The use of drones in the oil and gas industry is still relatively recent, and is currently unlocking new methods and approaches of geophysical acquisition and subsurface imaging. METIS®, a disruptive and integrated research project, employs the use of drones to perform an innovative 3D high density geophysical acquisition, that targets hard-to-access acreage. The benefits associated with the use of drones are easily recognized: an increased efficiency, fewer man hours, reduced HSE risks, and a lower environmental footprint. However a number of new safety, security, regulatory, and public perception issues are raised and need to be better understood before the use of drones can become standard practice. The acceptability of drones and a new method to assess the risks associated to METIS® drone operations is investigated. This study presents how the use of drones is changing the HSE risks associated with an onshore geophysical acquisition, but also how this technology brings new solutions to reduce them.
ABSTRACT: Total E&P has developed an experimental set-up allowing creation shear fracture within a cylinder sample in a conventional triaxial cell thanks to two specific heels placed on the top and bottom of the sample. Permeability tests to gas and to water, as well as measurements of normal and shear displacements can be carried out using existing facilities of a triaxial cell. In the post-failure phase of shear fracturing, dilatancy angle of a fresh fracture measured on a Vaca Muerta shale is about 24° to 38° under 30 bars of confining pressure. Mechanical opening (normal displacement) induced by fracturing is about 400 μm. Hydraulic opening to water or to gas decreases significantly when confining pressure increased from 10 bars to 120 bars. Alteration of a fresh shale fracture surface by water is characterized by the change of the hydraulic opening to gas. After presentation of the experiment set-up, the main results obtained on the mechanical behavior of the fracture and the hydraulic behavior of fracture to water and to gas flow under various stress and injection conditions are presented and discussed.
The Vaca Muerta formation of Neuquén basin, Argentina, is considered the most interesting hydrocarbon shale play in the world, and is currently the subject of intense exploration and research works and the first unconventional development projects in this country (Su K. et al 2014, Varela et al 2014). The mineralogical of the Vaca Muerta formation is reported by Askenazi et al (2013) to consist of a important, but highly variable portion of carbonate and quartz, ranging both from 10 to 80%, and consistently low clay content within the 5 to 35% range. In the area investigated by Total E&P, the average total organic carbon content (TOC) is ~4.0% in the upper part and around 6.0% in the lower part. The in situ pore pressure of the Vaca Muerta ranges from 1.7 to 2.1 sg.
The Offshore Protocol of the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea entered into force in 2011. In addition, since 2007, the European Union (EU) has adopted many measures impacting the upstream Oil and Gas (O&G) industry. To list a few: REACH (Registration Evaluation Authorization Chemicals), its Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD - 2008), the Offshore Safety Directive (2013), the Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP - 2014), etc. It also revised its Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA - 2014) and is in the process of revising its Environmental Liability Directive (ELD).
This unremitting legislative process slowly but deeply impacts the O&G industry. On the forefront, what is at stake is the access to new prospects and planned developments. But this also impacts operators of existing facilities, who have to adapt to new constraints. In many countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea the administrative processes have changed – or need to change – dramatically in order to cope with the new requirements and that might increase the bureaucracy or generate delays. But the changes also provide opportunities for the industry to improve their overall Health, Safety and Environment performance and demonstrate their commitment towards sustainable development, in a safe manner and respectful of the environment, taking into account the other legitimate users of the sea.
The lean duplex material UNS S32202 was developed to provide a cost-efficient alternative to the austenitic stainless steel UNS S30403. This grade is today widely used for various applications in the pulp & paper and water industries. UNS S32202 presents a resistance equal or better than UNS S30403 for uniform, localized (pitting and crevice) and intergranular corrosion.
This paper focuses on the stress corrosion cracking and sulfide stress cracking resistance of UNS S32202 in sour environments. Recent results obtained in solutions containing chlorides and H2S by means of proof-ring and constant load tests are provided and an application window for this grade has been determined in terms of H2S partial pressure, chloride concentration and temperature. The experiments were conducted on samples coming from both hot-rolled plates and long products, which cover a wide amount of stainless steel components for oil & gas exploitation.
Stress corrosion cracking under evaporative conditions is also a major concern in oil & gas production, storage, and processing. An innovative test method was used for evaluation of welded UNS S32202 susceptibility to atmospheric cracking in presence of chloride deposits.
The results of this study show that UNS S32202 can be a good candidate for various applications in the oil & gas industry. It can be an interesting material for subsea equipment, such as flowlines under mild H2S conditions, as well as for topside applications.
The field experience in H2S + CO2 corrosion which was first reported in 20061 has been significantly increased, some of which has been made available in the literature. Several new cases are included in this paper. This experience has been compiled and extensively analyzed during the last few years, which has allowed some recurrent corrosion effects to be found, and some lessons learned on how to address or mitigate such effects. Six distinct recurrent findings are listed in this paper.
These findings have been analyzed in a very simple approach, which can be summarized as follows:
Under significantly sour conditions and despite a permanent contact with water, the H2S + CO2 carbon steel corrosion rate typically remains low, as long as the following conditions are met:
1. There are sufficient anions and cations at the steel surface to ensure quick FeS precipitation at the steel-water interface,
2. Precipitation kinetics are high enough to ensure the precipitation reaction to be immediate at the interface, hence producing a dense protective corrosion product layer,
3. No detrimental factor is present that would alter this protective layer, neither locally nor on extended parts of the surface.
On the other hand, H2S + CO2 corrosion of carbon steel is possible, as long as water is present, if any of these 3 conditions is not fulfilled.
Though this summary does not provide a detailed mechanistic description of H2S + CO2 corrosion, it provides a very simple way to approach this corrosion threat, while also showing essential tendencies and suggested barriers that future mechanistic description should be able to explain.
Over the past decade, Total has deployed several Digital Oil Field (DOF) pilot projects across a large number of assets. Building upon successful elements of earlier deployments, each subsequent project has provided valuable feedback, leading progressively to a better recognition of Total's business needs as well as to the identification of key functionalities. The new generation of DOF platform deployed on one of the Total operated assets in Deepwater Nigeria is capitalizing on all the earlier experiences. The Nigeria application is focusing on improved production and reservoir management through implementation of a shared asset model (data management), real-time monitoring dashboards (data visualization), automated well-test validation workflow (business process), and capability to track well events (events management). Further to the evaluation of actual benefits gained from the Nigeria deployment, this paper reviews the journey of Total's DOF implementation, evaluates its current status, and discusses its future direction. The paper shows some concrete examples of gain in production and time saving brought about using the collaborative platform provided by the DOF installation. The paper shares the challenges faced by Total during DOF implementation, the stepwise approach it took to overcome these challenges and, finally, the key elements which led to the successful deployment in Deepwater Nigeria. It also shares insight on workflows foreseen to be implemented in the near future.
We present a method to address the issue of time-lapse (4D) imaging in complex cases with dipping reservoirs, superimposed reservoirs or complex overburden. The method is based on depth imaging tools, and is faster and more practical than 4D Full Waveform Inversion or more sophisticated, but costly, techniques. The approach is post-stack, built on the already existing depth imaging toolbox, and thus enables the valid use of the classical vertical time warping in complex configurations well beyond its original theoretical reach. We explain how our approach makes the warping in (vertical) time work in depth imaging contexts. We establish a proof of concept on synthetic data sets, then show the uplift it brings in two 3D real datasets. As compared to the classical 1D tools, our new approach retrieves 4D perturbations with better resolution, better lateral continuity, and with fewer artifacts, thus facilitating significantly the interpretation.
This paper presents a methodology elaborated by Total EP for ranking shale plays in terms of fracability using a set of geomechanical parameters obtained from different sources including lab measurements, well log data and poromechanical earth model (PoroMEM). A sustained productivity of gas shale is strongly dependent on geomechanical parameters such as in situ stresses, shale elastic and strength properties that control the geometry of hydraulic fractures and the connectivity and hydraulic conductivity of natural fractures networks. In the proposed methodology, the term «fracability» qualifies the shale gas in terms of propensity to develop a stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) in combination with hydraulic fractures that have the desired geometry and sustainable conductivity. The geomechanical indicators characterizing the fracability include: the likelihood of reactivation of natural fracture networks, the horizontal stress contrast on one side and stress contrast in vertical plane on the other side, the ratio of unconfined compressive strength to the maximum in situ stress, the elastic stiffness matrix and its anisotropy, and the Brinell hardness. The fracability is evaluated by plotting the geomechanical indicators on a radar chart graduated between low to high SRV quality limits that are defined on the light of past Total’s experience with shale gas.
Shmueli, A. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Khatibi, M. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Arnulf, T. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Djoric, B. (Total EP) | Nydal, O.J. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
Stavanger Research Centre, Total EP, Norway ABSTRACT Measurements of the pressure drop and liquid hold up in a gas flow with wet walls were carried out on a vertical pipe at NTNU Multiphase Flow Laboratory. The experiments were performed as a dry-up process, where an initial liquid film becomes thinner with time as it is removed by gas flow. Quick closing valves were used to measure the liquid holdup in the vertical section. Two data sets using Air-Water and Air-Mineral oil were obtained. A significant increase on pressure drop with small amounts of the liquid holdup was observed.
It is still a long way to make it an asset, but that's where we need to go Are our organizations ready for the change? The TOTAL GROUP is defined as TOTAL S.A. and its affiliates and shall include the person and the entity making the presentation. Further information on factors which could affect the company's financial results is provided in documents filed by TOTAL GROUP with the French Autorité des Marchés Financiers and the US Securities and Exchange Commission.