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Cossa, Alessandro (Eni S.p.A) | Guglielmelli, Andrea (Eni S.p.A) | Rotelli, Fabiana (Eni S.p.A) | Bazzana, Michele (Eni S.p.A) | Callegaro, Chiara (Eni S.p.A) | Raimondi Cominesi, Nicola (Eni S.p.A) | Bigoni, Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Pirrone, Marco (Eni S.p.A) | Ali Hassan, Al Attwi Maher (ZFOD) | Ibrahim Uatouf, Kubbah Salma (ZFOD)
Carbonate reservoirs are often characterized by karst features occurrence, usually related to a significant permeability enhancement in presence of low porosity and low permeability matrix type sediments. The distribution of such karst features is generally highly heterogeneous and difficult to predict, making the reservoir management challenging.
In Zubair Field (Iraq), there are numerous evidences of karst events within the Upper interval of Mishrif Formation. The production behavior of Upper Mishrif is therefore very heterogeneous, moving from wells with relatively low flow capacity, as expected from petrophysical interpretation, to wells with a very high flow capacity, hence related to karst enhanced permeability. The integration of petrophysical interpretation, well test and multi-rate production logging allowed to preliminary highlight the improved permeability intervals associated to karst. In addition, accurate image log analysis on the same wells investigated a possible relationship between vug densities and production data, to be extended also to wells lacking the latter data. This process allowed to define a karst flag in more than 60 wells.
Then, correlations between karst features and different seismic and geological attributes were identified. The most meaningful parameters were used as input data for a Neural Net Process, leading to the definition of a probability 3D Volume of karst occurrence.
The final outcomes of the workflow are karst probability maps, used as a driver for the definition of new wells targets and associated trajectories. The recent drilled wells, with optimized paths according to these prediction-maps, have demonstrated the reliability of this approach intercepting the desired karst intervals. This study represents a valuable opportunity in terms of understanding of the reservoir behavior and impact on the ongoing intensive drilling campaign and related field performance.
Bigoni, Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Pirrone, Marco (Eni S.p.A) | Trombin, Gianluca (Eni S.p.A) | Vinci, Fabio Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Raimondi Cominesi, Nicola (ZFOD) | Guglielmelli, Andrea (ZFOD) | Ali Hassan, Al Attwi Maher (ZFOD) | Ibrahim Uatouf, Kubbah Salma (ZFOD) | Bazzana, Michele (Eni Iraq BV) | Viviani, Enea (Eni Iraq BV)
The Mishrif Formation is one of the important carbonate reservoirs in middle, southern Iraq and throughout the Middle East. In southern Iraq, the formation provides the reservoir in oilfields such as Rumaila/West Qurna, Tuba and Zubair. The top of the Mishrif Formation is marked by a regional unconformity: a long period of emersion in Turonian (ab. 4.4 My) regionally occurred boosted by a warm humid climate, associated to heavy rainfall. In Zubair Field, within the Upper interval of Mishrif Formation, there are numerous evidences of karst features responsible of important permeability enhancements in low porosity intervals that are critical for production optimization and reservoir management purposes.
In the first phase, the integration of Multi-rate Production logging and Well Test analysis was very useful to evaluate the permeability values and to highlight the enhanced permeability (largely higher than expected Matrix permeability) intervals related to karst features; Image log analysis, on the same wells, allowed to find out a relationship between karst features and vug densities, making possible to extend the karst features identification also in wells lacking of well test and Production logging information. This approach has allowed to obtain a Karst/No Karst Supervised dataset for about 60 wells.
In the second phase different seismic and geological attributes have been considered in order to investigate possible correlations with karst features. In fact there are some parameters that show somehow a correlation with Karst and/or NoKarst wells: the Spectral Decomposition (specially 10 and 40 Hz volumes), the detection of sink-holes at top Mishrif on the Continuity Cube and its related distance, the sub-seismic Lineaments (obtained from Curvature analysis and subordinately from Continuity), distance from Top Mishrif. In the light of these results, the most meaningful parameters have been used as input data for a Neural Net Process ("Supervised Neural Network") utilizing the Supervised dataset both as a Trained dataset (70%) and as a Verification dataset (30%). A probability 3D Volume of Karst features was finally obtained; the comparison with verification dataset points out an error range around 0.2 that is to say that the rate of success of the probability Volume is about 80%.
The final outcomes of the workflow are karst probability maps that are extremely useful to guide new wells location and trajectory. Actually, two proof of concept case histories have demonstrated the reliability of this approach. The newly drilled wells, with optimized paths according to these prediction-maps, have intercepted the desired karst intervals as per the subsequent image log interpretation, which results have been very valuable in the proper perforation strategy including low porous intervals but characterized by high vuggy density (Karst features). Based on these promising results the ongoing drilling campaign has been optimized accordingly.
Raimondi Cominesi, Nicola (ZFOD) | Guglielmelli, Andrea (ZFOD) | Rotelli, Fabiana (ZFOD) | Putignano, Natale (ZFOD) | Roscini, Paolo (ZFOD) | Pirrone, Marco (Eni S.p.A.) | Galli, Giuseppe (Eni S.p.A.) | Vinci, Fabio (Eni S.p.A.) | Rametta, Dario (Eni S.p.A.) | Raniolo, Stefano (Eni S.p.A.)
Zubair is a giant oil field located in the South of Iraq. The production started in 1951 and current oil production is around 450 kbopd achieved through 150 wells completed in two main formations: Mishrif (carbonate) and 3rd Pay (sandstone). The scope of this paper is to show how an integrated methodology based on core analysis, open-hole and cased-hole logs unlocked the underneath potential of a sand layer (L1) with an anomalous resistivity.
Multiple wells, indeed, show resistivity curves in the L1 interval with surprising low values with respect to the average of other levels of the same sandstone reservoir. Therefore, fit-for-purpose open-hole (OH) and cased-hole (CH) log acquisitions have been integrated with information from cores and dynamic data (i.e. production logging) in order to better understand the phenomena behind the low resistivity scenario. As a consequence, several perforation extensions have been performed with L1 as the main target, providing an overall improvement of hydrocarbon deliverability without any increase in water production.
In details, routine and special core analyses in L1 samples delineate the typical setting of a fine-grained low resistivity pay sandstone, able to host a large quantity of irreducible water. However, such behavior is not always present among L1 cores. Therefore, a methodology aimed at characterizing this sandstone behavior was mandatory. Nuclear magnetic resonance logging, commonly used to identify low resistivity pays, was not a suitable option due to bad-hole problems. Hence, an approach based on a detailed integration of OH resistivity and CH pulsed neutron logging (PNL) is used to recognize and characterize such low resistivity pay. This method mainly relies on the fact that formation water is very conductive and strongly affects the resistivity, while its effects on PNL measurements are not so pronounced. Such intuition is confirmed by multi-rate PLT interpretations that dynamically describe the L1 sandstone with fair productivity index and high reservoir pressure, together with a significant dry production contribution. In conclusion, a clear geological trend of L1 resistivity behavior is revealed and associated to the decreasing cementation of the matrix and its coarsening in the same direction.
The integrated OH/CH methodology allows characterizing low resistivity intervals as pay zones. Such achievement represents an important milestone for the perforation strategy of new and existing wells in Zubair. As a natural consequence, the overall field production has been enhanced by widely applying the new technique without any increase in water-cut.