Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy) | Balaji, Karthik (University of North Dakota) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Ege University) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Moreno, Raul (Smart Recovery) | Rabiei, Minou (University of North Dakota) | Zhou, Zifu (University of North Dakota) | Ranjith, Rahul (Far Technologies)
Due to complex characteristics of shale reservoirs, data-driven techniques offer fast and practical solutions in optimization and better management of shale assets. Developments in data-driven techniques enable robust analysis of not only the primary depletion mechanisms, but also the enhanced oil recovery in unconventionals such as natural gas injection. This study provides a comprehensive background on application of data-driven methods in oil and gas industry, the process, methodology and learnings along with examples of data-driven analysis of natural gas injection in shale oil reservoirs through the use of publicly-available data.
Data is obtained and organized. Patterns in production data are analyzed using data-driven methods to understand key parameters in the recovery process as well as the optimum operational strategies to improve recovery. The complete process is illustrated step-by-step for clarity and to serve as a practical guide for readers. This study also provides information on what other alternative physics-based evaluation methods will be able to offer in the current conditions of data availability and the understanding of physics of recovery in shale oil assets together with the comparison of outcomes of those methods with respect to the data-driven methods. Thereby, a thorough comparison of physics-based and data-driven methods, their advantages, drawbacks and challenges are provided.
It has been observed that data organization and filtering takes significant time before application of the actual data-driven method, yet data-driven methods serve as a practical solution in fields that are mature enough to bear data for analysis as long as the methodology is carefully applied. The advantages, challenges and associated risks of using data-driven methods are also included. The results of comparison between physics-based methods and data-driven methods illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method while providing the differences in evaluation and outcome along with a guideline for when to use what kind of strategy and evaluation in an asset.
A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between key components of the formation and the way various elements of an EOR process impact these interactions, is of paramount importance. Among the few existing studies on natural gas injection in shale oil with the use of data-driven methods in oil and gas industry include a comparative approach including the physics-based methods but lack the interrelationship between physics-based and data-driven methods as a complementary and a competitor within the era of rise of unconventionals. This study closes the gap and serves as an up-to-date reference for industry professionals.
Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Ege University) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Putra, Dike (Rafflesia Energy) | Asena, Ahmet (Turkish Petroleum Corp.) | Ranjith, Rahul (Far Technologies) | Jongkittinarukorn, Kittiphong (Chulalongkorn University)
Smart field technologies offer outstanding capabilities that increase the efficiency of the oil and gas fields by means of saving time and energy as far as the technologies employed and workforce concerned given that the technology applied is economic for the field of concern. Despite significant acceptance of smart field concept in the industry, there is still ambiguity not only on the incremental benefits but also the criteria and conditions of applicability technical and economic-wise. This study outlines the past, present and the dynamics of the smart oilfield concept, the techniques and methods it bears and employs, technical challenges in the application while addressing the concerns of the oil and gas industry professionals on the use of such technologies in a comprehensive way.
History of smart/intelligent oilfield development, types of technologies used currently in it and those imbibed from other industries are comprehensively reviewed in this paper. In addition, this review takes into account the robustness, applicability and incremental benefits these technologie bring to different types of oilfields under current economic conditions. Real field applications are illustrated with applications in different parts of the world with challenges, advantages and drawbacks discussed and summarized that lead to conclusions on the criteria of application of smart field technologies in an individual field.
Intelligent or Smart field concept has proven itself as a promising area and found vast amount of application in oil and gas fields throughout the world. The key in smart oilfield applications is the suitability of an individual case for such technology in terms of technical and economic aspects. This study outlines the key criteria in the success of smart oilfield applications in a given field that will serve for the future decisions as a comprehensive and collective review of all the aspects of the employed techniques and their usability in specific cases.
Even though there are publications on certain examples of smart oilfield technologies, a comprehensive review that not only outlines all the key elements in one study but also deducts lessons from the real field applications that will shed light on the utilization of the methods in the future applications has been missing, this study will fill this gap.
Hashim Noori, Wildan (Istanbul Technical University) | Cinar, Murat (Istanbul Technical University) | Salehian, Mohammad (Istanbul Technical University) | Alkouh, Ahmad (College of Technological Studies)
Steam injection is one of the well-known thermal recovery processes that has been extensively applied to heavy oil reservoirs. Several efforts have been made to understand theoretical and practical aspects of steam injection and alkali flooding. However, the detailed information about the performance of steam-alkali flooding in field applications has not been deeply addressed yet. In this sense, in order to shed light on the background and applications in this area, this study comparatively investigates the efficiency of different strategies of pure steam injection and cyclic steam-alkali flooding in Bati Raman oil field, Turkey.
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the advantage of steam-alkali injection compared to pure steam injection for an 11.6° API Bati Raman crude oil. The steam injection system consists of two reservoirs for water and the alkali solution, an electrical pump, and an electric steam generator. Those three experiments are as follows; conventional pure steam injection, cyclic injection of steam and alkali solution 4.0 wt%, and cyclic injection of steam and alkali solution 8.0 wt%. Steam was injected with the rate of 10 ml/min at 110°C and the system pressure was set to be the atmospheric pressure. The liquid produced from the separators is sampled periodically to determine the oil recovery.
Observation of sand packs after the experiments indicates the tendency for steam channeling in the vertical direction around the upper thermocouple. Since the upper thermocouple was inserted after the sand packing operation by pressing and rotation, steam could be passed through these channels without entering the all pores in the porous media. The average oil recovery by conventional pure steam injection, steam-alkali solution 4.0 wt% injection, and steam-alkali solution 8.0 wt% are 8%, 3% and 5.5% OOIP (original oil in place), respectively. This indicates that although the oil recovery in conventional pure steam injection was maximum, increasing the alkali concentration in the aqueous solution from 4% to 8% has caused the improvement in the recovery.
The theoretical and practical information is supported by the experimental examples to evaluate the performance of different steam-alkali flooding strategies with Borax in heavy oil reservoirs of Bati Raman. This study also examines the challenges of steam-alkali flooding in extremely heavy oil reservoirs and explains that the pure steam injection is preferred due the insufficient change in interfacial tension during Borax injection process.
Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy) | Irani, Mazda (Ashaw Energy) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Schlumberger) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Moreno, Raul (Smart Recovery) | Balikcioglu, Aysegul (USC) | Diaz, Jose M. (VCG O&G Consultants) | Zhang, Guodong (China Petroleum Eng and Construction Corp.) | Wang, Jie (College of Technological Studies) | Alkouh, Ahmad
As major oil and gas companies have been investing in renewable energy, solar energy has been part of the oil and gas industry in the last decade. Originally, solar energy was seen as a competing form of energy source as a threat that may replace or decrease the share of fossil fuels as an alternative energy resource in the world. However, oil and gas industry has adapted to the wind of change and has started investing and utilizing the solar energy significantly. In this perspective, this study investigates and outlines the latest advances, technologies, potential of solar both as an alternative and a complementary source of energy in the Middle East in the current supply and demand dynamics of oil and gas resources.
A comprehensive literature review focusing on the recent developments and findings in the solar technology along with the availability and locations are outlined and discussed under the current dynamics of the oil and gas market and resources. Literature review includes a broad spectrum that spans from technical petroleum literature with very comprehensive research to non-technical but renowned resources including journals and other publications including raw data as well as forecasts and opinions of respected experts. The raw data and expert opinions are organized, summarized and outlined in a temporal way within its category for the respective energy source.
Solar energy is discussed from a perspective of their roles either as a competing or a complementary source to oil and gas. In this sense, this study goes beyond only providing raw data or facts about the energy resources but also a thorough publication that provides the oil and gas industry professional with a clear image of the past, present and the expected near future of the oil and gas industry as it stands with respect to renewable energy resources.
Among the few existing studies that shed light on the current status of the oil and gas industry facing the development of the renewable energy are up-to-date and the existing studies within SPE domain focus on facts only lacking the interrelationship between solar energy and oil and gas such as solar energy used in oil and gas fields as a complementary green energy.
Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy) | Irani, Mazda (Ashaw Energy) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Schlumberger) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Moreno, Raul (CSmart Recovery) | Diaz, Jose M. (VCG O&G Consultants) | Tao, Tao (Texas Southern University) | Alkouh, Ahmad (College of Technological Studies)
Along with the advances in technology, greener technologies that help to minimize carbon footprints are becoming more common in oilfield applications as well as other areas. Electrical heating is one of the relatively more environmentally-friendly heavy oil recovery technologies that is not new but has gained more popularity with the advances in electrical heating equipment and the technologies within the last decade offering longer and reliable operations that led to its use as a standalone recovery method rather than only a preheating method. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the production optimization is outlined that includes not only the reservoir aspects but also the production and facility aspects of electrical heating in heavy oil reservoirs. A full-physics commercial simulator has been coupled with an optimization/uncertainty tool to understand the significance of uncertainty and control variables that influence the production function in addition to the analysis of normalized type curves in different real field cases. The challenges encountered during implementation of electrical heating processes in terms of production, reservoir and facilities engineering are outlined in order to provide a comprehensive and practical implementation perspective rather than only theoretical and/or simulation work. It is observed that electrical heating can be promising when applied in the right place and can bring lots of benefits not only in terms of low water-cut recovery, but also low carbon footprint and low costs associated with environmental fees. The significant parameters are listed for a robust and successful implementation of an electrical heating project. There are studies on electrical heating, but they are either outdated reflecting the old technology, or only focusing on simulation/theoretical work or only case focusing only reservoir or production aspects. This study fills the gap and provides a comprehensive look in detail in the theory, real-field practical problems and solutions from source of electricity to production of the heavy oil illustrating the costs associated that can serve as a solid reference for future implementations. 2 SPE-193707-MS
Salehian, Mohammad (Istanbul Technical University) | Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy LLC-EBS) | Gok, Ihsan Murat (Istanbul Technical University) | Cinar, Murat (Istanbul Technical University) | Alklih, Mohammad Y. (ADNOC)
Use of smart well technologies to improve the recovery has caught significant attention in the oil industry in the last decade. Capacitance-Resistance (CRM) methodology is a robust data-driven technique for reservoir surveillance. Reservoir sweep is a crucial part of efficient recovery, especially where significant investment is done by means of installation of smart wells that feature inflow control valves (ICVs) that are remotely controllable. However, as it is a relatively newer concept, effective use of this new technology has been a challenge. In this study, the objective is to present the efficient use of ICVs in intelligent fields through the integrated use of capacitance-resistance modeling and smart wells with ICVs.
A standard realistic SPE reservoir simulation model of a waterflooding process is used in this study where the smart well ICVs are controlled with conditional statements called procedures in a fully commercial full-physics numerical reservoir simulator. The simulation data is utilized to build the CRM model to obtain the inter-well connectivities at the zonal level beyond only the inter-well connectivity data as smart wells provide control and information on the amount of injection into each layer or zone. Thus, after analyzing the CRM model to detect the inter-well connectivities at the zone/layer-level in an iterative way, the optimum injection not only at the well level but also at the perf/zone level is found. The workflow is outlined as well as the improvements in the results.
The smart well technology has been challenged with the associated cost component thus, it is important to present the benefits of this technology with applications in more diverse cases with different workflows. It has been observed that a robust reservoir characterization in an intelligent field can provide an insight into the physics of reservoir including smart wells with ICVs. The results are presented in a comparative way against the base case to illustrate the incremental value of the use of ICVs along with key performance indicators. Most importantly, it has been shown that smart well use without a robust reservoir management strategy does not always lead to successful results.
In reservoir management, it is not only important to catch the well level details but also see the big picture at the field level to improve the performance of the reservoirs beyond individual well performances taking into account the interference between wells. This method takes the reservoir surveillance to the next level where reservoir characterization is improved using smart field technologies and capacitance-resistance modeling as a robust cost-effective data-driven method.
The rock cutting technology has been developed quickly in the last century. However, the cutting of hard and abrasive rocks still has some problems such as low penetration rate and high wear rate of cutting tools. If the rock is abrasive, in addition to the high cost due to cutting tool wear, the replacement of tools causes considerable downtimes. Therefore, the understanding of the abrasivity of rocks is very important for the excavation projects. In this study, the effect of strength and mineralogy on the Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI) was investigated for igneous rocks collected from the ten different locations. First, the uniaxial compressive strength and the Brazilian tensile strength tests were carried out. Then, the CAI tests were performed on the samples. The quartz and feldspar contents were also determined by mineralogical analysis.
The test results were evaluated using the regression analysis. First, quartz plus feldspar contents were correlated to the CAI values. A strong correlation was found between the CAI and the quartz plus feldspar content. The correlation between the CAI and rock strength is not strong. Multiple regression analysis was also performed by including rock strength and the quartz plus feldspar content to the analysis. The correlation coefficient of the multiple regression model is slightly higher than that of the simple regression model. Concluding remark is that the evaluation of the abrasivity characteristics of igneous rocks should be further investigated by increasing the number of tested rock types and including the textural properties to the analysis.
The abrasivity is one of the important properties of rocks, which must be taken into consideration in excavation or drilling projects. It may highly affect the cost and schedule of the projects performed in abrasive rock mass. If the rock is abrasive, the replacement of tools causes considerable downtimes in addition to the high cost due to cutting tool wear. On the other hand, in the abrasive grounds, wear can also occur on several parts of the excavation machine (Nilsen et al., 2006 and 2007). Another important issue is that high rock abrasivity coincides frequently with higher rock strength. In such cases, for TBMs, the continuous application of high cutter load for the desired penetration will cause of bearing problems in discs. A failed bearing will lead to flattening of the disc at the face and the ensuing domino effect can cause a full wipe out of the cutters at the face in a very short time, if not detected/intercepted by the operator quickly. (Rostami, 2016). Therefore, the understanding of wear mechanism of cutting tools and various machine components is important for the planning and cost estimation of excavation projects.
Shaterpour-Mamaghani, Aydin (Istanbul Technical University) | Copur, Hanifi (Istanbul Technical University) | Dogan, Engin (Eczacibasi Esan) | Erdogan, Tayfun (Sargin Construction and Machinery Industry Trade Inc.)
In the recent years, the continuing trends has been towards to mechanization of shaft excavation operations. Mechanization offers safer, faster, more efficient, and more environment friendly operations in mining and tunneling. Raise Boring Machine (RBM) is one of the mechanical excavation machines that commonly used in mine and tunnel projects for excavation of shafts. This study aimed to analyze the effect of intact rock properties (uniaxial compressive strength and indirect tensile strength) and RQD (rock quality designation), as well as fault zones on the performance of a RBM (daily advance rate, consumed tricone bit torque, net pushing force, instantaneous penetration rate, unit penetration, net cutting rate, consumed tricone bit power, and field specific energy) during pilot drilling of one of the ventilation shaft in the Balya lead-zinc underground mine, Turkey. The field investigation indicated that the instantaneous penetration rate, unit penetration, and net cutting rate were the highest in the fault zone compared to the other geological units. The statistical modeling studies indicated that RQD might be a predictor for estimation of field specific energy. Additional field and laboratory data is required to improve the reliability of the discussed models in this study.
Mechanization of shaft excavation in underground mining and tunneling is one of the factors that directly affect the cost reduction and increase the profitability of mining and tunneling projects. In recent years, the continuing trends has been towards to mechanization of shaft excavation. Mechanization offers safer, faster, more efficient, and more environment friendly operations in mining and tunnelling projects.
Raise Boring Machine (RBM) is an effective means of shaft construction where bottom access is available for removal of cuttings. These machines are used for different purposes such as excavation of ventilation and ore transport shafts in mines, surge in hydropower plants, penstock lines (incline/ vertical), switching lines between underground subway tunnels (horizontal), stairs tunnels (inclined), and ventilation shafts in road and railway tunnels. A RBM uses a small diameter drill rod (around 230-350 mm) to drill a pilot hole down to the required depth. Then, the pilot drill bit is removed and replaced with a large diameter reamerhead. The reamerhead is usually then pulled back up to the upper level, creating a round shaped shaft. The flexibility in different angles / gradients / inclinations and diameters is a great advantage compared to drill and blast excavation method. The back reaming is a safe, efficient and cost-effective method of boring holes through different geological formations. This method is suitable in both hard and soft rocks being usually in massive nature. Raise boring is convenient method in competent rock; however, several problems are faced in geological formations where geological discontinuities are dominant. Besides, assembly and disassembly time may be long in some cases.
Tumac, Deniz (Istanbul Technical University) | Copur, Hanifi (Istanbul Technical University) | Balci, Cemal (Istanbul Technical University) | Shaterpour-Mamaghani, Aydin (Istanbul Technical University) | Er, Selman (Istanbul University) | Avunduk, Emre (Istanbul Technical University)
Physical and mechanical property tests (uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, Schmidt hammer hardness, Shore scleroscope hardness, density, static elasticity modulus, static Poisson’s ratio, P and S wave velocities, dynamic elasticity modulus and dynamic Poisson’s ratio) and textural analyses (texture coefficient, mean grain size and grain packing weighting) were carried out on metamorphic stones. To determine the cuttability of the studied stones; the samples were cut with a portable linear cutting machine using a standard chisel tool at different depths of cut in unrelieved (non-interactive) cutting mode. The average normal and cutting forces (FN, FC) and specific energy (SE) were measured. First, simple regression analyses were carried out to determine the best relationships between the dependent variable (chisel tool performance) and each independent variable (physical, mechanical and textural properties). Second, multiple linear regression analyses were performed using selected independent variables. Then, the simple and multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the cutting performance of a chisel tool. Experimental studies show that laboratory cutting performance of chisel tool may be predicted based on the physical, mechanical and textural properties of the natural stones. The outcomes suggest that the selected properties are proportional to either specific energy or each of the forces measured during the cutting tests. This study also indicates that there are strong correlations between texture coefficient and cutting performance of chisel tool. The models developed in this study could be used by planners and natural stone companies for cost prognosis and cutting operation schedule.
The performance estimation of mechanical excavators has a great impact on the production/cost. Hence, predicting the performance of the machines, such as tunnel boring machine, roadheader, shearer, diamond wire cutting machine, chain saw machine, largely influences the process of decision making in feasibility stage.
In order to estimate the performance of chisel type tools, many laboratory rock cutting studies have been carried out. Some of them may be summarized as follow. McFeat-Smith and Fowell (1977) emphasized that specific energy (SE) and pick wear were significantly related to Shore scleroscope hardness (SSH). McFeat-Smith and Fowell (1977; 1979) declared that SE determined using core cutting tests was the most common practice to estimate performance of roadheaders. Fowell and Pycroft (1980) pointed out a significant relation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), cone indenter hardness and SE. The meaningful relations between SE and SSH were determined by Tiryaki (2006). Copur (2010) and Copur et al. (2011; 2012) noticed important relationships between SE, normal force (FN), cutting force (FC), coarseness index (CI), optimum cutter spacing to cutting depth ratio (s/d), and rock properties such as UCS, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), static and dynamic elasticity modulus (Esta and Edyn). Tumac (2014) emphasized that SE and FC obtained from the small scale cutting tests could be predicted by SSH. Ozturk et al. (2004) investigated the relations between texture coefficient (TC), mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks and cutting performance of a standard chisel tool. They pointed out that there were moderate and good relationships between TC and cutting performance of standard chisel tool. Tiryaki and Dikmen (2006) carried out a series of linear cutting tests on sandstones using a chisel tool at 5 mm depth of cut in unrelieved cutting mode. They indicated that there was a good relationship between TC and SE.
Ground control condition is one of the most important issues in mechanized longwall mining. The Alpu lignite field in Turkey presents a challenging situation because of its thick, weak and clay content surrounding strata. The purpose of this study is to figure out the ground control condition of the study area by the following steps: classification of the geotechnical units, rock mass classification, cavability index, required shield capacity and floor bearing capacity. Geotechnical classification of the strata layers and rock mass classification was determined by the lithology of the boreholes and laboratory test analyses of them. Caving behavior of the roof strata was predicted by the polish scientists method. Then by applying the “US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)” roof rating system at possible roof strata, results were compared. Roof strata were classified as “immediately caving” strata in all production alternatives. Required shield capacity was estimated by detached block method. The caving height was calculated based on the bulking factor of the lignite and roof strata. Low strength floor strata act as a limitation to mining height increasing in all production alternative. Possible mining height was determined as five and six meters with the LTCC method. Required shield capacity in each production alternative was raised by increasing cutting height. To avoid failure during the production, supports should be advance with pressure by touching the roof and soon after the cutting. In addition, cutting height should be limited to the critical height.
Since the 1980; longwall mining has become rival to many surface mining operation performances by achieving more safety, high production and most productive in underground coal mining (Galvin, 2016). The longwall mining method is preferred for stratiform and flat lying orebody and orebody dip needed to be less than 20°. Under the hydraulic roof support, coal is cut with shearer and the broken cut coal is loaded by armored face conveyor (AFC) to the belt conveyor which is parallel to the face advance (Brady and Brown, 1985).
Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a comparatively new method for mining thick coal seams. LTCC currently has reached high production and efficiency in longwall mining mostly in China. The procedure is almost the same as the traditional longwall mining method. The Shearer cuts coal seam from the lower section of it onto AFC that installed near the cutting face and in front of the hydraulic support. A rear conveyor belt is added behind the support in the modern LTCC, so the caved coal in the upper part of the seam can flow to the rear conveyor from the canal which is controlled by the rear canopy of the support (Alehossein and Poulsen, 2010). A schematic model of the top coal caving method is illustrated in Fig. 1.