Salomone, Andrea (ENI) | Burrafato, Sebastiano (ENI) | Ricci Maccarini, Giorgio (ENI) | Poloni, Roberto (ENI) | Gioia, Valeriano (ENI) | Concas, Antonio (ENI) | Tangen, Geir Ivan (Lundin Norway AS) | Huse, Arve (Lundin Norway AS) | Antoniani, Lucio (NOV) | Andersen, Mats (NOV) | Zainoune, Sanna (NOV)
This paper presents the positive results of the first deployment of wired drill pipe (WDP) technology and along-string measurement (ASM) tools in drilling operations in the Adriatic Sea. The WDP system was used within the frame of a multi-objective testing program, in conjunction with an experimental downhole tool.
The system allowed transmission of real-time, high-density, low-latency data from logging-while- drilling (LWD) tools and from ASM subs. These tools provided temperature, annular/internal pressure, rotation, and vibration data. This was the first time WDP and ASM tools were used by an operator in the Adriatic Sea. The system was also used for activation and communication with another experimental downhole tool on this project.
The high-speed telemetry system made it possible to achieve impressive operational and performance benefits. Annular pressure measured along the string provided a better understanding of the drilling mud condition and behavior along the wellbore, thereby allowing the operator to stay in the safe mud-weight window and helping them to avoid unintentional hole fractures or collapse.
During pumping in and out of hole, swab and surge were also monitored closely with downhole, real- time measurements from the ASM tools. The same effects were controlled after drilling each stand, when the interval drilled was reamed to ensure sufficient hole cleaning.
While drilling, the system raised the rate of penetration (ROP) limit by removing constraints on data acquisition while still providing the confidence that the hole was being cleaned while drilling. Drillstring vibration was recorded as well, and potential benefit in preventing premature failure of downhole tools were highlighted.
The test verified that improved drilling performance was enabled using WDP technology. Awareness of downhole conditions and a substantial reduction in risk were also benefits. In addition, the technology unlocked bidrectional communication and control with modern downhole tools.
This paper presents design, testing, installation, and lessons learned with the world's first completely integrated managed pressure drilling (MPD) control system on a deepwater drilling rig. While previous MPD installations have included driller-operated systems, they all include additional human machine interfaces (HMI) and standalone control network components with limited use of rig data and limited to no interfaces to other critical drilling machines on the drilling rig. For the installation described in this paper, all MPD control functions were permanently installed on the main drilling control network of the drilling unit, providing direct access to high speed data from other drilling machines that influence the wellbore pressure. This includes the rig's mud pumps, top drive, and drawworks. Moreover, the MPD control system has the ability to actively control the drilling machines, thereby optimizing performance through coordinated control of mud pump, top drive, and MPD chokes during drilling and connections.
High levels of drag, especially in horizontal and extended-reach operations, can be a major concern during sliding or rotating. Drag reduces drilling efficiency by requiring increased energy input, primarily through increasing torque and weight on bit, to achieve the desired rate of penetration (ROP). Reduced drilling efficiency results in excessive tool wear, lower ROP, and poor directional control. Of the several methods the industry uses to combat drag, the scope of this study was focused on the use of a pulse generator paired with a displacement generator, which makes up a drilling agitator tool (DAT). A DAT is commonly used in extended lateral formations to improve weight transfer to the bit in vertical and nonvertical drilling applications. The operational principal of the DAT is the production of a pressure pulse that causes a repetitive axial motion in a shock tool. This paper compares offset run data between two DAT cases—one run with a traditional DAT and the other on a new, efficient, "high-energy" DAT (HE DAT). The run performance in similar portions of vertical and horizontal sections was compared between the two systems.
This study was based on data collected from a pressure pulse and axial displacement data recorder from horizontal wells in the STACK play drilled by Devon Energy. The objective of this study was to observe the performance of the HE DAT and determine if there was a noticeable gain in performance in terms of drilling efficiency and ROP as compared to a standard DAT. These results are discussed in detail and supported by high-resolution data collected during drilling.
The data analysis presented here provides an in-depth look into the operation of the HE DAT's performance as compared to the standard DAT in a very similar offset well. Overall, a 20 to 25% increase in ROP with the HE DAT was expected, effectively validating the enhancements made to the tool. This study collected data using data recorders—novel, small, self-contained devices measuring axial vibration, internal pressure, temperature, and axial displacement—located directly above and below the DATs to make a comparative assessment and deliver information about drilling data that was otherwise not available via conventional downhole measurement tools.
Failing the rock and removal of failed rock are the two primary actions that control drill bit efficiency. A proper design must address both primary actions while focusing on the major efficiency driver. This has been the basis for development of shaped cutter technology where the geometry of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter is designed according to the rock type. Using the learnings from advanced modeling techniques on cutter-rock interaction, more than three dozen new geometries for PDC cutters were designed, manufactured, and tested. Based on the performance and application needs, three shapes were selected for further development: geometry A designed for shale applications focusing on efficient cuttings removal, geometry B for proper fracture initiation and propagation, and geometry C combines the features from the other two geometries to improve both creation and removal of cuttings.
To date, extended reach drilling (ERD) wells drilled on one of the main UAE offshore reservoirs have been delivered by using a tapered drill string design that combines two sizes of drill pipe. To reduce the number of days per well, a one-size only drill string concept has been considered, but such an option required some improvements in torque and geometry to meet specific well design requirements.
An initial analysis of the drilling requirements in terms of torque, dimensions, tensile capacity, and hydraulics showed that the process limiter was the drill pipe connection as no option was available in the market that could meet the redesigned requirements. Two new technical solutions were separately developed that took into account the need for a reduced tool joint outer diameter (OD) for equivalent circulating density (ECD) and fishability in an 8½-in. hole. Once developed, the solutions were then validated for manufacturing and field trials.
The first solution consisted of designing and developing an ultra-high torque thread profile, while the second solution suggested to upgrade the tool joint material grade of a new 4th generation double shouldered connection. Both newly designed drill pipe strings successfully passed the shop stress tests and were mobilized for operations. The drill pipes were used for drilling within the tight hydraulic window of such ERD wells, further validating the original drilling simulation parameters. The successful trial of these two single size string solutions enabled the saving of more than five days of rig operating time per well.
This paper presents a detailed comparative evaluation of two innovative drill pipe design solutions that enable operators to run a single size string in challenging ERD wells. It also provides an insight into the operational benefits obtained by shifting to the new single size string.
Surface sensor data quality at the rig site has been the topic of much discussion in the industry as the information is increasingly used for the optimization of rig activities, planning, and modeling. While a great portion of data quality relies on sensor calibration and maintenance, a few measurements require human input, such as surface weight on bit and differential pressure. The objective of this paper is to describe an automated system integrated in the Electronic Drilling Recorder (EDR) that tares the weight on bit and differential pressure readings based on rig activity.
The system utilizes high-frequency surface sensor data from the hook load, pump pressure, string rotation, mud flow in, and block position to determine the appropriate rig activity to tare both parameters. The system can be activated at any time by the driller at the rig site, real time center engineers, drilling engineers, drilling analysts, and any others with access to it remotely. After the process is done an automated note is placed on the EDR for traceability.
The result of the implementation of the system is improved data quality on the EDR that is used for real time monitoring, optimization, modeling, planning, and an ultimate improvement in the quality of the well's data archives.
Automating data sensitive work flows at the rig site, improves data consistency, quality, and frees the driller's attention to more important work flows.
Gartner named digital twin as one of the top ten technology trends for 2019. The awareness of this trend has now also reached the E&P industry, which can be seen by an increasing number of papers being published about the subject the last two years. Even though the term is new, the technology behind has been around for many years. In this paper we will show how a digital twin araised through the development of the comprehensive model. A model that has evolved through the development of smaller simulation models, each made to solve a different problem. With only minor extension, this model represented a complete virtual rig, ready to connect and develop the managed pressure drilling (MPD) control system. Running together with the control system it was also, with some minor changes, ready to be used in a training simulator. The big step was to prepare the model for running in parallel with a real well to estimate downhole pressure and other variables where they were not measured. Various issues around this are discussed in the paper. Finally, some results from a full-scale test of an MPD system on a rig at a research and development facility in Navasota, Texas, are presented. These tests showed that after some tuning the model could assist the control system in maintaining the pressure at any given arbitrary point in the well, an important point toward making a fully integrated MPD system.
This paper presents a theory and formulas for correction of the drillstring length as a function of loads, such as tension force, fluid pressures and temperature. The effects being specifically addressed are static and dynamic tensional stretch, pressure ballooning, hydrostatic shortening, flow lift shortening, and thermal expansion. Many of these corrections increase progressively with the drillstring length and the sum of all correction can reach several meters for long drillstrings.
The corrected, load dependent drillstring length is the key to estimate both the measured well depth and the short-term rate of penetration (ROP) more accurately. Accurate short-term ROP is important both for calculating mechanical specific energy (MSE) and for monitoring and optimization of the drilling process.
Kvalvaag, Edvin (ADNOC Offshore) | Frigui, Mejdi (ADNOC Offshore) | Al Hajeri, Mohamed (ADNOC Drilling) | Awad, Ahmed (NOV) | De Roffignac, Geoffry (Vallourec) | Lafuente, Marta (NOV) | Carrois, Fabien (NOV) | Sissenov, Olzhas (K&M Technology Group)
A world leading ERD project was required to make a step change in drilling performance to reduce the well construction duration. An opportunity was identified to minimize invisible lost time due to handling a tapered string combing two sizes of drill pipe.
The objective was to design and successfully run a new uniformed string, based on a fit-for-purpose slim drill pipe concept which is intended to offer an unprecedented robust and ultrahigh torque connection.
Following an initial analysis of the drilling requirements in terms of torque, dimensions, tensile capacity and hydraulics, it was rapidly identified that the process limiter was the drill pipe connection as no option available in the market could meet the redesigned project requirements. A thorough assessment of the tool joint characteristics was performed to identify the upgrade(s) that will maximize the connection capacity and performance. As a result, the R&D team of a manufacturer was brought onboard to design the new thread that will enable the operation as planned. The new design would then be validated through shop stress tests and field trials with actual pipe.
A new thread model was developed and allowed the design of drill pipe that had a reduced tool joint OD that would allow for a lower annular pressure drop and fishability in the 8 ½" hole. The tool joint provided an increased torque capacity up to 70,000 ft-lbs while still meeting the operating mandates of minimized handling and maintenance requirements. The newly designed drill pipe successfully passed the shop stress tests and was mobilized for operations. The drill pipe completed an entire well consisting of three sections (16", 12 ¼" and 8 ½") within the tight hydraulic window of such ERD wells further validating the original drilling simulation parameters. The post job drill pipe inspection confirmed that wear and tear were within current benchmarks. Furthermore, subsequent analysis showed that the connections make and break duration was better than the average experienced rates on the same rig.
In addition to the technical capability of the new drill pipe, the introduction of a single size string reduced the drill pipe inventory by approximately 20% and saved close to 7 days of rig operating time on the well.
This paper will present the framework used to foster innovation and the cooperation between the E&P company drilling team and the drill pipe manufacturer's R&D group. It will detail the fast-tracked introduction of a new design of drill pipe with an innovative thread type which seeks to combine efficiency, reliability and unparalleled torque capacity, in order to extend the drill string torque technical limit with the potential to revolutionize the ERD industry.
Drilling Operators are continually striving to reduce the drilling cost of every well. Reducing the drilling cost can come from improved performance of the downhole motor. Power sections with even wall rubber technology have provided the latest step change in performance of these downhole motors. These power sections deliver higher torques than conventional rubber lined stators; without a loss of performance in other areas. However, delivering the higher torques from the power section to the drill bit requires new torque transmission technology in the lower end of the motor. The following paper will discuss a new technology utilized to transmit these higher torques. It also includes the developmental history of downhole motor power sections.