary assembly from the Hith formation, crossing several zones in which mud losses or gains were likely. The casing would then be set in the thin shale base of the Gotnia formation. A minor inaccuracy in casing setting depth could often lead to well-control issues. Pore pressure drops severely below the shale base and requires a MW of 15 ppg. Passing this shale base can lead to severe losses and potential abandonment of the well. An anhydrite marker is located approximately 50 ft above the shale base. To reduce risk, the operator would normally drill to this marker at a rate of penetration (ROP) of 20-30 ft/hr, then decrease the ROP to 2 ft/hr. While slowly drilling the last part of the section, penetration would be stopped every few feet to circulate bottoms-up to receive samples confirming the shale base; this process requires an additional 24 hours of rig time. After reaching the casing point, the operator would pull out of the hole to pick up logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools to perform a wiping run. This logging, however, is frequently cancelled because of wellbore stability issues, resulting in the loss of important formation-evaluation data across this interval. A new solution has been developed, comprising drilling with a rotary assembly to the final anhydrite marker, then pulling the string out of hole to pick up LWD triple-combo and sonic tools, with a conventional gamma ray sensor placed only 6 ft from the bit. The remaining part of the section would then be drilled at 7-10 ft/hr until the gamma-ray tool detected the shale base, thereby determining the casing depth. In addition, it was planned to re-log the previously drilled interval. This solution prevented the well from potential abandonment and reduced drilling time. It also secured critical formation evaluation data for exploration and future field development. The engineered drilling solution was tried for the first time in these formation sequences within a harsh drilling and logging environment. The option of rotary steerable services with an at-bit GR sensor was not considered because of the high cost.
Abstract To mitigate strength retrogression at temperatures, higher than 230°F, well cement designs typically include strength retrogression control additives (SRCAs). Solid siliceous materials (e.g., silica flour, fume, and sized-sands) are commonly used SRCAs that are incorporated into cements using dry-blending techniques. This study highlights liquid silica compositions as alternative SRCAs to dry-blended silica for high-temperature cementing. Liquid additives can be managed easily, delivered accurately, and offer a reduced on-site footprint, thus making them particularly advantageous for operations offshore and in remote locations. This paper presents a study on the use of liquid silica compositions as SRCAs and their effect on cement slurry properties, such as thickening time, mixability, fluid loss, rheology, and free water. The cement slurry used during the current study was prepared and tested according to API RP 10B-2 (2005). The performance of the liquid silica composition was tested at temperatures up to 400°F. Set cement samples were prepared using the liquid silica composition and silica flour, cured for up to 14 days at different temperatures. In addition, permeability testing was also performed on the samples. This paper presents the findings of this research, including strength and permeability test results on cement blends cured at temperatures of 300, 330, 350, and 400°F. The liquid silica composition, which provided silica to the cement formulation equivalent to 35% BWOC dry silica (48% BWOC liquid SRCA), functioned effectively as an SRCA at temperatures up to 330°F. Signs of strength retrogression were observed at 350°F and were more pronounced at 400°F. A greater concentration of the liquid silica composition may be necessary to prevent strength retrogression at temperatures higher than 330°F. The liquid silica composition also demonstrated mild retardation and a dispersing effect on the slurry. However, it helped enable improved slurry stability and suspension, thus providing improved control over free water without adverse effects on fluid loss and sedimentation. The study results demonstrate that a liquid SRCA can help improve the performance of annular cement designs to provide dependable barriers and effective zonal isolation during high-temperature cementing applications. The improved performance enabled by this liquid silica composition verifies its potential use as an alternative SRCA for high-temperature oil well cementing operations.
Abstract The Khazzan and Ghazeer gas fields in the Sultanate of Oman are projected to deliver production of gas and condensate for decades to come. Over the life of the project, around 300 wells will be drilled, with a target drilling and completion time of 42 days for a vertical well. The high intensity of the well construction requires a standardized and robust approach for well cementing to deliver high-quality well integrity and zonal isolation. The wells are designed with a surface casing, an intermediate casing, a production casing or production liner, and a cemented completion. Most sections are challenging in terms of zonal isolation. The surface casing is set across a shallow-water carbonate formation, prone to lost circulation and shallow water flow. The production casing or production liner is set across fractured limestones and gas-bearing zones that can cause A- and B-Annulus sustained casing pressure if not properly isolated. The cemented completion is set across a high-temperature sandstone reservoir with depletion and the cement sheath is subjected to very high pressure and temperature variations during the fracturing treatment. A standardized cement blend is implemented for the entire field from the top section down to the reservoir. This blend works over a wide slurry density and temperature range, has expanding properties, and can sustain the high temperature of the reservoir section. For all wells, the shallow-water flow zone on the surface casing is isolated by a conventional 11.9 ppg lightweight lead slurry, capped with a reactive sodium silicate gel, and a 15.8 ppg cement slurry pumped through a system of one-inch flexible pipes inserted in the casing/conductor annulus. The long intermediate casing is cemented in one stage using a conventional lightweight slurry containing a high-performance lost circulation material to seal the carbonate microfractures. The excess cement volume is based on loss volume calculated from a lift pressure analysis. The cemented completion uses a conventional 13.7 - 14.5 ppg cement slurry; the cement is pre-stressed in situ with an expanding agent to prevent cement failure when fracturing the tight sandstone reservoir with high-pressure treatment. Zonal isolation success in a high-intensity drilling environment is assessed through key performance zonal isolation indicators. Short-term zonal isolation indicators are systematically used to evaluate cement barrier placement before proceeding with installing the next casing string. Long-term zonal isolation indicators are used to evaluate well integrity over the life of the field. A-Annulus and B-Annulus well pressures are monitored through a network of sensors transmitting data in real time. Since the standardization of cementing practices in the Khazzan field short-term job objectives met have increased from 76% to 92 % and the wells with sustained casing pressure have decreased from 22 % to 0%.
Moustafa, Islam Khaled (ADNOC Offshore) | Gutierrez, Freddy Alfonso (ADNOC Offshore) | Alfelasi, Ali Saeed (ADNOC Offshore) | Khemissa, Hocine (ADNOC Offshore) | Mutwali, Omar Al (ADNOC Offshore) | Vargas, Mario (ADNOC Offshore) | Fares, Wael (Halliburton) | Clegg, Nigel (Halliburton) | Aki, Ahmet (Halliburton)
Abstract Drilling horizontal wells in the mature giant carbonate fields offshore Abu Dhabi, where high uncertainty regarding the lateral distribution of fluids results in variable water saturation, is very challenging. In order to meet the challenges and reduce uncertainty, the plan was to drill pilot holes to evaluate the resistivity of the target zones and plan horizontal sections based on the information gained. To investigate the possibility of avoiding pilot holes in the future, an ultra-deep electromagnetic (EM) tool was deployed to map the mature reservoirs, identifying formation and fluid boundaries before penetrating them, avoiding the need for pilot holes. Prewell inversion modeling was conducted to optimize the spacing and firing frequency selection and to facilitate early real-time geosteering and geostopping decisions. The plan was to run the ultra-deep resistivity mapping tool in conjunction with shallow propagation resistivity, density, and neutron porosity while drilling the 8 ½-in. landing section. The real-time ultra-deep EM inversion was run using depth of inversions up to 120 ft., to be able to detect the reservoir early and evaluate the predicted reservoir resistivity. This would allow optimization of any geostopping decision. The ultra-deep EM tool delivered accurate mapping of thin reservoir layers while drilling the 8 ½ inch section, as well as enhanced mapping of low resistivity zones up to 85 ft. True Vertical Thickness (TVT) in a challenging low resistivity environment. The real-time EM inversion enabled the prediction of resistivity values in target zones prior to entering the reservoir; values were later crosschecked against open-hole logs for validation. The results enabled identification of the optimal geostopping point in the 8 ½-in. section, enabling up to seven rig days to be saved in the future by eliminating pilot holes, in addition to eliminating the risk of setting a whipstock at high inclination with subsequent milling operations. In specific cases, this minimizes drilling risks in unknown/high reservoir pressure zones by improving early detection of a formation tops, thus improving geostopping decisions. Plans were modified for a nearby future well and the pilot-hole phase was eliminated because of the confidence provided by these results. Deployment of the ultra-deep EM tool in these mature carbonate reservoirs may reduce the uncertainty associated with fluid migration. In addition, use of the tool can facilitate precise geosteering to maintain distance from fluid boundaries in thick reservoirs. Furthermore, due to the depths of investigation possible with these tools, it will help enable the mapping of nearby reservoirs for future development. Further multi-disciplinary studies remain desirable using existing standard log data to validate the effectiveness of this concept for different fields and reservoirs.
Abstract Recently, flood kill applications have been evaluated to cure blowouts due to gas migration from behind the casing while keeping the well integrity intact for further production. Traditionally, deterministic evaluations are used in planning these operations, ignoring the uncertainties in the characteristics of the gas sources behind the casing. This work focuses on using reservoir simulation-based workflow to evaluate the uncertainty providing probabilistic operating conditions to control the gas rates coming from behind the casing. The results of the simulations are combined to provide general guidelines for performing an effective flood kill operation. The studied parameters are divided in different categories based on their influence/impact on the effective kill. For example, the relationship between the best relief well position and reservoir permeability and anisotropy are studied, and the guidelines for the definition of the best location is identified. Based on the results of the analysis, the optimum required proximity of the wells can be determined. The analysis identifies the main factors for a successful flood kill operation. The situations where flood kill could be beneficial are identified and the success rate could be evaluated. This paper presents a methodology and guidelines for the design of an effective flood kill application. This methodology will help in positioning of the relief well and provide required control mechanisms to increase the chances of a successful operation. The methodology also provides insight on the required operating parameters, such as pump rates and total volume to be injected, for the operation to be successful. In addition, the developed workflow can be updated as more information is gathered while drilling the relief well. This will help in improving the chances of a flood-kill operation while providing tighter controls on the operational conditions.
Abstract The present paper describes the results of the formulation of an acid-soluble low ECD organoclay-free invert emulsion drilling fluid formulated with acid soluble manganese tetroxide and a specially designed bridging package. The paper also presents a short summary of field applications to date. The novel, non-damaging fluid has superior rheology resulting in lower ECD, excellent suspension properties for effective hole cleaning and barite-sag resistance while also reducing the risk of stuck pipe in high over balance applications. 95pcf high performance invert emulsion fluid (HPIEF) was formulated using an engineered bridging package comprising of acid-soluble bridging agents and an acid-soluble weighting agent viz. manganese tetroxide. The paper describes the filtration and rheological properties of the HPIEF after hot rolling at 300F. Different tests such as contamination testing, sag-factor analysis, high temperature-high pressure rheology measurements and filter-cake breaking studies at 300F were performed on the HPIEF. The 95pcf fluid was also subjected to particle plugging experiments to determine the invasion characteristics and the non-damaging nature of the fluids. The 95pcf HPIEF exhibited optimal filtration properties at high overbalance conditions. The low PV values and rheological profile support low ECDs while drilling. The static aging tests performed on the 95pcf HPIEF resulted in a sag factor of less than 0.53, qualifying the inherent stability for expected downhole conditions. The HPIEF demonstrated resilience to contamination testing with negligible change in properties. Filter-cake breaking experiments performed using a specially designed breaker fluid system gave high filter-cake breaking efficiency. Return permeability studies were performed with the HPIEF against synthetic core material, results of which confirmed the non-damaging design of the fluid. The paper thus demonstrates the superior performance of the HPIEF in achieving the desired lab and field performance.
Abstract Maintaining the integrity of the drilling-fluid column is vital for safety and operational efficiency. Stable, controlled fluid density provides a primary pressure barrier during the drilling phase. Non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) provide huge benefits for nearly all aspects of difficult drilling situations, yet still can have challenges related to weight suspension. The geometry and annular restrictions of modern well designs often demand low fluid rheology parameters to avoid excessive circulating pressures, and this unsurprisingly increases the risks of sagging weight material. Given the importance of understanding the fluid behaviors in these situations, operators and service companies have made significant efforts to develop reliable sag testing methods. Older methods of testing neglected movement and instead centered on mimicking the downhole conditions such as temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Variations of this static aging method addressed the critical angle where Boycott settling accelerates the sag. More complex, dynamic methods were devised later in time to provide greater insight on sag behaviors. Although engineers and scientists have made numerous strides to create a definitive sag test, the current tests have limited capabilities. Very few are capable of working in an offshore environment. Sag events continue to be costly and problematic to operators’ main objectives of drilling and completing their wells safely and efficiently. The authors address results from the current state of the art in sag testing and compare these to a proprietary dynamic procedure created in 2019. While the method is still in development, its capabilities have been well defined. Fluid samples are kept in constant motion at low-ranging shear rates and elevated temperatures to simulate sag-prone conditions downhole. Results indicate a high degree of correlation to the expected sag with different sizes of barite in low-ECD fluids.
Wijaya, Aditya Arie (Halliburton) | Wu, Ivan Zhia Ming (Halliburton) | Parashar, Sarvagya (Halliburton) | Iffwad, Mohammad (Halliburton) | Yaakob, Amirul Afiq B (Petronas Carigali) | Tolioe, William Amelio (Petronas Carigali) | Sidid, Adib Akmal Che (Petronas Carigali) | Ahmad, Nadhirah Bt. (Petronas Carigali)
Abstract In recent years, the development of frontier areas brings added challenges to formation evaluation, especially thinly bedded reservoirs. It is challenging to evaluate such reservoirs due to the low resistivity values and high shale volume, which masks the contrast between water and hydrocarbon zones. Using conventional approaches in these types of reservoirs will underestimate the hydrocarbon potential and reserves estimates. A study has been carried out of the thin-bed laminated reservoir in B-field using the tensor model technique to assess the hydrocarbon potential. Additional data from borehole imaging and sonic logs are critical for enhancing the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential and complements the result of the tensor model evaluation. The study was conducted to calculate the sand resistivity and sand porosity using a combination of the tensor model and the Thomas-Stieber model. The tensor model uses acquired horizontal and vertical resistivities, while the Thomas-Stieber model uses the calculated shale volume and porosity. One of the main parameters in the tensor model is shale resistivity, which upon analysis, varies across many shale sections in the well. This uncertainty is reduced by picking multiple shale resistivity values based on borehole image facies analysis. The VPVS ratio technique and Brie’s plot using compressional and shear travel time are used as a qualitative analysis that indicates the same gas-bearing interval. The tensor model calculations improve hydrocarbon saturation by a range of 4-21%, depending on sand thickness and shale volume, which increases the net to gross by more than 20%. The borehole image facies analysis helps to objectively pick the shale resistivity parameters to avoid subjective interpretation and underestimating the pay. A qualitative approach using sonic data helps to identify the potential gas-bearing interval and complement the previous tensor model interpretation. Although all interpretation methods indicate a similar gas-bearing interval that correlates with the mudlog total gas reading, the combination of the tensor and Thomas-Stieber method with image constrained shale resistivities gives the most definitive gas saturation and net pay The novelty of this study is to showcase two things. First is the application of combined tensor and Thomas-Stieber model in a laminated reservoir, with image constrained shale resistivity for improved gas saturation and net pay. The second is to highlight the use of gas-sensitive sonic data to confirm the gas saturated interval.