Even in the 21st century, the oil industry is yet to overcome some major problems it faces related to oil spill cleanup. Oil spills can cause a multitude of problems for the environment which may even last for decades after the spill occurs. This paper discusses a novel approach that may provide a complete solution to combat oil spills. Conventional techniques are not adequate to solve the problems of massive oil spills. Graphene based aerogels or Aerographene have attracted widespread attention due to its excellent oleophilicity, hydrophobicity, reusability, high uptake rate of oil, high uptake capacity and recovery of oil. Although the application of graphene aerogel for an oil spill is still in its nascent stage, it offers great promise for the future. It is believed to have potential to replace present sorbents which are used commercially. This paper briefly outlines present oil spill cleanup techniques and problems associated with each technique. A major part of this paper will be on the evaluation of aerographene properties and how it overcomes major problems related to conventional techniques. Many properties of aerographene have been studied which makes aerographene stand a chance of replacing the present oil spill cleanup methods. This paper presents a novel idea by which cleaning up oil spills with the help of aerographene will become much simpler, easier, cheaper and will prevent the environment from degrading at a massive scale due to oil spills.
Mallick, Tanmay (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Garg, Ashutosh (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Choudhary, Manish (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Nair, Saritha (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Pal, Sabyasachi (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Jana, Debadrita (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Singh, Abhinav (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Goudswaard, Jeroen (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Faulkner, Andrew (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Salakhetdinov, Ravil (Shell India Markets Private Limited)
A new seismic and quantitative reinterpretation was carried out for a brownfield in Western Desert, Egypt to improve depth predictability, de-risk appraisal well locations and to better understand producer-injector connectivity.
The study field is located in the Western Desert, Onshore Egypt and comprises of Upper Cretaceous tidal channel systems across four key reservoir levels where sand thicknesses range from 2 to 15 m. The field was discovered in 1993 but development drilling only commenced in 2008. The last integrated field study was performed in 2012. The analysis of wells drilled post-2012 indicated that there is a considerable depth difference along the flanks of the structure between seismic predicted depths and actual well tops (>50 m). The fault interpretation also required a re-look so as to reduce the lateral uncertainty of the main boundary fault and explain the lack of injection response in some areas of the field. This necessitated an update of seismic interpretation, static and dynamic models. A new interpretation could help identify attic volume upsides and help mature new appraisal and producer-injector locations. Further work was also proposed to test the feasibility of using seismic inversion for facies discrimination.
The available Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PreSDM) data was re-interpreted as part of the project. The fault interpretations were quality checked using Semblance/Dip maps, sand box models and wherever possible, were tied to the fault cuts seen in previously drilled wells. The time horizon correlation and seismic polarity were verified and were also cross-checked with the P-Impedance volume before being used in the static modelling workflow. The PreSDM Interval velocity model was used for depth conversion, where an anisotropy correction was applied to tie the wells. Vok and Polynomial methods were also applied, which in turn were used to derive depth uncertainty estimates. The update in the main bounding fault interpretation generated new appraisal locations in the deeper levels. The new interpretation was tested against the results from the latest drilling campaign in the field, and nine out of ten wells were within the one standard deviation uncertainty range.
Simultaneous inversion of the seismic data was also carried out as part of the project using the acoustic, shear and density data from 6 wells over the field. The inverted P-Impedance and S-Impedance were converted to Net to Gross (NtG), and were checked against the remaining 24 wells, which helped in validating the property cubes.
Forward wedge modelling suggested that individual sands of less than 15 m thickness would not be resolved from seismic due to seismic bandwidth limitations. Still, a review of inversion data together with geological insights and dynamic data helped to identify the high NtG areas across the reservoirs.
The integrated interpretation of inverted volumes with well and production data resulted in new insights into the field and helped to mature new appraisal and development well locations.
Rana, Rohit (Independent Geomechanics and Pore Pressure Consultant) | Hansen, Kirk S. (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Kandpal, Jyoti (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Kumar, Rajan (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Schutjens, Peter (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Muro, Leytzher (Shell India Markets Private Limited) | Rees, Daniel (Brunei Shell Petroleum Co Sdn Bhd) | Latief, Agus I. (Brunei Shell Petroleum Co Sdn Bhd)
Knowledge of the in-situ stress state and how it varies with reservoir depletion is important for the design and execution of in-fill drilling. This paper highlights the key geomechanical aspects and their usage in planning of wells through severely depleted (up to 25 MPa) and overpressured zones within a very short depth interval (few 10s of m), in an onshore gas field in Brunei. With focus shifting from oil to deep-gas development, drilling complications include risks of wellbore instability, excessive mud loss and internal blowouts, as well as differential sticking in the depleted reservoirs. Moreover, fracturing of the depleted sands while drilling infill wells carries the risk of jeopardizing production at nearby producing wells because of locally altered flow paths. The risks were evaluated by application of empirical and analytical geomechanical models of stress changes with depletion, and by elasto-plastic finite element models of borehole instability (collapse) due to shear failure.
Our results show that for an average depletion rate of 1 MPa/year, the drilling window (difference between maximum allowable mud weight controlled by fracture pressure and minimum mud weight controlled by formation pore pressure or borehole collapse pressure, whichever is greater) is likely to remain open for the coming 12 years. Minifrac or extended leak-off tests at different stages of field development should be taken to monitor stress changes within the reservoirs and provide updates for calibration of the geomechanical model.
Next to showing the geomechanical model results and their application to drilling, we demonstrate the refinement of pore pressure/fracture pressure predictions (i.e. narrowing down the uncertainty in the drilling window) for mature fields where producing "from the bottom up" has not been feasible. We also indicate how risks associated with drilling through depleted/undepleted reservoir sequences in a single hole section can be managed to as low as reasonably practicable with the help of geomechanical input. These results "open the door" for accessing deeper potential pay zones by drilling through severely depleted formations.