The Hook-up and Commissioning program for the BP operated Clair Ridge facility was conducted over a period of three years, starting with the accommodation platform in 2015/16, and then the Production and drilling platform over 2017 and 2018. The total topsides weight is 53,000 tonnes, and the field is located in the harsh waters of the Atlantic West of Shetland. Typically 750 persons were based offshore, but over the life of the program some 7000 individuals worked offshore at some point on the project. Recognizing the safety leadership challenges with such a major hook-up and changing workforce a huge amount of effort went into preparation and working with our contractors to onboard the workforce. Over the first months of the campaign the safety metrics were healthy and there was a good reporting culture, however an increase in incidents was seen, including one late in 2015 where a medical evacuation was required from the platform. The individual made a full recovery and returned to work however it caused the Operator and Contractor project leaders to reflect on their safety leadership and how they were working with and engaging with the workforce. It was a catalyst for change as the team was determined that no other serious incidents would happen during the project delivery.
In this paper we will share the Clair Ridge safety leadership journey and the steps taken by the operator, with the support and collaboration of the main contractors, to set a new approach to safety through the development of a genuine Culture of Care. This included: Building of trust and credibility between leadership and the workforce Leadership openness and transparency in communication Empowering front-line supervision to be safety leaders and giving them the skills and tools to do this well
Building of trust and credibility between leadership and the workforce
Leadership openness and transparency in communication
Empowering front-line supervision to be safety leaders and giving them the skills and tools to do this well
As a result of the approach the Clair Ridge team is proud that, in the three years since the incident in 2015, over 9 million offshore workhours have been completed without any other Lost Time Incident, and a safe start-up was achieved with no process safety related incidents. Clair Ridge realised some of the highest participation in safety observations and near miss reporting across the Operator's global projects portfolio, a continual and significant reduction in all injuries and benefited from an excellent reporting culture.
A Culture of Care has been owned by all, and been recognised and commended by the contractor workforce and visitors to Clair Ridge.
The extraction of Heavy Oil (HO) from the soon-to-be developed Lower Fares South Ratqa field requires steam injection to enhance HO recovery. The amount of water required for this facility is quite high, up to 210,000 barrels/day (in excess of 33 million liters per day), and the availability of suitable water is problematic, particularly in a dry country such as Kuwait.
Enhancement of Heavy Oil (HO) recovery can be effected via cyclic steam stimulation and steam flood techniques. However, steam generation is highly dependent on the availability of sufficient quantities of suitable water.
Potential water sources for steam generation include seawater, rivers, lakes or underground bodies of water. The last three are unavailable in sufficient quantities in Kuwait and specifically in North Kuwait.
Seawater was initially considered as a source water option for the Lower Fares Heavy Oil (LFHO) project but further investigation identified another potential water source – a Reverse Osmosis (RO) reject water stream from the Sulaibiya Sewage Treatment Plant (SWWTP) – as a feasible option.
After careful assessment, KOC selected the RO reject water stream from the SWWTP as the optimal solution. This innovative application utilizes a currently discarded resource and eliminates the environmental concerns associated with discharging this resource to the sea.
KOC requires up to 210,000 barrels/day water to feed the Once-Through Steam Generators (OTSG's) to produce 80% quality of steam for injection into the wells. The water treatment technologies available in the market were evaluated to ensure that the RO reject stream could be successfully treated to achieve a suitable water quality for steam generation.
The LFHO Project will utilize the SWWTP RO reject stream to enhance HO recovery in North Kuwait. The discharge of this stream to the sea is currently considered as an environmental concern. The use of this reject stream was previously not considered possible as no potential usage opportunities were identified.
This paper covers the usage of this RO reject stream as the source water for steam generation for enhanced HO recovery.
The use of RO treated water streams in the petroleum industry as make-up water for cooling water towers and cleaning applications is fairly common.
The use of an RO reject water stream for steam generation to enhance HO recovery is a novel application for the petroleum industry.
Utilization of Discarded Waste Water Stream for Heavy Oil Recovery:
Objectives/Scope: To explain important choices to be made when planning the installation, reconfiguration and uprating of electrical power systems in critical offshore oil and gas facilities. Methods, Procedures, Process: Protection relays implementing the IEC61850 protocol have become pervasive in both utility and industrial electric power systems as a result of their ability to provide greater electric power reliability and system visibility and reporting while also reducing the space and weight previously required for both equipment and cabling needed to implement offshore power automation systems.The paper combines experiences from power system automation engineers working for a number of international organisations on oil and gas projects worldwide, together with information from electrical utility engineers working in North America.Traditionally offshore installations around the world have relied upon load or power management systems (LMS / PMS) or electrical network management ...
To explain important choices to be made when planning the installation, reconfiguration and uprating of electrical power systems in critical offshore oil and gas facilities.
Protection relays implementing the IEC61850 protocol have become pervasive in both utility and industrial electric power systems as a result of their ability to provide greater electric power reliability and system visibility and reporting while also reducing the space and weight previously required for both equipment and cabling needed to implement offshore power automation systems.
The paper combines experiences from power system automation engineers working for a number of international organisations on oil and gas projects worldwide, together with information from electrical utility engineers working in North America.
Traditionally offshore installations around the world have relied upon load or power management systems (LMS / PMS) or electrical network management and control systems (ENMCS) to provide both automatic control of generators and load feeders with visualisation and situational awareness. The latest generations of these systems replace much of the plant wiring which was previously used to bring signals into the control system with Ethernet based data links that allow intelligence to be moved very close to the plant so that communicated data can be verified in real time.
The electrical power needs of typical offshore oil installations evolve over years to accommodate changes in plant use as oil reserve levels start to deplete and as new developments allow for introduction of improved management techniques. Such power system evolutions or upgrades can include, but are not limited to, uprating of turbine-generator sets, removal of obsolete equipment, installation of subsea power cables, installation of new sea water injection equipment and replacement of thruster motors on floating installations.
The paper includes descriptions of the challenges encountered on a brownfield project where a number of generations of generator technology needed to be integrated into an updated power system with a new control system. The steps taken to validate the new project specific logic using a real time simulation system are described. The paper includes an explanation on the use of standardised hardware and logic modules to ensure that future setting and configuration changes can be made when required with confidence.
While electrical automation systems using IEC61850 based protection relays provide great benefits for improved electrical power system integrity and maintenance, it is necessary to plan the configuration design, factory testing and the putting into service of such systems very carefully to fully realize those benefits.
Procedures for putting into service IEC61850 based electrical control systems, currently under development by IEEE power system relaying committee, are presented and compared with developing oil and gas industry best practice.
There is an ever increasing need to extend the life of aging offshore structures beyond their original design life. Whether these structures are fixed offshore rigs or floating facilities, operators are continually looking for new inspection and mitigation techniques aimed at ensuring the integrity of the structure. Improved inspection techniques and mitigation when combined with a sophisticated Risk Based Inspection (RBI) program can serve to requalify and extend the life of offshore structures.
Degrading mechanisms such as corrosion and fatigue, overloading, excessive marine growth and accidental damage may affect the integrity of offshore facilities. Early Identification and addressing the degradation mechanisms can prevent a structural failure. Joint weld close visual inspection or MPI can provide assurance in fatigue performance of the joint and to be used in calibration of fatigue life and improve the inspection intervals requirements.
An oil field consisting of many well head platforms, a living quarter platform), a flare platform and a processing platform are the main focus of this paper. In-place, seismic, spectral fatigue and ultimate strength analyses were undertaken for the platforms to determine the criticality of members and joints. These analyses in combination with cathodic protection studies and available inspection data were used for requalification and life extension.
This paper documents the methodology for the development of the RBI program to support the requalification and life extension of the platforms. The RBI program was based on guidance from ISO 19902, with the likelihood and consequence of joint failure used establishing base line and to identify the number and intervals for scheduled inspections. The results of the baseline inspections and additional sensitivity studies were then used to optimise the RBI program.
This paper serves to highlight the finanacialfinancial benefits, efficiency and importance of developing an RBI program based on probability of failure and consequence to manage the inspection programs for platforms and other facilities, particularly where there is a requirement to requalify the facility and/or extend its life.
Copyright 2012, SPE/APPEA International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE/APPEA International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production held in Perth, Australia, 11-13 September 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE/APPEA program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers or the Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Limited and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers or the Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Limited, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers or the Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Limited is prohibited.