The novel nanomaterial composition described in this paper has been designed to treat moderate to severe losses. The nanomaterial composition comprises an environmentally friendly nanoparticle based dispersion and a chemical activator. The design is based on a delayed activation chemistry to gel up a nanoparticle based dispersion.
Three different types of nanoparticles were used in the study to develop the novel loss circulation material. Two different types of negatively charged nanoparticle based dispersion and one positively charged nanoparticle based dispersion were used in the study. An inorganic activator has been used for the study. The effect of this inorganic activator on the gelation properties of the nanoparticle based dispersion was investigated. The gelling times were evaluated at different temperatures up to 300°F. The effect of activator concentration on the gelling time of the new composition has also been studied. The effectiveness of the newly developed composition as a loss circulation treatment was also evaluated by performing permeability plugging tests to test the plugging capacity of this novel system.
The novel nanomaterial composition is designed so as to have a controllable gelation time under a variety of downhole conditions to allow accurate placement of the treatment fluid inside the wellbore without premature setting of the fluid. It was shown that the gelation time of the treatment composition could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the activator. The system is designed so as to give a predictable and controllable pumping time, ranging from a few minutes to several hours at over a wide range of temperatures. This is an important advantage as it allows the loss circulation composition to remain pumpable for sufficient time for placement and develops the network structure that leads to gelation, over a predictable period of time. The set gel, which appears as a crystalline solid, could remain homogenous and stay in place thereby preventing loss circulation.
Drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) deep gas reservoirs, with multiple shallow different pressure horizons, requires special techniques which include application of Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), revising casing setting depths, improving casing strength, and refining mud design. This paper focuses on application of MPD in HPHT gas wells and also describes briefly other techniques which can improve drilling performance and reduce nonproductive time.
Wellbore integrity is very critical in oil and gas industry and needs to be maintained through the entire cycle of well's life. The most important item for well integrity is to set cement between two casings or between casing and formation. A good cement job provides isolation and protection for the well and a poor cement job can have cracks and allows corrosive fluids to migrate through micro channels.
Downhole casing repair is a common workover operations worldwide, especially in wells that have been producing over number of years. It is very challenging to control corrosive fluid migration which slowly corrodes casing and tubing over time. An innovative epoxy resin formulations has been developed and tested in the field to repair casing leaks which is extremely easy to handle and very economical. A cost-effective workover program can be developed and implemented depending on the severity of the leak.
The improved approach of using innovative resin can be used by mixing with cement blends to repair major casing damage and can also be used as standalone application to fix minor leaks. The system maintains extremely good rheological properties even when mixed with cement. The system has ability to withstand high differential pressure and is also resistant to acid, salts, hydrocarbons and most importantly various corrosive liquids. The precise application is determined by measuring the injectivity of the well. In the low injectivity wells, only epoxy resin solution will be spotted and repair the damaged casing. In the high injectivity wells, the chemical will be mixed with cement and completely seal the damaged zone. The chemical will enhance the mechanical properties of the cement and will be more resilient to extreme down-hole condition.
The paper will emphasize the added value and potential of the method in restoring the casing integrity. The paper will also discuss the laboratory test reports and application which will highlight effective and economical outcome.
Three-dimensional unstructured grid generation for reservoirs with geological layers, faults, pinchouts, fractures and wells is presented. Grids are generated for example cases, and pressure fields and flow fields computed by the cell-centered and vertex-centered control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) schemes are compared and contrasted together with the methods. Grid generation for reservoir simulation, must honour classical key geological features and multilateral wells. The geological features are classified into two groups; 1) involving layers, faults, pinchouts and fractures, and 2) involving well distributions. In the former, control-volume boundary aligned grids (BAGs) are required, while in the latter, control-point well aligned grids (WAGs) are required. In reservoir simulation a choice of grid type and consequent control-volume type is made, i.e. either primal or dual-cells are selected as control-volumes. The control-point is defined as the centroid of the control-volume for any grid type. Three-dimensional unstructured grid generation methods are proposed that automate control-volume boundary alignment to geological features and control point alignment to wells, yielding essentially perpendicular bisector (PEBI) meshes either with respect to primal or dual-cells depending on grid type. Both primal and dual-cell boundary aligned grid generators use primal-cells (tetrahedra, pyramids, prisms and hexahedra) as grid elements. Dual-cell feature aligned grids are derived from underlying primal-meshes, such that features are recovered, with control-volume faces aligned with interior feature boundaries. The grids generated enable a comparative performance study of cell- vertex versus cell-centered CVD-MPFA finite-volume formulations using equivalent degrees of freedom. The benefits of both types of approximation are presented in terms of flow resolution relative to the respective degrees of freedom employed. Stability limits of the methods are also explored. For a given mesh the cell-vertex method uses approximately a fifth of the unknowns used by a cell-centered method and proves to be the most beneficial with respect to accuracy and efficiency, which is verified by flow computation. Novel techniques for generating three-dimensional unstructured hybrid essentially PEBI-grids, honouring geological features are presented. Geological boundary aligned grid generation is performed for primal and dual-cell grid types. Flow results show that vertex-centered CVD-MPFA methods outperform cell-centered CVD-MPFA methods.
Hassan, Amjed (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Mahmoud, Mohamed (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Al-Majed, Abdulaziz (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Al-Nakhli, Ayman (Saudi Aramco) | BaTaweel, Mohammed (Saudi Aramco) | Elktatany, Salaheldin (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals)
Condensate banking is a common problem in tight gas reservoirs because it diminishes the gas relative permeability and reduces the gas production rate significantly. CO2 injection is a common and very effective solution for condensate removal in tight gas reservoirs. The problem with CO2 injection is that it is a temporary solution and has to be repeated frequently in the field in addition to the supply limitations of CO2 in some areas. Also, the infrastructure required at the surface to handle CO2 injection makes it expensive to apply CO2 injection for condensate removal.
In this paper, a new permanent technique is introduced to remove the condensate by using a thermochemical technique. Two chemicals will be used to generate in-situ CO2, nitrogen, steam, heat, and pressure. The reaction of the two chemicals downhole can be triggered either by the reservoir temperature, or a chemical activator. Two chemicals will start reacting and produce all the mentioned reaction products after 24 hrs. of mixing and injection. Also, the reaction can be triggered by a chemical activator and this will shorten the time of reaction. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using actual condensate samples from one of the gas fields. Tight sandstone cores of 0.9 mD permeability were used.
The results of this study showed that, the thermochemical reaction products removed the condensate and reduced its viscosity due to the high temperature and the generated gases. The novelty in this paper is the creation of micro-fractures in the tight rock sample due to the in-situ generation of heat and pressure from the thermochemical reaction. These micro-fractures reduced the capillary forces that hold the condensate and enhanced its relative permeability. The creation of micro-fractures and in turn the reduction of the capillary forces can be considered as permanent condensate removal.
Carbonate reservoir matrix acidizing is commonly conducted with HCl. In these treatments, HCl acid is used to create conductive channels (wormholes) to enhance well productivity/injectivity. However, its use has been limited due to associated rapid tubulars corrosion and formation face dissolution, especially in deep hot reservoirs. Emulsified acid was used as an effective alternative to HCl, but it is associated with drawbacks such high friction losses and emulsion stability. In this paper, an aqueous single-phase retarded HCl alternative system was evaluated as an alternative to straight and emulsified acid fluids.
Coreflood experiments were conducted using Indiana limestone core plugs at 180 and 270°F. Computerized Tomography (CT) scan analysis was conducted on the core plugs before/after coreflood testing. Compatibility testing was conducted on prepared retarder acid recipes. ESEM, TGA, and ICP analysis was used to analyze prepared retarder acid recipes and associated solids. Turbiscan LAB was used to assess the stability of the retarded acid recipes.
The low pore volume to breakthrough (PVBT) values (i.e., 0.9-1.6) obtained from coreflood testing at 180 and 270°F, confirmed the retarded HCl acid recipes were effective to stimulate carbonate reservoirs. Compatibility testing showed presence of significant white precipitate. ESEM analysis showed the precipitates were rod-like crystals composed of mainly of Cl and high C with small amounts of N, O, Al and Mg. TGA results showed the major constituent of precipitate were organic-based materials. The precipitate was mainly H4EDTA and chloride. Despite presence of white precipitate at the core inlet, the effect on the performance of the retarded acid system was insignificant. CT scanning analysis of the plug samples before/after the coreflooding experiments showed that wormholes along the plug length with multiple branches were formed in all cases indicating the compatibility of the selected acid recipe.
The objective is to enable a full simulation lifecycle of multi-billion cell reservoir models for gigantic Middle Eastern reservoirs utilizing parallel hardware. Debugging, building and developing models with this resolution is not possible without seamlessly changing the scale of the reservoir model and applying a portfolio of boundary conditions to fit the current workflow.
Throughout the lifecycle of the full-field reservoir model a variety of simulations are needed, including small, single and multiple well sensitivity studies (O(108) cells), regional models (O(107) cells), and ultimately full-field modeling (O(109) cells). It is crucial this can be achieved in a way to exploit the current hardware, with a minimum memory and computational overhead, and have a quick and seamless way to maintain the integrity of the full-field model, without the need for complex pre- and post-processing tools. This is achieved here by the definition of a compact stacked contour; this is cheap enough to be read by every processor in the current run, and by exploiting advanced parallel IO techniques; only the portion of the full-field grid to be simulated needs be imported to core memory. This definition easily lends itself as a natural way to apply boundary conditions to model aquifers, fluxes derived from larger models, and pressure boundary conditions.
The techniques described here will be demonstrated on a number of workflows. Firstly, in aquifer modelling, to exclude the large number of aquifer cells that often arises from simulating on a geological level model, and replace these cells with an analytical model. An external program takes the area of interest, and using the convex hull of the area of interest generates a stacked contour, which is subsequently used to define a Fetkovich aquifer. Secondly, a pressure boundary condition is applied to an area of interest within a full-field model to mimic the decline.
The definition of a stacked compact contour enables the large reservoir model to be analyzed at local, regional and full-field scale while maintaining the integrity of the full-field model. A variety of boundary conditions are applied to the stacked compact contour.
The objective of this work is to avoid wasteful timestep cuts of the reservoir simulator by developing a timestep-selector that controls the linear and non-linear iterations as well as the physical quantities. Using a Fuzzy logic framework, a non-linear timestep selector has been developed that reduces run time, and increases robustness for challenging nonlinear simulations.
From a linear analysis standpoint a fully implicit reservoir simulator has no stability limit on the size the timestep. However, in practice the non-linearity prevents arbitrary timestep size being chosen. Without any theory to guide us the timestep choice it is left to heuristics, usually based on physical engineering constraints such as the previous time steps, maximum pressure and saturation changes. This can be very effective, but can lead to many timestep cuts, and sometimes lead to failure of the simulator. This is especially common for highly non-linear dual-porosity, dual-permeability reservoirs which are very common in the Middle East. Here a Fuzzy logic framework is used to construct a non-linear timestep selector which takes many inputs (linear and non-linear convergence data as well as pressure and saturation changes) and breaks down the complexity. Firstly fuzzification of the inputs into fuzzy sets (e.g. High medium and low) then applications of rules (e.g. if linear high then timestep is low) and de-fuzzification into a crisp timestep to be used for the next iteration. This process provides us with a powerful framework to construct various strategies for controlling the timestep. In contrast, traditional timestep controllers use crisp logic, this is difficult to blend multiple conflicting inputs to a timestep selector.
To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach results are presented on a suite of cases, covering a wide range of models including compositional and dual-porosity cases. For some cases a dramatic 3x improvement is observed, however, what is more important, is on average the new timestep selector significantly improves performance, especially for the slow challenging cases; by reducing the time steps wasted due to timestep cuts. Perhaps what is most impressive is that the fuzzy controller did achieve the goals of the fuzzy rules to keep the non-linear and linear iterations under control, which had the benefit of reducing total failures of the simulator.
A fuzzy logic framework is applied to timestep selection of a fully implicit reservoir simulator. A combination of convergence data as well as physical quantities are used as inputs which has led to a robust and extendable timestep selector.
The success of carbonate acidizing depends on the selection of proper fluid recipes, reservoir formation parameters, job design, and execution. Analysis of flowback spent acid will improve the acidizing process in future treatments, enhance the designed recipes and treatment design. The objective of this paper is to share the flowback analysis methodology following carbonate acidizing treatments with focus on solid analysis.
Microstructural analysis with advanced microscopy and spectroscopy analytical techniques such as high-resolution environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were utilized. Flowback samples were filtered through 0.45 µm filter paper. ICP was used to analyze the flowback samples.
The injected acid recipes dissolved significant amount of calcite. The maximum calcium concentrations in flowback samples were 90,000-120,000 mg/L. Moreover, solid precipitates were found in flowback samples associated with pH values of 4.7-5.5. Gypsum was the dominant compound in the samples analyzed while the other compounds such as Lepidocrocite, Magnetite, Quartz, and Barite were detected in a single sample. The iron-based compounds were detected in the beginning of flowback period. Calcium and silicon rich compounds were identified in later flowback periods. The source of iron was identified to be most likely mill scale. Barite and Quartz were found to be associated with iron-based compounds. Gypsum and sodium chloride were detected with varying dominations between CaSO4 and NaCl compounds with a possible correlation as described by
Quasi K-orthogonal grid generation is presented, to improve grid quality and method stability with respect to flux approximation in the presence of strongly anisotropic full-tensor permeability fields.K-orthogonal grid generation is only possible for low anisotropy ratios. Quasi K-orthogonal grid generation involves satisfying the K-orthogonal condition approximately, resulting in grids that place less demand on an approximation with respect to stability conditions, and therefore improve grid quality with respect to flux approximation in the presence of anisotropic permeability fields. The method employed enables Delaunay grid generation principles to be employed in a locally transformed system according to local permeability tensor variation. The resulting method has great flexibility for handling complex geometries and can handle jumps in permeability tensor principal axes orientation and jumps in coefficients and details will be presented. Results are presented that demonstrate the benefit of a quasi K-orthogonal grid. Highly challenging cases involving strong full-tensor permeability fields where control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) schemes exceed their stability limits and yield solutions with spurious oscillations when using conventional grids, are solved using the new grid generation method. CVD-MPFA schemes are still required as the grids are only approximately K-orthogonal in such cases, however the schemes retain a discrete maximum principle on the new quasi-K-orthogonal grids and yield well resolved solutions that are free of spurious oscillations. While the two-point flux approximation (TPFA) requires strict K-orthogonality, results using both CVD-MPFA and TPFA will be presented. New Quasi K-orthogonal grid generation methods are presented that satisfy the K-orthogonal condition approximately, resulting in practical grids that restore a discrete maximum principle (stability) for the CVD-MPFA schemes when applied to cases involving general full-tensor permeability fields. Results are presented for a variety of test cases that confirm the validity of the grids.