Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is indeed a very effective technology in reducing the CO2 concentrations from the atmosphere and possesses massive potential for mitigating climate change. Over the years CCS processes has evolved, however, it is still believed to be in initial phase and appears as a new idea to many under developed countries. Today CCS appears as the only applicable solution to reduce Gigatonnes (Gt) CO2 emissions besides burning the fossil fuels for energy. The application, however, is not as straightforward as it appears. The high costs and potential risks associated leaves the vision of mitigating climate change through CCS under obscurity, thereby, making the future of CCS a bit vague. This paper aims to project the near future of CCS by the analysis of present CCS prospects, CO2 capturing and storage processes, risks and problems associated, and more importantly the economics encompassing a CCS project. The paper begins with the brief overview of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), followed by a comparison of different capturing processes, storage mechanisms, potential problems and risk complications; a comparison of renewables in contrast with CCS is provided. Lastly, the economics and costs of present CCS prospects in different parts of world are discussed.
Younus, Hafiz Muhammad Bilal (Pakistan Petroleum Limited ) | Kazmi, Fatima (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Ali, Waqas (Pakistan Petroleum Limited ) | Khan, Muhammad Noman (Pakistan Petroleum Limited ) | Khalid, Afrah (NED University of Engineering and Technology)
As the demand of natural gas is increasing along with decline in conventional gas resources, the exploitation of unconventional resources has become essential to meet the increasing demand. Shale being unconventional hydrocarbon resource; is very complex in terms of fluid flow and storage mechanisms and require advanced techniques to be modeled correctly. As high investments are involved to develop the resource, therefore representative model is required to decide whether to exploit a shale resource or not, and optimize the development strategy in order to maximize the recovery and profitability.
Mostly shale resources are modeled using analytical methods in which best fit model on one well is applied on all other wells of the field to simulate their behavior. However this may not be the case in actual due to heterogeneities in the reservoir. One way to simulate the performance of shale is to use a numerical simulation model in which one can predict the effect of various scenarios on production such as horizontal length, number of stages of frac, etc. In addition it allows to optimize various parameters for the development of field which may not be done through analytical models.
In this paper a numerical simulation model is developed for a shale resource. This model is used as a tool for planning and optimizing the development strategy of the resource. The model contains horizontal wells with multi stage fracturing and is validated using well production data of a shale resource. Vertical Lift Performance (VLP) curves are generated from a well modeling software and are incorporated in the simulation model. Horizontal development wells are incorporated to maintain a specific plateau rate. Sensitivity of various parameters such as number of wells, timing of the wells and plateau rate is carried out to study various cases.The results of these cases including plateau rate and period and gas recoveries are presented and the optimum case is selected based on the profitability and maximum recovery. The adopted approach can be used efficiently to evaluate a shale gas prospect to establish its development and appraisal strategy.
Forum - Results of TWA survey on job satisfaction and job security in oil and gas.
The reach of the oil and gas industry is vast and global. According to IBISWorld, the industry generated revenue of around USD 5 trillion in 2013 and employed roughly 1.34 million individuals worldwide. Yet the average global discovery drilling success-to-failure ratio is 1:10. If a company experiences repeated failures, it might end up cutting overhead by downsizing.
Human resources have become a large focus for management in the oil and gas industry since the 1980s. During the 1980s and 1990s, the industry did far less university recruitment than it does today. In “Benchmarking Industry Talent Needs” (Journal of Petroleum Technology, July 2010), author Olivier Soupa noted that during the boom from 2004 to 2008, the demand for petrotechnical professionals substantially increased recruitment targets for oil and gas companies. Though there was an economic collapse in 2008 and oil prices entered a period of high volatility, the industry still continues to recruit actively on campuses around the world.
So what does this mean for the job security of young professionals entering the industry and those already established within the industry?
Khan, Osama Hasan (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Virk, Muhammad Muneeb Ali (Pakistan Petroleum Limited) | Ahmed, Sheraz (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Sajid, Muhammad Ali (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Abrar, Saad Bin (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Lakhani, M. Haris (NED University of Engineering and Technology)
Pervez, Tasneem (Sultan Qaboos University) | Khan, Rashid (NED University of Engineering and Technology) | Qamar, Zahid Sayyad (Sultan Qaboos University) | Al-Jahwari, Farooq (Sultan Qaboos University) | Sanchez, Francisco Javier (Petroleum Development of Oman) | Al Abri, Badar Hamed (Petroleum Development of Oman)