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This paper summarizes leak detection technologies available for use on subseapipelines and the potential role of fiber optic cable (FOC) integritymonitoring systems to improve leak detection capabilities. Available systemswhich monitor offshore pipelines for potential leaks based on internalflowrates and pressures are described along with their limitations for rapidlydetecting small leaks. Alternative pipeline leak detection technologies whichhave been used on some specialized subsea pipeline projects to supplement thecapabilities of these flow-based systems are also described along with theirlimitations. The potential for modern FOC distributed sensing technologies tofill the remaining leak detection capability gaps is then addressed.
There is increased interest in improving leak detection system capabilitiesthroughout the pipeline industry. However, the primary application of thispaper is for offshore pipeline projects which may not be adequately covered byconventional flow-based leak detection systems and supplemental monitoring forpotential oil sheens visible on the sea surface. These applications includedeep water pipelines, where potential oil leaks may not reach the surface untilmiles away from the source, and subsea arctic pipelines, which could slowlylose significant oil volumes under the cover of winter sea ice. Other potentialapplications include subsea field developments and pipelines installed inunusually sensitive marine environments.
Distributed FOC sensor systems can monitor real-time temperature, acousticnoise/vibration and strain along many miles of pipeline. Changes in any one ofthese monitored parameters can indicate a leak event or other potentialintegrity threats to a pipeline. An overview of FOC systems already installedon offshore pipeline projects and the current testing status of FOC systems forpipeline leak detection are provided. Recommendations for installation andimplementation of the available FOC technologies for subsea pipeline leakdetection are summarized.
The limited applications of distributed fiber optic cable (FOC) monitoringsystems on subsea pipelines have not yet been used specifically for leakdetection purposes. The leak detection thresholds defined for FOC systems andthe procedures for design, installation and system repair will facilitate theuse of FOC systems to help ensure leak free pipeline operations.
Further, IM should not be another "layer" of management, as youcritical to success. An OTC paper written by John B. Reed, INTEC Engineering'sinternal interfaces. CEO, addresses EPIC contracting and is titled "Risks: Ability toand budget matters, completely overlooking the long-term impacts Regarding "controlling costs," I have seen Uri Nooteboomcan be traced directly to inadequate front-end work. Owners sometime fail to equate lack of definition with a cost element called contingency. To the Editor: I read with interest the article by Allen Sinor on "TheOwners also tend to call for competitive bidding for major contracts, Importance of Being Value Driven" (August JPT, p.20) and couldwhich attempts to pin the contractors down to fixed pricing when the The Economic Value to thescope of work they are asked to bid on is not defined.
This paper addresses the latest developments in remote field control strategy and focuses on long distance umbilical control versus the use of a control buoy located over the field. The paper provides an insight into both the technology and also the commercial key drivers for the selection of control strategy.
The historical development of umbilicals and control buoys is summarised. The relevant technologies are described, covering aspects such as buoy design, telecommunication options, onboard power, fluid storage and injection capabilities, operational issues including access and maintenance, and opportunities for workover activities. The discussion is supported by case examples drawn from a number of fields around Australia.
Management - No abstract available.
Pinna, Rodney (School of Oil & Gas Engineering, The University of Western Australia) | Cole, Geoff (School of Oil & Gas Engineering, The University of Western Australia) | Murphy, David (School of Oil & Gas Engineering, The University of Western Australia) | McKay, Stuart (INTEC Engineering)
Liquid inventory management is an important subject in a subsea wet gas pipeline system mainly due to long distance (~ 56 miles), large diameter (20+ inches), and three-phase fluid (gas, water/MEG, and condensate) effects. Using multiphase transient simulation, this paper addresses some issues related to liquid inventory management as a result of transient operations, such as restart and rampup (production increase). This study reveals that gas velocity and a knowledge of liquid holdup during steady state and transient operations at any time and place are key parameters in developing a field operation strategy. Managing pipeline liquid holdup at all times will ensure that liquid surge arriving onshore will be within the slug catcher liquid handling capacity, while the transient operations can be reasonably managed.